Ethnic Pharmacology

Ethnic pharmacology is the field of study that investigates the impact that culture, environment, genetics, biophysiology (pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics) and psychosocial factors have on the prescribing and metabolism of, and response to medications.

Anderson, A. N., Chan, A. R., & Roman, Y. M. (2022). Pharmacogenomics and clinical cultural competency: Pathway to overcome the limitations of race. Pharmacogenomics, 23(6), 363-370.

Callier, S. L., Payne, P. W., Akinniyi, D., McPartland, K., Richardson, T. L., Rothstein, M. A., & Royal, C. D. (2022). Cardiologists’ Perspectives on BiDil and the Use of Race in Drug Prescribing. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 1-11.

Bednasz, C. J., Venuto, C. S., Ma, Q., Daar, E. S., Sax, P. E., Fischl, M. A., ... & Morse, G. D. (2019). Race/ ethnicity and protease inhibitor use influence plasma tenofovir exposure in adults living with HIV-1 in AIDS clinical trials group study A5202.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy63(4), e01638-18.

Birmingham, B. K., Bujac, S. R., Elsby, R., Azumaya, C. T., Zalikowski, J., Chen, Y., ... & Ambrose, H. J. (2015). Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in Caucasian and Asian subjects residing in the United States. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology71(3), 329-340.

Callier, S. L., Cunningham, B. A., Powell, J., McDonald, M. A., & Royal, C. D. (2019). Cardiologists' perspectives on race-based drug labels and prescribing within the context of treating heart failure. Health Equity3(1), 246-253.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2020). The Process of Cultural Competemility in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: Unremitting Encounters Cincinnati, OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates (under chapter on "Cultural Knowledge," includes section on ethnopharmacology). (Link)

Chiu , W. Lin, C., Yang, W., Tsai, K. & Reginster, J. (2020). Racial difference in bioavailability of oral ibandronate between Caucasian and Taiwanese postmenopausal womenOsteoporosis Int. 31(1):  193201.

Chu, K. M., Hu, Y. P., & Liou, J. T. (2014). A pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic study of intravenous levosimendan in healthy Chinese volunteers and ethnic comparisons. Acta Cardiologica Sinica30(4), 298.

Cook, T., Reeves, G., Teufel, J., & Postolache, T. (2015). Persistence of racial disparities in prescription of first-generation antipsychotics in the USA. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 24:1197-1206.

Egan, B. M., Li, J., Sutherland, S. E., Rakotz, M. K., & Wozniak, G. D. (2021). Hypertension control in the United States 2009 to 2018: Factors underlying falling control rates during 2015 to 2018 across age-and race-ethnicity groups.  Hypertension, 78(3), 578-587.

Ferdinand, K. C., & Igari, M. (2018). The role of racial/ethnic factors in global clinical trials. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology11(9), 829-832.

Feng, S., Shi, J., Parrott, N., Hu, P., Weber, C., Martin-Facklam, M., ... & Peck, R. (2016). Combining ‘bottom-up’and ‘top-down’methods to assess ethnic difference in clearance: Bitopertin as an example. Clinical pharmacokinetics55(7), 823-832.

Flack, J. M., & Buhnerkempe, M. G. (2022). Race and Antihypertensive Drug Therapy: Edging Closer to a New Paradigm. Hypertension79(2), 349-351.

Garwood C. L., Clemente J. L., Ibe G. N., Kandula V. A., Curtis K. D., Whittaker P. (2010). Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: Higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry. Blood Cells, Molecules, & Diseases, 45: 93-97.

Giger, J. (2013). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment & Intervention.  St. Louis: Mosby Year Book (includes ethnic pharmacology for each ethnic group).

Goodman, C. W., & Brett, A. S. (2021). Race and Pharmacogenomics—Personalized Medicine or Misguided Practice? JAMA325(7), 625-626.

Grover, A., Frassetto, L. A., Benet, L. Z., & Chakkera, H. A. (2011). Pharmacokinetic differences corroborate observed low tacrolimus dosage in Native American renal transplant patients. Drug metabolism and disposition39(11), 2017-2019.

Han, H., Reis, I., Zhao, W., Kuroi, K., Toi, M., Suzuki, E., et al. (2011). Racial differences in acute toxicities of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 47:2537-2545.

Hawkins-Taylor, C., & Carlson, A. M. (2013). Communication strategies must be tailored to a medication's targeted population: Lessons from the case of BiDil. American Health & Drug Benefits, 6(7), 401.

Kahn, J. (2012). The troubling persistence of race in pharmacogenomics. J Law Med Ethics, 40(4), 873–85

Kahn, J. (2013). Race in a bottle: The story of BiDil and racialized medicine in the genomic age. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kim, S., Lee, K., Song, W., Kim, S., Jee, Y., Lee, S., et al. (2011). Adverse Drug Reaction Research Group in Korea; Carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions and HLA genotypes in Koreans. Epilepsy Research, 97:190-197.

Ling, W. H., & Lee, S. C. (2011). Inter-ethnic differences—How important is it in cancer treatment?. Annals of the Academy of Medicine-Singapore40(8), 356.

Li, P., Shuker, N., Hesselink, D. A., van Schaik, R. H., Zhang, X., & van Gelder, T. (2014). Do Asian renal transplant patients need another mycophenolate mofetil dose compared with Caucasian or African American patients? Transplant International27(10), 994-1004.

Lv, D., Zhao, M., Chen, L., Yu, D., Yun, X., Yang, Q., & Huang, X. (2017). An inter-ethnic comparison study of ziprasidone plasma levels, dosage and clinical response in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Investigation14(3), 360.

Magavern, E. F., Gurdasani, D., Ng, F. L., & Lee, S. S. J. (2022). Health equality, race and pharmacogenomics. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology88(1), 27-33.

Maglo, K., Rubinstein, J., Huang, B., & Ittenbach, R. (2014). BiDil in the clinic: An interdisciplinary investigation of physicians’ prescription patterns of a race-based therapy. AJOB Empirical Bioethics, 5(4), 37-52.

Meghani, S., & Keane, A. (2017).  Preference for analgesic treatment for cancer pain Among  African Americans.  Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 34(2), 136-147.

Minority Nurse. (2013, March 30). BiDil controversy continues as FDA approves first “race- specific” drug.  (Link)

Mitchell, J., Ferdinand, K., Watson., C., Wenger, N., Watkins, L., Flack, J., . . . Wright, J. (2011). Treatment of heart failure in African Americans— A call to action. Journal of the  National Medical Association, 103(2), 86-98.

Momo, K., Homma, M., & Kohda, Y. (2013). Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.  International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics51(12), 986-988.

Murphy, E., and McMahon, F. (2013). Pharmacogenetics of anti-depressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics  in diverse human populations. Discovery Medicine, 16, 113-122.

Naidoo, P., Chetty, V. V., & Chetty, M. (2014). Impact of CYP polymorphisms, ethnicity and sex differences in metabolism on dosing strategies: The case of efavirenz.  European Journal of Clinical P harmacology70(4), 379-389.

Ngaimisi, E., Habtewold, A., Minzi, O., Makonnen, E., Mugusi, S., Amogne, W., ... & Burhenne, J. (2013). Importance of ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genotype for efavirenz pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes: A parallel-group prospective cohort study in two sub-Saharan Africa populations.  PloS one8(7), e67946.

Ofili, E., Anand, I., Williams, R. A., Akinboboye, O., Xu, L., & Puckrein, G. (2017). Fixed-dose versus off-label combination of isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine hydrochloride: Retrospective propensity-matched Analysis in black medicare patients with heart failure. Advances in Therapy34(8), 1976-1988.

Olafuyi, O., Parekh, N., Wright, J., & Koenig, J. (2021). Inter‐ethnic differences in pharmacokinetics—Is there more that unites than divides? Pharmacology research & perspectives9(6), e00890.

Ortega, V., & Meyer, D. (2014). Pharmacogenetics: Implications of race and ethnicity on  defining genetic profiles for personalized medicine. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133(1), 16-26.

Peng, K. W., Bacon, J., Zheng, M., Guo, Y., & Wang, M. Z. (2015). Ethnic variability in the expression of hepatic drug transporters: Absolute quantification by an optimized targeted quantitative proteomic approach. Drug Metabolism and Disposition43(7), 1045-1055.

Poon, D., Chan, K., Chan, T., Cheung, F. Y., Lam, D., Lam, M., ... & Kwong, P. (2022). Ethnic Pharmacogenomic Differences in the Management of Asian Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer.  Cancers14(2), 407. 

Purnell, L & Fenkl, E (2020).  Textbook for Transcultural Nursing: A Population Approach: Cultural Competence Concepts in Nursing Care. NY: Springer Publishers. (Chapters include ethnic groups with a section on the pharmacological variations for each group).

Ramamoorthy, A., Kim, H. H., Shah‐Williams, E., & Zhang, L. (2022). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Drug Disposition and Response: Review of New Molecular Entities Approved Between 2014 and 2019. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology62(4), 486-493.

Samedy‐Bates, L. A., Oh, S. S., Nuckton, T. J., Elhawary, J. R., White, M., Elliot, T., ... & Burchard, E. G. (2019). Racial/Ethnic‐Specific Differences in the Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroid Use on Bronchodilator Response in Patients With Asthma. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics106(5), 1133-1140.

Stephenson, J. (2022, January). Racial, Ethnic Disparities Found in Receiving Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19. In JAMA Health Forum , 3(1), e220115-e220115.

Walpola, R. L., & Harrison, R. (2022). Community pharmacists are central to improving medication safety for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice30(1), 3-4.

Woerner, M., Correll, C., Alvir, J., Greenwald, B., Delman, H., & Kane, J. (2011). Incidence of tardive dyskinesia with risperidone or olanzapine in the elderly: Results from a 2-Year, prospective study in antipsychotic-naïve patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(8), 1738–1746.

Woods, D., Mentes, J., Cadogan, M. and Phillips, L. (2017). Aging, Genetic Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural competence through awareness of drug responses in elderly minority elders. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(1), 56-62.

Yang, C., Dao, R., Lee, T., Lu, C., Yang, C., Hung, S., & Chung, W. (2011). Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Asians. Neurology, 77: 2025-2033.

Yuen E., Gueorguieva I., Wise S., Soon D., Aarons L. (2010). Ethnic differences in the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics, 37: 3-24.


Ethnopharmacology is the combining the approaches of medical anthropology, phytotherapy, and pharmaceutical science. This discipline examines medicinal plants in indigenous cultures, their bioactive compounds, and the sustainable development and production of nature-derived therapeutics.

Annotative Bibliography

The following annotative bibliography was developed by Williams (2013) to apprise healthcare providers and consumers of  reliable CAM websites that offer evidence-based reviews of complementary therapies: Citation: Williams, J. (2013). Credible Complementary and Alternative Medicine Websites. Journal of Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 4(2), 123-124):

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (Link). Provides the largest number of evidence-based reviews. Authors are primarily doctors of pharmacy. Includes scientific names, uses, safety, effectiveness, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, interactions, and dosage.

Cochrane Review Organization (Link). Provides systematic reviews of therapies, including massage, acupuncture, and chiropractic interventions. Includes searches of multiple bibliographic databases by librarians.

Natural Standard (Link). A multidisciplinary, multi-institutional initiative for review of complementary and alternative therapies. Similar process to Cochrane reviews, with an additional historic and folkloric perspective.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health  (Link). They conduct and support research and provide information about complementary health products and practices.

National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine - (Link) The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate and enhance the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (Link). Led by an oncology-trained pharmacist and a botanical expert.

American Cancer Society (Link). Provides guidelines for nutrition and physical activity for prevention, during cancer treatment, and after treatment.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Link). Provides assessments of the background and evidence for complementary/integrative medicine. Also provides purchased summaries of reviews by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and the Cochrane Library, as well as access to reviews by the NCI and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.


Herb & Dietary Supplement Information 


Herbs Research Foundation 

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Website  


Herb Med 


University of Washington Medical Herb Garden 


American Association of Naturopathic Physician


American Holistic Medical -Association - L:ink

Teaching Cultural Competence

Abel, C., Silva, M., Desilets, A. and Durand, C. (2010). Integration of Cultural Competence Training into an Accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 50(2), 282.

Addo-Atuah, J., Dutta, A. and Kovera, C.  (2014). A Global Health Elective Course in a PharmD Curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(10): Article 187.

American College of Clinical Pharmacy, O'Connell, M. B., Rodriguez de Bittner, M., Poirier, T., Karaoui, L. R., Echeverri, M., ... & Jackson, A. N. (2013). Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy part 3A: Emphasis on pharmacy education, curriculums, and future directions. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy33(12), e347-e367.

Armbruster, A. L., Henson, B. N., & Alsharif, N. Z. (2022). A Call to Action for a Programmatic Approach to Addressing Health Disparities and Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education. American journal of pharmaceutical education86(3),  Article 8412.

Aspden, T., Butler, R., Heinrich, F., Harwood, M. and Sheridan, J. (2017). Identifying key elements of cultural competence to incorporate into a New Zealand undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. Pharmacy Education, 17(1), 43-54.    (Link)

Avant, N. D., & Gillespie, G. L. (2019). Pushing for health equity through structural competency and implicit bias education: A qualitative evaluation of a racial/ethnic health disparities elective course for pharmacy learners. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning11(4), 382-393.

Butler, L. M., Arya, V., Nonyel, N. P., & Moore, T. S. (2021). The Rx-HEART framework to address health equity and racism within pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education85(9), 984-993.

Cailora, S., and Chen, A. (2015). Immediate and longitudinal effects of incorporating health literacy and cultural competency into a year long pharmacy curriculum. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 7:292–301.

Callier, S. L., Payne, P. W., Akinniyi, D., McPartland, K., Richardson, T. L., Rothstein, M. A., & Royal, C. D. (2022). Cardiologists’ Perspectives on BiDil and the Use of Race in Drug Prescribing. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 1-11.

Campinha-Bacote. (2013). Ethnopharmacology. What every nurse should know. Minority Nurse. March, 2013. (Link)

Chen, A. M., Cailor, S. M., Wicker, E., Harper, N. G., Franz, T. T., & Pahl, B. (2020). Integrating health literacy and cultural competency concepts across the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education84(10).

Clarke, C., Sedlacek, R. & Watson S. (2016). Impact of a Simulation Exercise on Pharmacy Student Attitude toward Poverty. Am J Pharm Educ., 80(2).

Cole, C., Grant, F., Tangpricha, V., Swaby-Ellis, E., Smith, J., Jacques, A., et al. (2010). 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of healthy, low-income, minority children in Atlanta, Georgia. Pediatrics, 125:633–9.

Cook, T., Reeves, G., Teufel, J., & Postolache, T. (2015). Persistence of racial disparities in prescription of first-generation antipsychotics in the USA. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. Retrieved from

Cooper, L., Vellurattil, R., & Quiñones-Boex, A. (2014). Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(2).

Crawford, S., Awé, C.Tawk, R., and Simon, P. (2016). A cross sectional and longitudinal study of pharmacy student perceptions of readiness to serve diverse populationsAm J Pharm Educ. 2016;80(4) Article 62.

Dawson, L. (2010). Promoting Cultural Competence in Advanced Pharmacology for Nurse Practitioner Students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(3),198-190.

Diaz-Cruz, E. S. (2019). If cultural sensitivity is not enough to reduce health disparities, what will pharmacy education do next?. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning11(5), 538-540.

Doroudgar, S., Dang, B., Nguyen, H., & Matsumoto, R. R. (2021). Assessment of cultural competence in pharmacy students prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education85(4).

Drame, I., Gibson, C. M., Nonyel, N. P., Addo-Atuah, J., Butler, L., Riley, A., ... & Borja-Hart, N. (2022). Strategies for Incorporating Health Disparities and Cultural Competency Training into the Pharmacy Curriculum and Co-curriculum.  American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education86(3).

Durand, C., Abel, C., Silva, M. and Desilets, A. (2012). An elective course in cultural competence. Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 4(2): 102–108.

Echeverri, M., Unni, E., Harpe, S. E., Kavookjian, J., Alkhateeb, F., Ekong, G., & Law, A. (2021). Identifying areas of improvement for cultural competence in pharmacy curricula: A multi-school study using the self-assessment of perceived level of cultural competence (SAPLCC) questionnaire. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning13(10), 1278-1287.

Echeverri, M., Brookover, C., and Kennedy, K. (2010). Nine constructs of cultural competence for curriculum development. Am J Pharm Educ, 74(10): Article 181.

Gibson, C., & White, A. (2019).  Patients as Teachers of Cultural Sensitivity in Pharmacy Education. Innovations in Pharmacy, 10(4), Article 7, 1-9. (Link)

Haack, S. and Phillips, C. (2012). Teaching Cultural Competency Through a Pharmacy Skills and Applications Course Series. Am J Pharm Educ, 76(2):27.

Haas-Gehres, A., Portillo, E., Kachlic, M. D., & Siu, A. (2021). An opportunity to integrate cultural sensitivity training into the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 85(7).

Hardy, Y. (2016). Patient Assessment in Pharmacy: A Culturally Competent Approach. MA: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Henson, B., & Drame, I. (2022). Introduction to Implementing Health Disparities and Cultural Competence Content in the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education86(3).

Jarrar, R., Lim, R., Richardson, C. L., Naqvi, A. A., Rathbone, A. P., & Lau, W. M. (2023). A systematic review using thematic analysis exploring cultural competence in pharmacy education: What is done? How is it done? What does it mean?.

Mak, V., Brown, L. L., Anksorus, H. N., Savage, A., & Ng, T. W. T. (2022). Designing an online cultural communication module for pharmacy students across three countries. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. Link

Medina, M. S., Maerten-Rivera, J., Zhao, Y., & Henson, B. (2022). A Systematic Review of Assessment Tools Measuring Cultural Competence Outcomes Relevant to Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education86(3).

McGee, E. U., Allen, S. N., Butler, L. M., McGraw-Senat, C. M., & McCants, T. A. (2021). Holding pharmacy educators accountable in the wake of the anti-racism movement: A call to action. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning13(10), 1261-1264.

McKennon, S., Schauerhamer, M., Fundin, H., Labin, J., and McWhorter, L. (2018). Assessing pharmacy student confidence to answer patient questions regarding herbal medicines and natural product drugs. Experiences in Teaching and Learning, 10(5), 643-650.

 Medina, M. S., Maerten-Rivera, J., Zhao, Y., & Henson, B. (2022). A systematic review of assessment tools measuring cultural competence outcomes relevant to pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education86(3).

Miller, M., Karwa, R., Schellhase, E., Pastakia, S., Crowe, S., Manji, I., Jakait, B., and Naina, M. (2016).  Meeting the Needs of Underserved Patients in Western Kenya by Creating the Next Generation of Global Health Pharmacists. Am. J Pharm Educ., 80(2), 22.

Minshew, L. M., Lee, D., White, C. Y., McClurg, M., & McLaughlin, J. E. (2021). Development of a cultural intelligence framework in pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 85(9).

Nebergall, S., Dula, C. A. C., King, S. A., Matthews, D. E., Haas-Gehres, A., & Li, J. (2021). Educating pharmacy students about underserved populations using patient speakers and simulation activities. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education85(7).

Nkhoma, G., Lim, C. X., Kennedy, G. A., & Stupans, I. (2023). Teaching cultural competence to undergraduate pharmacy students using vignettes (case scenarios) as an innovative teaching intervention. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, riac106.

Nkhoma, G., Lim, C. X., Kennedy, G. A., & Stupans, I. (2022). Attitudes and Knowledge of, and Preferences for Learning about Cultural Competence: A Study of Pharmacy Students from One Australian Pharmacy Program.  Pharmacy10(3), 66.

O'Connell, M., Rodriguez de Bittner, M., Poirier, T., et al.  (2013). Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy part 3A: Emphasis on pharmacy education, curriculums, and future directions.  Pharmacotherapy, 33(12), e347–367.

O'Connell, M., Jackson, A., Karaoui, L., et al. Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy Part 3B: Emphasis on pharmacy education policy, procedures, and climate. Pharmacotherapy, 33(12), e368–381.

O'Connell, M., de Bittner, M., Poirier, T., Karaoui, L., Echeverri, M., Chen, A., Lee, S. Vyas, D., O’Neil, C., and Jackson, A.  (2013). American College of Clinical Pharmacy White Paper: Cultural Competency in Health Care and Its Implications for Pharmacy Part 3A: Emphasis on Pharmacy Education, Curriculums, and Future Directions" (2013). Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications. 106. (Link)

Okoro, O., Odedina, F., Reams, R., and Smith, W. (2012) Clinical Cultural Competency and Knowledge of Health Disparities Among Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharm. Education, 76(3), 40.

Osae, S. P., Chastain, D. B., & Young, H. N. Pharmacist Role in Addressing Health Disparities‐Part 2: Strategies to Move Toward Health Equity.  Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. (Link)

Patel, I., Gadwal, T., Shrestha, S., Khieri, S., Miller, M. K., Guy, J. W., ... & Johnson, M. (2020). Cultural competency education in pharmacy curricula-need and implementation.  Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice13(2), 97-112.

Popovich, N., Okorie-Awé, C., Crawford, S., Balcazar, F., Vellurattil, R., Moore, T. and Schriever, A. (2018). Assessing Students’ Impressions of the Cultural Awareness of Pharmacy Faculty and Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(1), Article 6161.

Prasad-Reddy, L., Fina, P., Kerner, D., & Daisy-Bell, B. (2022). The Impact of Implicit Biases in Pharmacy Education.  American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education86(1), 8518.

Prescott, G. M., & Nobel, A. (2019). A multimodal approach to teaching cultural competency in the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education83(4).

Robinson, K., Drame, I., Turner, M. R., & Brown, C. (2021). Developing the “Upstreamist” through Antiracism Teaching in Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education85(9).

 Rockich-Winston, N., & Wyatt, T. R. (2019). The case for culturally responsive teaching in pharmacy curricula. American journal of pharmaceutical education83(8).

Sales, I., Jonkman, L., Connor, S., and Hall, D. (2013). A Comparison of Educational Interventions to Enhance Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ., 77(4), 76.

Shah, B. and Lonie, J. (2012). Assessing the cultural competency of practicing community pharmacists: A pilot study. Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 4(4):240–246.

Smith, W., Roth, J., Okoro, O., Kimberlin, C., and Odedina, F. (2011). Disability in cultural competency pharmacy education.  Am J Pharm Educ., 75(2), 26.

Sullivan, K. M., Morrill, A. M., Britt, K., Babin, C., Abel, C., Lenehan, K., & Dunican, K. C. (2022). Fostering cultural sensitivity amongst students of pharmacy through an interprofessional book club activity. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.

Teo, J., Koh, L., & Zhen, Y.  (2022). A systematic review of reflective writing in the pharmacy curriculum: Impact on patient-centred communication skills or cultural competence. Pharmacy Education22(1), 287-300.

Thompson, B., Haidet, P., Casanova, R.,  et al. (2010). Medical students' perceptions of their teachers' and their own cultural competency: Implications for education. J Gen Intern Med., 25(Suppl 2), S91–94.

Thomason, A., Elmore, L., Naro, P. Huddleston, T. (2013). Pharmacy students’ attitudes toward the underserved population: The role of experiential education. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 5(5), 444-449.

VanTyle, W., Kennedy, G., Vance, M., and Hancock, B. (2011). A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Am J Pharm Educ., 1;75(1) :Article 4.

Vyas, D., and Caligiuri, J. (2010). Reinforcing cultural competence concepts during introductory pharmacy practice experiences. Am J Pharm Educ., 74(7) Article 129.

Werremeyer, A., and Skoy, E. (2012). A medical mission to Guatemala as an advanced pharmacy practice experience. Am J Pharm Educ., 76(8):Article 156.