Interprofessional Simulation Cases for Cultural Competence - The Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange (CIRRIE) presents simulated clinical encounters with manikins and standardized patients for cultural competence training of rehabilitation students or providers. (link)

The Culturally Competent Care Education Committee (CCCECat Harvard Medical School (HMS) - CCCEC created this on-line resource center to share resources and information on initiatives in cross cultural education. They have a compilation of case studies (link) that present dilemmas in the delivery of Culturally Competent Care.

Simulation Education Diversity Assessment tool V10 -

Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMC)  - Theresa A. Thomas Professional Skills Teaching and Assessment Center mission is to teach and assess clinical competencies in medical interviewing, clinical reasoning, ethical dilemmas, communication skills, physical examination, and the application of clinical knowledge. To accomplish their objectives, they use the services of standardized patients (SPs) from the community who are trained to present a clinical scenario, assess performance, and provide feedback to learners. They have developed SPs that address cultural issues. For more information contact: Gayle Gliva-McConvey; Email:

Maimonides Medical Center Department of Pediatrics - Dr. Altshuler was previously Co-Director of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and Director of the Kids Weight Down Program and led an interdisciplinary team to deliver training and patient care. In 1998, she headed the Maimonides Department of Pediatrics Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) Training Committee. This group developed the first Culture OSCE in 1999, and has been implementing formative OSCEs for residents at Maimonides Medical Center and other teaching institutions since then. Contact: Lisa Altshuler, PhD; mail:

Hablamos Juntos Educational Partners Website - The University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine (UC Irvine) has developed an extension and implementation of their standardized patient program to include the Latino Standardize Patient Program for conditions present in the Latino Community. This program focuses on clinical conditions, which have a high level of incidence and prevalence in the Latino community. This information will be available to other interested educational programs. (Link)

Culture Learning: Simulations & Exercises - This website, compiled by the Intercultural Studies Project, is comprised of cultural simulations, exercises, films, and videos related to culture, that can be incorporated into the curriculum as starting points for classroom discussions of such issues. (Link)


Behnke, C. (2021). Using Simulation to educate Rural NP Students about cultural congruence. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners., 17(4), 476-480.

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Cantey, D., Randolph, S., Molloy, M., Carter, B., and Cary, M. (2017). Student-Developed Simulations: Enhancing Cultural Awareness and Understanding Social Determinants of Health. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(4), 243-246.

Chianáin, L. N., Fallis, R., Johnston, J., McNaughton, N., & Gormley, G. (2021). Nothing about me without me: a scoping review of how illness experiences inform simulated participants’ encounters in health profession education. BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning7(6), 611.

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Del Pino, F. J. P., Arrogante, O., Simonelli-Muñoz, A. J., Gallego-Gómez, J. I., & Jiménez-Rodríguez, D. (2022). Use of high-fidelity clinical simulation for the development of cultural competence of nursing students. Nurse Education Today116, 105465.

Drevdahl, D. J. (2018). Impersonating culture: The effects of using simulated experiences to teach cultural competence. Journal of Professional Nursing.

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Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Pfaff, T., Velez, R., Reinholdt, M., Sanchez, M. and Hudson, KJ. (2018). Cultural Competency and Cultural Humility in Simulation-Based Education: An Integrative Review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 15: 42-60.

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Garvey, L., Mackelprang, J. L., Bhowmik, J., Cassar, N., Delbridge, R., El-Ansary, D., ... & Williams, A. (2022). Enhancing Cultural Capabilities Amongst Health Professions Students: A Pilot Study of Interprofessional Tag Team Simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing62, 83-91.

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Greenawalt, J. A., & Hawkins, P. M. (2019). Using an interactive framework to assess a cultural simulation for learning: Tag team patient safety simulation. Journal of Nursing Education58(10), 591-594.

Harder, N.(2018). Determining the Effects of Simulation on Intercultural Competency in Undergraduate Nursing Students. Nurse Educator, 43(1), 4-6.

Harvey, N. R., & Wynn, S. T. (2022). Simulating the Refugee Experience to Cultivate Cultural Competence and Sensitivity. Journal of Christian Nursing39(1), 47-51.

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Kelly, M. A., Slatyer, S., Myers, H., Gower, S., Mason, J., & Lasater, K. (2022). Using Audio-Visual Simulation to Elicit Nursing Students’ Noticing and Interpreting Skills to Assess Pain in Culturally Diverse Patients. Clinical Simulation in Nursing.

Levett-Jones, T., Everson, N., & Lapkin, S. (2019). Exploring the impact of a 3D simulation on nursing students’ intention to provide culturally competent care. Clinical Simulation in Nursing36, 22-29.

Livesay, K., Lau, P., McNair, R. and Chiminello. (2017). The Culturally and Linguistically Diverse SPs' Evaluation of Simulation Experience. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(5), 228-237.

Maguire, M. (June, 2017). Using a Poverty Simulation in Graduate Medical Education as a Mechanism to Introduce Social Determinants of Health and Cultural Competency. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, pp. 386-387.

Marja, S. L., & Suvi, A. (2021). Cultural competence learning of the health care students using simulation pedagogy: An integrative review. Nurse Education in Practice52, 103044.

Marrast, L. M., Chim, C., Tocco, J., Coletti, D. J., Nouryan, C., Block, L., & Martinez, J. (2022). Expanding knowledge and changing attitudes about poverty: An interactive, interprofessional approach. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health13, 21501319221079446.

Mathew, L., Brewer, B., Crist, J., & Poedel, R. (2017). Designing a Virtual Simulation Case for Cultural Competence Using a Community-Based Participatory Research Approach: A Puerto Rican Case. Nurse Educator, 42(4): 191-194.

Merlin-Knoblich, C., Summers, L. & Abrams, L.  (2022). The Immediate and Extended Impacts of Poverty Simulations on Multicultural Attitudes and Attitudes Towards Poverty, Journal of Poverty. DOI: (Link)

Moussa, F. (2018). Using simulation and cultural competency skill to improve quality care to patients in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Health Sciences and Nursing, 3(7), 12-26.

Ndiwane, A. N., Baker, N. C., Makosky, A., Reidy, P., & Guarino, A. J. (2017). Use of simulation to integrate cultural humility into advanced health assessment for nurse practitioner students. Journal of Nursing Education56(9), 567-571.

Ndiwane, A., Baker, N., Makosky, A., Reidy, P. & Guarino, A. (2017). Use of Simulation to Integrate Cultural Humility into Advanced Heath Assessment for Nurse Practitioner Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(9), 567-571.

Nebergall, S., Dula, C. A. C., King, S. A., Matthews, D. E., Haas-Gehres, A., & Li, J. (2021). Educating pharmacy students about underserved populations using patient speakers and simulation activities. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education,

Nimmo, C., Behnke, L., Creech, C., Schellenberg, K., Turkelson, C., & Cooper, D. (2021). Using simulation to educate rural NP students about cultural congruence. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners17(4), 476-480.

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Purdy, E., Symon, B., Marks, R. E., Speirs, C., & Brazil, V. (2023). Exploring equity, diversity, and inclusion in a simulation program using the SIM-EDI tool: the impact of a reflexive tool for simulation educators. Advances in Simulation8(1), 11.

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Sauvé, A., Cappelletti, A., & Murji, L. (2022). Stand Up for Indigenous Health: A Simulation to Educate Residents About the Social Determinants of Health Faced by Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Academic Medicine97(4), 518-523.

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Skjerve, H., Braaum, L. E., Goth, U. S., & Sørensen, A. (2023). Using Simulations to Help Public Health Students Overcome Language Barriers for Better Health Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health20(13), 6259.

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