Military Cultural Competence


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Arcuri-Sanders, N & Forziat-Pytel, K. (2022). Effectively counseling the military population: Training needs for counselors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.

Atuel, H. R., & Castro, C. A. (2018). Military cultural competence.  Clinical Social Work Journal46(2), 74-82.

Beks,, T. (2016). The Need for Culturally Relevant Psychotherapies for Veteran Men with PTSD. Journal of Military and Government Counseling, 4(3), 221-226. (Link)

Bonura, K. B., & Lovald, N. (2015). Military cultural competency: Understanding how to serve those who serve. Higher Learning Research Communications, 5(2), 4-13.

Butler, L., Linn, B., Meeker, M., McClain-Meeder, K., and Nochajski, T. (2015).  We Don't Complain About Little Things” Views of Veterans and Military Family Members on Health Care Gaps and Needs. Military Behavioral Health, 3 (2), 116-124.

Carlson, J. (2016).  Baccalaureate Nursing Faculty Competencies and Teaching Strategies to Enhance the Care of the Veteran Population: Perspectives of Veteran Affairs Nursing Academy (VANA) Faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 32(4):314-23.

Castro, F., AhnAllen, C. G., Wiltsey-Stirman, S., Lester-Williams, K., Klunk-Gillis, J., Dick, A. M., & Resick, P. A. (2015). African American and European American veterans’ perspectives on receiving mental health treatment.   Psychological Services, 12(3), 330-338.

Chargualaf, K. et al. (2022). Veteran Competencies in Nursing Textbooks: Implications for Educators. Nursing Education Perspectives, 43(1), E2-E7

Clifford, P., Fischer, R. and Pelletier, N. (2014). Exploring Veteran Disconnection: Using Culturally Responsive Methods in the Evaluation of Veterans Treatment Court Services. Military Behavioral Health, 2(2),  197-202.

Cole, R. (2014). Understanding Military Culture: A Guide for Professional School Counselor. The Professional Counselor, 4(5),497–504.

Coll, J., Weiss, E., and Yarvis, J. (2011).  No One Leaves Unchanged: Insights for Civilian Mental Health Care Professionals Into the Military Experience and Culture. Social Work in Health Care, 50(7), 487-500.

Conrad, P., Allen, P., and Armstrong, M. (2015). Preparing staff to care for veterans in a way they need and deserve. Nurse Education Today,46(3), 109-118.

Copper, P., Armstrong, M., Young, C., Lacy, D. and Billing, L. (2016). Person-centered older military veteran care when there are consequences. Nurse Education Today,47:61-67.

Convoy, S. P., & Westphal, R. J. (2013). The importance of developing military culture competence. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39(6), 592-595.

Cooper, L., Andrew, S. and Fossey, M. (2016). Educating nurses to care for military veterans in civilian hospitals: An integrated literature review. Nurse Education Today, 47:68-73.

Gambini, B. (2016).  Health Care's Familiarity with Military Culture Critical to Improving Care for Veterans. ScienceDaily(Link)

Geiger, J., Johnson, E., Sabino, J., Alex, A. and Laudenslager, J. (2016). Veteran and Military-Centric Health Care Tool Kit. Allentown, PA: Lehigh Valley Health Network.

Gleeson, T. and Hemmer, P. (2014). Providing care to military personnel and their families: How we can all contribute. Acad Med., 89(9), 1201-3.

Goldenberg, M., Hamaoka, D., Santiago, P. & McCarroll, J (2012).  Basic training: A primer on military life and culture for health care providers. Association of Medical Colleges. (Link)

Gordon, L. C. (2016). A Phenomenological Examination of The Civilian Mental Health Clinicians’ Perceptions About Serving Military Members And Their Families. (Doctoral dissertation).  (Link)

Halderman, F. (2012). Caring for our troops: An overview of veteran trauma holistic nursing. Beginnings, 32(5), 4-7.

Hall, L. (2011). The importance of understanding military culture. Social Work Health Care, 50(1), 4–18.

Harris, G. (2011). Reducing healthcare disparities in the military through cultural competence. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 34:145-81.

Hepner, K.Paddock, S.Watkins, K., Solomon, J.Blonigen, D., and  Pincus, H. (2014). Veterans’ perceptions of behavioral health care in the Veterans Health Administration: A national surveyPsychiatric Services65 (8), 988996.

Hughes, C. (Website).  Military Training, Culture & PTSD. (link)

Ives, R. A. (2022). Influence of Military Culture on Resilience in Survivors of Military Sexual Trauma (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Johnson, B., Boudiab, L., Freundi, M., Anthony, M., Gmerek, G., and Carter, J. (2013). Enhancing Veteran-Centered Care: A Guide for Nurses in Non-VA Settings. American Journal of Nursing, 113(7), 24-39.

Kilpatrick, D. G., Best, C. L, Smith, D. W., Kudler, H. and Cornelison-Grant, V. (2010). Serving those who have served: Educational needs of health care providers working with military members, veterans and their families. Charleston, SC. Medical University of South Carolina Department of Psychiatry, National Crime Victims Research & Treatment Center.

Lee., J., Sander, K. and Cox. (2014). Honoring those who have served: How can health professionals provide optimal care for members of the military, veterans, and their families? Acad Med., 89(9), 1198-200.

Lehavot, K., Hoerster, K., Nelson, K., Jakupcak, M., and Simpson, T. (2012).  Health indicators for military, veteran, and civilian women.  Am J Prev Med., 42(5),473-80.

Linn, B., Butler, L., Bruce, S., et al. (2015). On working with Veterans: What social work and nursing students need to know. J Mil Veterans’ Health, 23(3):5–11.

Luby, C. (2012). Promoting military cultural awareness in an off-post community of behavioral health and social support service providers. Advances in Social Work, 13: 67–82.

Lypson, M., Ros, P., Zimmerman, N., Goldrath, K., and Ravindranath, D. (2016). Where do soldiers really come from? A faculty development workshop on veteran-centered care. Acad Med., 91:13791383.

Mathewson-Chapman, M. (2017). Addressing Military Cultural Competence in Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 92(12), 1653-1654.

Mattocks, K.Nikolajski, C.Haskell, S.Brandt, C.McCall-Hosenfeld, J.Yano, E., … Borrero, S. (2011). Women veterans’ reproductive health preferences and experiences: A focus group analysisWomen's Health Issues21 (2), 124129

McMillan, L., Crumbley, D., Freeman, J., Rhodes, M., Kane, M. and Napper, J. (2017). Caring for the Veteran, military and family member nursing competencies: Strategies for integrating content into nursing school curricula. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(5), 378-386.

Meyer, E. G., & Wynn, G. H. (2018). The importance of US military cultural competence. Military and veteran mental health, 15-33.

Meyer, E. (2013).  Case report: Military subcultural competency. Military Medicine, 178(7), 848-50.

Meyer, E. (2012). Developing Military Cultural Competency in Health Care Providers. Academic Medicine, 81(1), p. 3.

Meyer, E., Hall-Clark, B., Hamaoka, D., and Peterson, A. (2015). Assessment of Military Cultural Competence: A Pilot Study. Academic Psychiatry, 39(4), 382-388.

Monroe, K. (2012).  It’s not all guns and PTSD: Counseling with a cultural lens. Counseling Today. November, 2012.

Moss, J, et al. (2015). Veteran Competencies for Undergraduate Nursing Education. Advances in Nursing Science, 38(4):306-16.

Muramatsu, R. (2013).  Letters to the editor: A mounting need for military cultural competency in civilian behavioral health providers. Mil Med, 13;178(2):121.

Nedegaard, R., and Zwilling, J. (2017). Promoting Military Cultural Competence among Civilian Care Providers: Learning through Program Development. Social Science, 6(13), 1-11.

Ohye, B. Y., Roizner, M., Laifer, L. M., Chen, Y., & Bui, E. (2017). Training clinicians to provide culturally competent treatment to military-connected children: A collaborative model between the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Home Base Program. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(3), 149-155.

Olenick, M., Flowers, M. and Diaz, V. (2015). US veterans and their unique issues: enhancing health care professional awareness. Adv Med Educ Pract. 6: 635–639.

Pappamihiel C., Pappamihiel E. (2013). Cultural Self-Awareness as a Crucial Component of Military Cross-Cultural Competence. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, 13(3), 62-9.

Perry, R. A. (2022). Melanin, Marriage, and The Military: A Study of Communication Quality During Deployment as it relates to the Well-Being of African American Military Wives (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University). (Link)

Petrovich, J. (2012). Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Veterans: An Overview of the U.S. Military. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22:863–874.

Pleizier, T., & Schuhmann, C. (2022). How the Military Context Shapes Spiritual Care Interventions by Military ChaplainsJournal of Pastoral Care & Counseling76(1), 4-14.

Redmond, S. A., Wilcox, S. L., Campbell, S., Kim, A., Finney, K., Barr, K. and Hassan, M. (2015). A brief introduction to the military workplace culture. Work, 50: 9- 20.

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Reger, M,.Etherage, J., Reger, G., and Gahm, G. (2008). Civilian psychologists in the Army culture: The ethnical challenge of cultural competence. Mil Psychol., 20(1), 21–35.

Rodman, J. (2015), Cross-Cultural Competence Introduction and Overview of Key Concepts. United States. Department of the Army. (Link)

Ross, P., Ravindranath, D., Clay, M., and Lypson, M. (2015). A Greater Mission: Understanding Military Culture as a Tool for Serving Those Who Have Served. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, December, 2015, pp. 514-522.

Sanghera, N. (2017). Developing Military Cultural Competency to Better Serve Those Who Have Served. Optometric Education, 43(1), 8-16.(Link))

Sheppard, S., Malatras, J. and Israel, A. (2010). The impact of deployment on U.S. military families. American Psychologist, 65 (6), 599–609.

Smith, A. (2014). Culturally competent therapy with military veterans: Identifying and  overcoming issues facing providers. Journal of Military and Government Counseling, 2(2), 119-135.

Strom, T., Gavian, M., Possis, E., Loughlin, J., Bui, T., Linardatos, E., Leskela, J. and Siegel, J. ( 2012). Cultural and ethical considerations when working with military personnel and veterans: A primer for VA training programs. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6: 67–75.

Tam-Setoa, L., and English, A. (2019). Need for cultural competency in the mentorship of female Veterans during civilian transitions Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health. doi:10.3138/jmvfh.2017-0049.

Tormala, T. T., Patel, S. G., Soukup, E. E., & Clarke, A. V. (2018). Developing measurable cultural competence and cultural humility: An application of the cultural formulation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology12(1), 54.

Tanielian, T., Farris, C., Batka, C., Farmer, C., Robinson, E., Engel, C., Robbins, M. and Jaycox. L. (2014). Ready to Serve: Community-Based Provider Capacity to Deliver Culturally Competent, Quality Mental Health Care to Veterans and Their Families. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. (Link)

Vogt, D. S., Borowski, S. C., Godier-McBard, L. R., Fossey, M. J., Copeland, L. A., Perkins, D. F., & Finley, E. P. (2022). Changes in the health and broader well-being of US veterans in the first three years after leaving military service: Overall trends and group differences. Social Science & Medicine, 114702.

Westphal, R., and Convoy, S. (2015). Military Culture Implications for Mental Health and Nursing Care. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, (20)1, Manuscript 4.

Young, C., Conrad, P., Armstrong, M, and Lacy, D. (2017). Older Military Veteran Care: Many Still Believe They Are Forgotten. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 47:61-67.

Zwiebach, L., Lannert, B. K., Sherrill, A. M., McSweeney, L. B., Sprang, K., Goodnight, J. R., ... & Rauch, S. A. (2019). Military cultural competence in the context of cognitive behavioural therapy. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist12.

Annotative Links

Cultural Competency for Serving the Military and Veterans. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides the following resources that are designed to assist primary health care and behavioral health providers who care for current and former service members and their families: (link)

Military Cultural Competence Trainings for Clinicians.  A collection of online military culture competence trainings being offered throughout the nation. Course subjects include: General Military Culture, General Mental Health, Primary care & Health Issues, Employment, Greif & Loss, Military Children & Families, Domestic Violence, Women Returning from Combat, TBI, Substance Abuse and PTSD. (Link)

Military Cultural Competence Online Course. Developed by the Uniform Service University Center for Developmental Psychology. This interactive online training course provides an overview of military culture to include organizational structure, rank, branches of service, core values, and demographics as well as similarities and differences between the Active and Reserve components. It is intended to assist civilian mental health providers in better understanding, communicating and effectively interacting with service members and their families. (Link)

Military Culture: Core Competencies for Healthcare.  The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have jointly sponsored a plan to develop and implement an online Military Culture Training Curriculum for health care professionals.  The curriculum for this training will encourage military cultural competency in health care professionals through the provision of interactive online training in the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes.  There are four modules of the Military Culture: Core Competencies for Healthcare Professionals and each module has an estimated time for completion of two hours. (Link)

Culturally Competent Behaviors Checklist for Military Culture - Developed by the US Department of Defense and the US Department of Veterans Affairs, this checklist heightens the awareness and sensitivity of healthcare professionals to the importance of military cultural competence in health and human service settings. It provides concrete examples of the kinds of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices that foster military cultural competence at the individual or practitioner level. (Link)