Cultural Humility


Abdul-Raheem, J. (2018). Cultural humility in nursing education. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 25(2), 66-73.

Abe, J. (2020). Beyond cultural competence, toward social transformation: Liberation psychologies and the practice of cultural humility. Journal of Social Work Education56(4), 696-707.

Agner, J. (2020). Moving from cultural competence to cultural humility in occupational therapy: A paradigm shift. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy74(4), 7404347010p1-7404347010p7.

Allwright, K., Goldie, C., Almost, J. & Wilson, R.  (2019). Fostering positive spaces in public health using a cultural humility approach. Public Health Nurs., 36(4):551-556.

Alms, R. (2014).  Religion in the Doctor-Patient Relationship: Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility. Masters of Art Thesis, Winston-Salem. (Link)

Alsharif, N. (2012). Cultural Humility and Interprofessional Education and Practice: A Winning Combination. Am J Pharm Educ., 76(7), 120.   (Link)

American Occupational Therapy Association. (2020). Educator’s guide for addressing cultural awareness, humility, and dexterity in occupational therapy curricula. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy74(Supplement_3), 7413420003p1-7413420003p19.

Ansari, A. (2017). Battling biases with the 5 Rs of cultural humility. The Hospitalist. April, 2017. (Link)

Atkins, K., & Lorelle, S. (2022). Cultural Humility: Lessons Learned through a Counseling Cultural Immersion. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 15(1).

Bangs, D., Hayward, L., & Donlan, P. (2020).  Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility: A Dialogue on Adopting a Multimodel Approach in Physical Therapist Education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 10-1097.

Barton, D., & Van Den Berg, Z. D. (2023). The Humble Chair: Fostering Culturally Humble Collaborations. Art Therapy, 1-5.

Benner, P. (2016). Cultural Humility: Gaining First Person Experience and Empathy for the Health and Life Impact of Living in Poverty.  Educating Nurses. (Simulation exercises: (Link)

Berse, S., Dirgar, E., Tousun, B., and Tanriverdi, D. (2023). Determination of cultural humility levels of nursing students studying in a city where different cultures live intensely. Retrieved from

Biles, J. (2020). Cultural competence in healthcare.  Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 26(11), 22-27.

Buchanan, N. T., Rios, D., & Case, K. A. (2020). Intersectional cultural humility: Aligning critical inquiry with critical praxis in psychology.  Women & Therapy43(3-4), 235-243.

Butler, P., Swift, M., Kothari, S., Nazeeri-Simmons, I., Friel, C., Longaker, M., and Britt, D. (2011). Integrating cultural competency and humility training into clinical clerkships: Surgery as a model. Journal of Surgical Education, 68:222-230.

Cambron, S. and Conner, L. (2020). Using a Lens of Cultural Humility to Dissolve Racialized Inequities for Families. Reflections, 26(2), 1-7.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2021). A path to antiracism through the lens of cultural humility. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 32(2), 191. 

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2020). The Process of Cultural Competemility in the Delivery Healthcare Services: Unremitting Encounters (6th Edition). Springboro, OH: Braughler Books LLC.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (December, 2018). Cultural Competemility: A Paradigm Shift in the Cultural Competence versus Cultural Humility Debate – Part I.  OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(1).

Chang, E. S., Dong, X., & Simon, M. (2011). Depression in the Chinese aging population: leveraging cultural humility to improve the quality of care of a vulnerable population. Aging Health, 7: 849-863.

Chatelier, S., & Jackson, L. (2023). The politics of humility: Humility in historical Christian thought and its educational implications.  Educational Philosophy and Theory55(2), 190-202.

Chang, E., Simon, M. and Dong, X. (2012). Integrating cultural humility into health care professional education and training. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract., 17(2):269-78.

Childs, J. R. (2020). Proceeding with Caution: Integrating Cultural Humility into Multicultural Supervision Practices with Master-Level Counseling Students.  Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping26(2), 39–53.

Clark, L., Calvillo, E., Cruz, F. Fongwa, M., Kools, S., Lowe, J. and Master-Smith, B.  (2011). Cultural Competencies for Graduate Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(3), 133-9.

Cleaver, S., Carvajal, J., and  Sheppard, P. (2016). Cultural Humility: A Way of Thinking to Inform Practice Globally. Physiother Can., 68(1): 1–2.

Coulehan, J. (2010). On humility. Annals of Internal Medicine, 153: 200-201.

Coulehan, J. (2011). “A gentle and humane temper”: Humility in medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 54, 206-216.

Cruess, S., Cruess, R. and Steinert, Y. (2010). Linking the teaching of professionalism to the social contract: A call for cultural humility. Med Teach, 32(5): 357-359.

Danso, R. (2016). Cultural competence and cultural humility: A critical reflection on key cultural diversity concepts. Journal of Social Work. (Link)

Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Van Tongeren, D. R., Gartner, A. L., Jennings, D. J. II., & Emmons, R. A. (2011). Relational humility: Conceptualizing and measuring
humility as a personality judgment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 225-234.

Davis, D., Worthington, E., Hook, J., Emmons, R., Hill, P, Bollinger, R., & Van Tongeren, D. (2013). Humility and the development and repair of social bonds: Two longitudinal studies. Self and Identity, 12:58-77.

Davis, D., Deblaere, C., Brubaker, K., Owen, J., Jordan, T., & Hook, J., and Van Tongeren, D. (2016). Microaggressions and Perceptions of Cultural Humility in Counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development. 94:483-493. 10.1002/jcad.12107.

Davis, E. B., Plante, T. G., Grey, M. J., Kim, C. L., Freeman-Coppadge, D., Lefevor, G. T., Paulez, J. A., Giwa, S., Lasser, J., Stratton, S. P., Deneke, E., & Glowiak, K. J. (2021). The role of civility and cultural humility in navigating controversial areas in psychology. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 8(2), 79–97.

de Peralta, A. M., Gillispie, M., Mobley, C., & Gibson, L. M. (2019). It's all about trust and respect: Cultural competence and cultural humility in mobile health clinic services for underserved minority populations. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved30(3), 1103-1118.

Davis, D., Worthington, E. and Hook, J. (2010). Humility Review of measurement strategies and conceptualization as a personality judgement. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 243-252.

Derck, J., Yates, E., Kuo, M., Hwang, C., Sturdavant, W., Ross, P., Finks, J., Sandhu, G. (2018). Exploring the impact factor: Medical students mentoring high school students and cultivating cultural humility. Health Equity, 2(1), 15-21.

Dong, X., Chang, E. S., & Simon, M. (2011). Depression in the Chinese aging population: Leveraging cultural humility to improve the quality of care of a vulnerable
population.  Aging Health, 7(6), 849-863.

Dorn-Medeiros, C. M., Christensen, J. K., & Lertora, I. (2022). Mondays With Mac: An Interpersonal Journey of Cultural Humility. In Research Anthology on Racial Equity, Identity, and Privilege (pp. 25-40). IGI Global.

Dunning, D. (2023). Where does intellectual humility reside?. The Journal of Positive Psychology18(2), 264-266.

Duntley-Matos, R. (2014).   Transformative complicity and cultural humility: De- and re-constructing higher education mentorship for under-represented groups. Qualitative Sociology, 37: 443466.

Fahlberg, B., Foronda, C. and Baptiste, D. (2017). Cultural humility: The key to patient/family partnerships for making difficult decisions. Nursing2016, 46(9), 14-16. (Link)

Fahey, J., Cohen, S., Holme, F., Buttrick, E., Dettinger, J., Kestler, E., and Walker, D. (2013). Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: Putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 27, 36-42.

Falade, E., Cornely, R. M., Ezekwesili, C., Musabeyezu, J., Amutah‐Onukagha, N., Ferguson, T., ... & Larson, E. (2022). Perspectives on cultural competency and race concordance from perinatal patients and community‐based doulas. Birth.

Farrelly, D., Kaplin, D., & Hernandez, D. (2022). A transformational approach to developing cultural humility in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology49(2), 185-190.

Ferdinand, K. C. (2021). Overcoming barriers to COVID-19 vaccination in African Americans: the need for cultural humility. American Journal of Public Health111(4), 586-588.

Fernandez, K. (2020). Developing Cultural Humility During Short-Term Study Abroad Immersion International Journal of Studies in Nursing, 5(3), 48-53.

First Nations Health Authority. (2018). FNHA's policy statement on cultural safety and humility. Canada: Author.  (Link) 

Fisher, E. S. (2020). Cultural humility as a form of social justice: Promising practices for global school psychology training. School Psychology International41(1), 53-66.

Fisher-Borne, M., Cain, J. and Martin, S. (2015).  From Mastery to Accountability: Cultural Humility as an Alternative to Cultural Competence. Social Work Education, 34(2), 165-181.

Fitzgerald, E., and Campinha-Bacote, J.  (2019).  Cultural Competemility Part II: An Intersectionality Approach to the Process of Competemility. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(2).

Foronda, C.  (2021). Debriefing for Cultural Humility. Nurse Educator, 46(5), 268-270. 

Foronda, C. (2020). A theory of cultural humility. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(1), 7-12.

Foronda, C., Porter, A. & Phitwong, A. (2021). Psychometric Testing of an Instrument to Measure Cultural Humility.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 32(4)399-404.

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Reinholdt, M. and Ousman, K. (2016). Cultural Humility: A Concept Analysis.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 210-217.   (Link)

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Pfaff, T., Velez, R., Reinholdt, M., Sanchez, M. and Hudson, KJ. (2018). Cultural Competency and Cultural Humility in Simulation-Based Education: An Integrative Review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 15: 42-60.

Foronda C., Prather, S., Baptiste, D-L. & Luctkar-Flude, M.  (2022). Cultural humility toolkit. Nurse Educ.  doi: 10.1097/NNE.
0000000000001182 (Link)

Foronda,, C, Prather SL, Baptiste D, Townsend-Chambers, C., Mays, L. & Graham, C. (2020). Underrepresentation of racial diversity in simulation: An international study. Nurs Educ Perspect., 41(3):152-156. doi: 10. 10 97/01.

Franco, M., & McElroy-Heltzel, S. (2019). Let me choose: Primary caregiver cultural humility, racial identity, and mental health for multiracial people. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66(3), 269–279.

Gallardo, M. (2013). Developing Cultural Humility: Embracing Race, Privilege and Power. CA: Sage Publications.

Garcia, S. (2015). Review of developing cultural humility: Embracing race, privilege, and power. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(1), 130.

Gonter-Dray, R. M. (2023). Enhancing the Dietetic Undergraduate Cultural Competemility Journey [Doctoral dissertation, University of Dayton]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. oodman, X., and Nugent, R. (2020). Teaching cultural competence and cultural humility in dental medicine. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 39:4, 309-322.  

Gonzalez, E., Sperandio, K. R., Mullen, P. R., & Tuazon, V. E. (2021). Development and initial testing of the Multidimensional Cultural Humility Scale.  Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development54(1), 56-70.

Gottlieb, M. (2021). The case for a cultural humility framework in social work practice, Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 30:6, 463-481.

Graham-Dickerson, P. (2011). Teaching strategies to understanding cultural humility in nursing education. Communicating Nursing Research, 44: 363-363.

Grauf-Grounds, C., Sellers, T, Edwards, S., Cheon, H., MacDonald, D., Whitney, S., & Rivera, P. (Eds.). (2020). A practice beyond cultural humility: How clinicians can work more effectively in a diverse world. Routledge.

Greene-Moton, E., & Minkler, M. (2020). Cultural competence or cultural humility? Moving beyond the debate. Health promotion practice21(1), 142-145.

Groll, L. (2014). Negotiating cultural humility: First-year engineering students’ development in a life-long journey. Available from ProQuest Information & Learning (UMI No. 3591226).

Gruppen, L. (2014). Humility and respect: Core values in medical education. Medical Education, 48: 53-58.

Hamilton, T. (2016). “The Influence of Transcultural Humility Simulation Development Activities on the Cultural Competence of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.” Theses and Dissertations. Paper 270. (Link)

Hammell, K. (2013). Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80: 224234.

Har-Gil, O. (2010). Cultural humility in art therapy: A heuristic arts-based inquiry (Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University).

Haynes, W., Shadid, O., & Campbell, T. (2023). Mental Status Exam: Nuts and Bolts, Frames and Mirrors Teaching the mental status exam to first-year psychiatry residents with cultural humility.

Hernandez-Wolfe, P., Acevedo, V. E., Victoria, I., & Volkmann, T. (2015). Transnational family therapy training: A collaborative learning experience in cultural equity and humility. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy: An International Forum, 27(3-4), 134-

Hilliard, M. J. (2011). Stories and cultural humility: Exploring power and privilege through physical therapist’ life histories (DePaul University, UMI Order AAI3458780). Retrieved from (Link)

Hockett, E., Samek, L. and Headley, S. (2014). Cultural Humility: A Framework for Local and Global Engagement. Faculty Publications - School of Education. 13.         

Hook, J., Boan, D, Davis, D., Aten, J., Ruiz, K|J and Maryon, T. (2016). Cultural humility and hospital safety. J Clin Psychol Med. Setting(Link)

Hook, J (2014). Engaging clients with cultural humility. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33(3), 277-280.

Hook, J., Owen, D., Worthington, E., Jr., and Utsey, S. (2013). Cultural humility of therapists is associated with stronger working alliance and better psychotherapy outcomes. Clinician’s Research Digest: Adult Populations, 31(9): 5.

Hook, J., Farrell, J., Davis, D., DeBlaere, C., Van Tongeren, D.., and Utsey, S. (2016). Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology63, 269–277.

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J., Worthington, E, Utsey, S. (2013). Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(3), 353-366.

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J. and DeBlaere. (2017). Cultural Humility: Engaging Diverse Identities in Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hook, J., Watkins, C., Davis, D., et al. (2016). Cultural humility in psychotherapy supervision. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 70:149–166.

Hughes, V., Delva, S., Nkimbeng, M., Spaulding, E., Turkson-Ocran, R., Cudjoe, J. et al. (2020). Not missing the opportunity: Strategies to promote cultural humility among future nursing faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(1), 28-33.

Hunro, A. (2023). Culturally Humility in PA Education and Training. Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science5(1), 168.

Hussen, S., Kuppalli, K., Castillo-Mancill,a J., Bedimo, R., Fadu,l N. and Ofotokun, I. (2020). Cultural competence and humility in infectious diseases clinical practice and research. The Journal of Infectious Diseases222 (Supplement_6),  S535-S542.

Isaacson, M. (2014). Clarifying Concepts: Cultural Humility or Competency. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(3), 251-258.

Kaplan, K. B., Tenam-Zemach, M., & Reeves, J. (2023). Improving cultural humility in physical therapy students: What is faculty’s role?. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 1-18.

Kelley Haynes-Mendez, K. and Engelsmeier, J.  (2020). Cultivating cultural humility in education. Childhood Education, 96(3), 22-29.

Johnson, K. A., Quest, T., & Curseen, K. (2020). Will you hear me? Have you heard me? Do you see me? Adding cultural humility to resource allocation and priority setting discussions in the care of African American patients with COVID-19. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management60(5), e11-e14.

Kelsall-Knight, L. (2022). Practising cultural humility to promote person and family-centred care. Nursing Standard37(2), 28-34. (Link)

Kesebir, P. (2014). A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: Humility as an existential anxiety buffer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106:610-623.

Kibakaya, E. C., & Oyeku, S. O. (2022). Cultural Humility: A Critical Step in Achieving Health Equity.  Pediatrics149(2).Kim, E. K. (2015). “A word can become a seed”: A lesson learned about cultural humility. Journal of Cancer Education, 1-3.

Kools, S., Chimwaza, A., and Macha, S. (2015). Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries. Global Health Promotion, 22(1), 5259.

Kuşci, İ. S. M. A. İ. L., & Oğuz Duran, N. A. G. İ. H. A. N. (2022). Kültürel Tevazu Ölçeğinin Türkçeye Uyarlanması İçin Bir Ön Çalışma/A Preliminary Study For The Adaptation Of The Cultural Humility Scale To Turkish. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi29.

Kutob, R., Bormanis, J., Crago, M., Harris, J. M., Senf, J. and Shisslak, C. M. (2013). Cultural Competence Education for Practicing Physicians: Lessons in Cultural Humility, Nonjudgmental Behaviors, and Health Beliefs Elicitation. J. Contin. Educ. Health Prof., 33: 164–173.

Lam, C. M. (2023). A Confucian approach to teaching humility.  Educational Philosophy and Theory55(2), 207-216.

Lavelock, C. R., Worthington Jr, E. L., Davis, D. E., Griffin, B. J., Reid, C. A., Hook, J. N., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2014). The quiet virtue speaks: An intervention to promote humility. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42: 99-110.

Lee, A. T., & Haskins, N. H. (2022). Toward a culturally humble practice: Critical consciousness as an antecedent. Journal of Counseling & Development100(1), 104-112.

Lekas, et al., (2020). Rethinking cultural competence: Shifting to cultural humility. Health Services Insights Volume, 13: 1–4.

Loue, S. (2012). Sandplay therapy: Identity, diversity, and cultural humility. Journal of Sandplay Therapy, 21: 105-112.

Lund, D., and Lee, L. (2015). Fostering cultural humility among pre-service teachers: Connecting with children and youth of immigrant families through service-learning. Canadian Journal of Education, 38: 13.

Martin, E. (2016). Cultural humility: Seeking to understand another’s perspective. Texas Nursing Magazine, Fall 2016, 6-23.

Mallon, G.P. (2011). From Mother Goose to Cultural Humility and Beyond! Child Welfare, 90(5), 7-10.

Mastel-Smith, B. and Yarbough, S. (2016). A reflexive exercise to promote cultural humility among doctoral nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 7(5), 68-75.  (Link)

Maters, C., Robinson, D., Faulkner, S., Patterson, E., Mcllraith, T., Ansari, A. (2019). Addressing Biases in Patient Care with The 5Rs of Cultural Humility, a Clinician Coaching Tool.  J Gen Intern Med., 34(4):627-63.

Matthew, S., Hockett, E. and Samek, L. (2018). Learning Cultural Humility Through Stories and Global Service-Learning. Journal of Christian Nursing, 35(1), 33-37.

McElroy, S. E., Rice, K. G., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Hill, P. C., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2014). Intellectual humility: Scale development and theoretical elaborations in the context of religious leadership. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42:19-30.

McMillan, J. (2023). Humility.  Journal of Medical Ethics49(4), 227-228.

Moon, S. H., & Sandage, S. J. (2019). Cultural humility for people of color: Critique of current theory and practice. Journal of Psychology and Theology47(2), 76-86.

Moore-Bembry, N. (2018).  Cultural humility: A qualitative study on the development of self-awareness in social work educators.  Theses and Dissertations. 2539. (Link)

Mosher, D., Hook, J., Captari, L., Davis, D., DeBlaere, C., and Owen, J. (2017). Cultural humility: A therapeutic framework for engaging diverse clients. Practice Innovations, 2(4), 221-233.

Murray-García, J. L., Ngo, V., Yonn-Brown, T. A., Hosley, D. H., & Ton, H. (2022). California's Central Valley: Teaching social determinants of health and cultural humility through an interprofessional, overnight road trip. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved33(2), 819-841.

Murray-Garcia, J., and Tervalon, M. (2014). The concept of cultural humility. Health Affairs, 33: 1303.

Muise, C. (2018). Business implications for cultural humility in the healthcare setting. NH: Medicus Healthcare Solutions.  (Link) 

Ndiwane, A., Baker, N., Makosky, A., Reidy, P., and Guarino, A. (2017). Use of simulation to integrate cultural humility into advanced health assessment for nurse practitioner students. The Journal of Nursing Education, 56(9), 567-571.

Nguyen, P. V., Naleppa, M., & Lopez, Y. (2021). Cultural competence and cultural humility: A complete practice. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work30(3), 273-281.

Nomikoudis M., Starr M. (2016). Cultural Humility in Education and Work: A Valuable Approach for Teachers, Learners and Professionals. In: Arvanitakis J., Hornsby D.J. (eds) Universities, the Citizen Scholar and the Future of Higher Education. Palgrave Critical University Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Nkurunziza, A., Nyirazigama, A. and Soule, I. (2015). Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice. Rwanda Journal, 2(2), 89.

Ortega, R. M., & Duntley-Matos, R. (2020). Cultural sensitivity in the context of cultural humility. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.

Oswald, L., & Korsmo, J. (2015). Valuing mentorship towards cultural humility. Relational Child & Youth Care Practice, 28(2), 22-28.

Owen, J., Jordan, T. A., Turner, D., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., & Leach, M. (2014). Therapists’ multicultural orientation: Client perceptions of cultural humility, spiritual/religious commitment, and therapy outcomes. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42: 91-98.

Owen, J., Tao, K. W., Drinane, J. M., Hook, J., Davis, D. E., & Kune, N. F. (2016). Client perceptions of therapists’ multicultural orientation: Cultural (missed) opportunities and cultural humility. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47: 30-37.

Paparella-Pitzel, S., Eubanks, R. and Kaplan, S. (2016). Comparison of Teaching Strategies for Cultural Humility in Physical Therapy. Journal of Allied Health, 45(2), 139-146(8).

Patallo, B. J. (2019). The multicultural guidelines in practice: Cultural humility in clinical training and supervision. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 13(3), 227–232.

Perez-Rojas, A. Bartholomew, T., Lockard, A., & Gonzalez, J. (2019). Development and Initial Validation of the Therapist Cultural Comfort Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66(5), 534-549.

Persaud, S. (2021). Culturally Congruent Care in Radiology Nursing. Journal of Radiology Nursing40(3), 227-231.

Pham, A. V., N. Goforth, A., N. Aguilar, L., Burt, I., Bastian, R., & Diaków, D. M. (2022). Dismantling systemic inequities in school psychology: Cultural humility as a foundational approach to social justice. School Psychology Review51(6), 692-709.

Porter, T. (2023). Jingle-jangle fallacies in intellectual humility research. The Journal of Positive Psychology18(2), 221-223.

Prasad, S., Nair, P., Gadhvi, K., Barai, I., Danish, H. and Philip, A. (2016). Cultural Humility: Treating the Patient, not the Illness. Med Educ Online. 2016; 21: 10.3402/meo.v21.30908.

Quigley, D. D. (2016). Applying 'Place' to Research Ethics and Cultural Competence/Humility Training. Journal of Academic Ethics, 14(1), 19-33.

Ranjbar, N., Erb, M., Mohammad, O., & Moreno, F. A. (2020). Trauma-informed care and cultural humility in the mental health care of people from minoritized communities.  Focus18(1), 8-15.

Reynolds, C. W., Shen, M., Englesbe, M. J., & Kwakye, G. (2023). Humility: A Revised Definition and Techniques for Integration into Surgical Education. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 10-1097.

Robinson, B. and Alfano, M. (2016). I know you are, but what am I? Anti-individualism in the development of intellectual humility and Wu-wei. Logos and Episteme, 7(4), 435-459.

Rodriguez, R., & Pandya, A. G. (2023). Cultural Competence and Humility.  Dermatologic clinics41(2), 279-283.

Rosen, D., McCall, J., & Goodkind, S. (2017). Teaching critical self-reflection through the lens of cultural humility: An assignment in a social work diversity course. Social Work Education, 36(3), 289–298.

Ross, L. (2010). Notes from the field: Learning cultural humility through critical incidents and central challenges in community-based participatory research. Journal of Community Practice, 18: 315-335.

Ruiz-Millán. I. (September 26, 2018).  Churches Must Talk About Cultural Humility Instead of Cultural Competency.  (Link)

Russell, T., Augustin, F., and Jones, P. (2017). Perspectives on the importance of integrating diversity into the healthcare administration curriculum: The role of cultural humility. Journal of Health Administration Education, 34(3), 371-393.

Russell, E., Viggiani, P., Meath, M. and Faria, D. (2017).  Cultural Humility and Teaching Towards Justice and Equity: Addressing Oppression in the Classroom Providing Inclusive Educational Spaces.  The College at Brockport 17th Diversity Conference.  (Link)

Saleska, Diane Debra. (2020). Enhancing the Success of Underrepresented Nursing Students: Developing a Posture of Cultural  Humility. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website:

Santana, C. (2018). Cultural humility: A strategic concept for addressing refugee health in Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública34.

Sanchez, N., Norka, A., Corbin, M., & Peters, C. (2019). Use of experiential learning, reflective writing, and metacognition to develop cultural humility among undergraduate students. Journal of Social Work Education55(1), 75-88.

Schuessler, J., Wilder, B., and Byrd, W. (2012). Reflective journaling and development of cultural humility in students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33: 96-99.

Schuldberg, J., Fox, N., Jones, C., Hunter, P., Bechard, M., Dornon, L., Gotler, S., Shouse, H., Stratton, M. (2012). Same, same - but different: The development of cultural humility through an international volunteer experience. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(17), 17-30. (Link)

Sedgwick, A. and Atthill, S. (2020). Nursing student engagement in cultural humility through global health service learning: An interpretive phenomenological approach. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(3), 304-311.

Shaw, S. (2016). Practicing cultural humility. Counseling Today, Dec. 27, 2016. (Link)

Sheridan, M. J., Bennett, S., & Blome, W. W. (2013). Cultural humility and shared learning as hallmarks for international teaching: The SWEP experience. Social Work Education, 32:818-833.

Sloane, H., David, K., Davies, J., Stamper, D., and Woodward, S.  (2018). Cultural history analysis and professional humility: Historical context and social work practice. Social Work Education, 37(8), 1015-1027. 

Smith, A. & Foronda, C. (2021).  Promoting cultural humility in nursing education through the use of ground rules. Nurs Educ Perspect., 42(2):117-119.

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Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMC)Live Humble: Practicing with Cultural Humility. The primary goal of this project is to improve students’ knowledge, skills, and values in cultural humility and structural inequity. This, in turn, will improve quality of care, particularly for those who have been stigmatized. This project's objectives are as follows:

• Define cultural humility and structural inequity and describe the dynamics of each;

• Describe the skills associated with cultural humility and structural inequity in interpersonal and clinical

• Choose to execute this three-part process in clinical encounters: a.) self-assess their own thoughts and
behavior, b.) be sensitive to the other’s values, beliefs, and priorities, and c.) identify and execute
effective strategies to diminish potential power differentials; and

• Value cultural humility. (Link)

Society of Hospital Medicine The (SHM) 5 Rs of Cultural Humility Pocket GuideThe Cultural Humility Workgroup of SHM’s Practice Management Committee developed a simple, universal framework to strengthen communication skills  raise awareness of cultural humility by: (1) committing to self-evaluation and self-critique, wanting to learn from every encounter; (2) readdressing power imbalances in the patient-provider dynamic; and (3) developing mutually beneficial partnerships between communities. SHM developed the 5 Rs of Cultural Humility as a simple pocket card tool for hospitalists to incorporate into their practice. The first four Rs (Reflection, Respect, Regard and Relevance) are extrinsically focused, while the fifth R (Resiliency) is intrinsic. The theory posits that if you attain the first four Rs in every interaction, it will serve to continue to build on and develop your own personal resiliency.  (Link)

Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practices. Cultural Humility: This30-minute documentary by San Francisco State Professor Vivian Chávez, that mixes poetry with music, interviews, archival footage, images of community, nature and dance to explain what "Cultural Humility" is and why we need it.   Available on (Link)