Transcultural Health Care

Abrums, M., Resnick, J., and Irving, L. (2010). Journey or Destination? Evaluating Student Learning About Race, Class, and Privilege in Health Care. Nursing Education Perspectives. 31(3),160-166.

ACE-American Council on Education’s Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity. (2004). Reflections On Twenty Years of Minorities in Higher Education and the ACE Annual Status Report. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Adler, N., Bush, N., and Pantell, M. (2012). Rigor, Vigor, and the Study of Health Disparities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(2):17154-17159.

Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research. (2012). National healthcare disparities report 2011 (pp. 1-33). AHRQ Publication No. 12-0006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at

Alexander, K., Dovydaitis, T., Beacham, B., Bohinski, J., Brawner, B., Clements, C., Everett, J., Gomes, M., Harner, H., McDonald, C., Pinkston, E., and Sommers, M. (2011). Learning Health Equity Frameworks Within a Community of Scholars. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(10), 569-574.

Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, NY: New Press.

Alexander, G. (2008). Cultural Competence Models in Nursing. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 20(4), 415-421.

Alvarez, M., Gracia, J., and Koh, H. (2014). Culturally and linguistically appropriate services – advancing health with CLAS. The New England Journal of Medicine, 371:198-201.

American College of Physicians. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010. Retrieved from

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Anderson, L., Scrimshaw, S., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J., Normand, J., and Task Force on the Community Preventive Services. (2003). Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(3S) 68-79.

Andrews, M., and Boyle, J. (2016). Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care (7th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

Andrews, M., and Friesen-Lynn, L. (2011). Finding Electronically Available Information on Cultural Competence in Health Care. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(4), 27-43.

Andrulis, D., Siddiqui, N., Purtle, J.  & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: Advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations.

Aponte, J. (2009). Addressing cultural heterogeneity among Hispanic subgroups by using Campinha-Bacote’s model of cultural competency. Holistic Nursing Practice,(1), 3-12.

Armanda, A. and Hubbard, M. (2010). Diversity in Healthcare: Time to Get Real! Frontiers of Heath Services Management, 26(3), 3-18.

Aronson, J., Burgess, D., Phelan, S. M., & Juarez, L. (2013). Unhealthy interactions: The role of stereotype threat in health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 50-56.

Au, M., Taylor, E. and Gold, M. (2009). Improving Access to Language Services in Health Care: A Look at National and State Efforts. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

Bailey, D. (2010). Healthcare of vulnerable populations: Through the lens of Halldordottir’s theory. International Journal for Human Caring,14(3), 53-59.

Balsa, A., McGuire, Thomas, G. and Meredith, L. (2005). Testing for Statistical Discrimination in Health Care. Health Services Research, 40(1), 227-252.

Banaji, M., and Greenwald, A. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York, NY: elacorte Press.

Baum, F. (2007). Cracking the Nut of Health Equity: Top Down and Bottom Up Pressure Action on the Social Determinants of Health. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 14(2), 90-95.

Beach, M., Cooper, L., Robinson,K. et al. (2004). Strategies For Improving Minority Healthcare Quality. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 90. AHRQ Publication Number 04-E008-1, January 2004. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

Beach, M., Rosner, M., Cooper, L., Duggan, P., and Shatzer, J. (2007). Can Patient-Centered Attitudes Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Care? Academic Medicine, 82(20), 193-198.

Bellack, J. (2015). Unconscious Bias: An Obstacle to Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), S63-S64.

Bellack, J. (2005). Threatening Our Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 44 (5), 199-200.

Benkert, R., Templin, T., Schim, S., Doorenbos, A. Z., & Bell, S. (2011). Testing a multi‐group model of culturally competent behaviors among underrepresented nurse practitioners. Research In Nursing & Health, 34(4), 327-341. doi:10.1002/nur.20441

Berry, E. (2002). Not Separate But Still Unequal: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Clearinghouse Review, 36, 201-212.

Betancourt, J., Corbett, J. & Bondaryk, M. (2014). Addressing disparities and achieving equity: Cultural competence, ethics, and health-care transformation. Chest, 145, 143–148.

Betancourt, J., Green, A., and Carrillo, E. (2002). Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches. Published by Commonwealth Fund. Publication #576. Report can be found on the Fund’s website at

Bliss, D., Doyle, O., and Pecukonis, E. (2008). Reducing Barriers to Inter-Professional Training: Promoting Inter-Professional Cultural Competence. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 22(4), 417-428.

Bigby, J. (2003). Cross-cultural Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.

Barnett, K., Hattis, P. and Eaglen, R. (2010).  Health professions accreditation and diversity: A collaborative approach to enhance current standards. Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the California Endowment. 

Bosher, S. (2003). Barriers to Creating a More Culturally Diverse Nursing Profession. Linguistic Bias in Multiple-choice Nursing Exams. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24: 25-34.

Birch, M. (2008). Implementing Equity: The Commission on Social Determinant of Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 3.

Brathwaite, A. (2003). Selection of a Conceptual Model/Framework for Guiding Research Interventions. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice, 6(1).

Brannigan, M. (2012). Cultural Fault Lines in Healthcare: Reflections on Cultural Competency. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Braveman, P., Egerter, S. & Williams, D.R. (2011). The Social Determinants of Health: Coming of Age. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 381–398.

Braveman, P. (2006). Health Disparities and Health Equity: Concepts and Measurement. Annual Review of Public Health, 27.

Briscoe, L. (2013). Becoming Culturally Sensitive: A Painful Process? Midwifery, 29(6), 559-565.

Brondolo, E., Gallo, L., and Myers, H. (2009). Race, Racism, & Health: Disparities, Mechanisms, and Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 1-8.

Brooks-Carthon, J., Kutney-Lee, A., Sloane, D., Cimiotti, J., and Aiken, L. (2011). Quality of Care and Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals with High Concentrations of Black Patients. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(3), 301-310.

Broome, B. and McGuinness, T. (2007). A CRASH Course in Cultural Competence for Nurses. Urologic Nursing, 27(4), 292-304.

Burgess, D., Warren, J., Phelan, S., Dovidio, J., & van Ryn, M. (2010). Stereotype threat and health disparities: What medical educators and future physicians need to know. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(Suppl. 2), S169-177.

Burroughs, V., Maxey, R., and Levy, R. (2002). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Response to Medicines: Towards Individualized Treatment. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94:1-26. Also available at

Butler, M., McCreedy, E, Schwer, N., Burgess, D., Call, K., Przedworski, J., Rosser, S., Larson, S,. Allen, M., Fu, S., and Kane, R. (2016).  Improving Cultural Competence To Reduce Health Disparities. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 170. AHRQ Publication No. 16EHC006-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 

Butler, M., Kane, R., Larson, S., Jeffery, M., and Grove, M. (2012). Quality Improvement Measurement of Outcomes for People With Disabilities. Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science. Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment No. 208. (Prepared by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10064-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 12(13)-E013-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. displayProduct&productID=1243

Byrd, W., and Clayton, L. (2002). An American Health Dilemma. Volume 2- Race, Medicine and Health Care in the United States 1900-2000. NY: Routledge.

Campinha-Bacote, A. and Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009). Extending a Model of Cultural Competence in Healthcare Delivery to the Field of Health Law. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(2), 36-44.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. In M. Douglas and D. Pacquiao (Eds.) Core Curriculum in Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Volume 21 Supplement 1, pp119S-127-S.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2011). Delivering Patient-Centered Care in the Midst of A Cultural Conflict: The Role of Cultural Competence. The Online Journal of Issue in Nursing, 16(2), Manuscript 5.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007). Becoming Culturally Competent in Ethnic Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 45(9), 27-33.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: A Model of Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13 (3), 181-184.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care. Journal of Online Issues in Nursing, 8(1).

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery Healthcare Services: The Journey Continues (5th Edition). Cincinnati, OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Cultural Desire: ‘Caught’ or ‘Taught?’ Contemporary Nurse, 28(2), Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2005). A Biblically Based Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates.

Canales, M. (2010). Othering: Difference Understood” A 10-Year Analysis and Critique of the Nursing Literature. Advances in Nursing Science, 33(1), 15-34.

Capell, J., Veensrta, G. and Dean, E. (2007). Cultural Competence in Healthcare: Critical Analysis of the Construct, its Assessment and Implications. Journal of Theory Construction &Testing, 11(1), 30.

Carpenter-Song, E., Schwallie, M. and Longhofer, J. (2007). Cultural Competence Reexamined: Critique and Directions for the Future. Psychiatric Services, 58:1362-1365.

Castro, A., and Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21, 278-286.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report— United States, 2013. MMWR. 2013; Supplement/Vol. 62/No.3.

Chae, D. H., Lincoln, K. D., Adler, N. E., & Syme, S. L. (2010). Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes. Social Science and Medicine, 71(6), 1182-1188.

Chang, E., Simon, M. and Dong, X. (2010). Integrating cultural humility into health care professional education and training. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract., 17(2):269-78.

Chong, N. (2002). The Latino Patient: A Cultural Guide for Health Care Providers. ME: Intercultural Press.

Chun, M.B.J. (2009). Cultural competency compliance issues in health care. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 11(5), 27–32, 70–71.

Clingerman, E. (2011). Social Justice: A Framework for Culturally Competent Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 334-341.

Commission on the Public’s Health System. (2010). Culturally competent care: some examples of what works! Retrieved from

Convoy, S. and Westphal, R. (2013). The importance of developing military cultural competence. Journal of emergency Nursing, 39(6), 592-595.

Contemporary Nurse (2008). The Vol. 28 Issue 1-2, April 2008 of Contemporary Nurse edited by Akram Omeri and Marilyn McFarland is entitled, “Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition.” It is divided into four sections: transcultural nursing leadership and education; application of transcultural nursing theory and models of practice; transcultural nursing research; and global agenda in transcultural nursing.

Contemporary Nurse (2003). The Vol. 15 Issue 3, October 2003 of Contemporary Nurse edited by John Daly and Debra Jackson, from the University of Western Sydney is entitled, “Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing.” It is dedicated to Madeleine Leininger and discusses articles on globalization, culture and health, cardiovascular health, and mental health with a particular Australian focus.

Cook, S., Goddu, A., Clarke, A., Nocon, R., McCullough, K., and Chin, M. (2012). Lessons for Reducing Disparities in Regional Quality Improvement Efforts. Am J Manag Care, 18(6 0),102–s105.

Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Carson, K. A., Beach, M. C., Sabin, J. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Inui, T. S. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 979-987.

Cooper, L. and Perquera, M. (2013). Maryland Cultural, Linguistic and Health Literacy Competency Strategies: A Policy Framework for 2013-2020.

Coren, J., Filipetto, F., and Weiss, L. (2009). Eliminating Barriers for Patients With Limited English Proficiency The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 109: 634-640.

Cowan, D, and Norman, I. (2006). Cultural Competence in Nursing: New Meanings. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(1), 82-88.

Cutilli, C. (2006). Do Your Patients Understand? Providing Culturally Congruent Patient Education. Orthopaedic Nursing, 25(3), 218-224.

Dankwa-Mullan, I., Rhee, K., Williams, K., Sanchez, I., Sy, F., Stinson, N., et al. (2010). The science of eliminating health disparities: Summary and analysis of the NIH Summit recommendations. American Journal of Public Health, 100`(S1`), 512 – 518.

D’Avanzo, C., and Geissler, E. (2003). Pocket Guide to Cultural Assessment, 3rd edition. St. Louis: Mosby.

Dayer-Berenson, L. (2011). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

de Leon Siantz, M. (2008). Leading Change in Diversity and Cultural Competence. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 167-171.

Delphin-Rittmon, M., Andres-Hyman, R., Flanagan, E. and Davidson, L. (2013). Seven Essential Strategies for Promoting and Sustaining Systemic Cultural Competence. Psychiatric Quarterly, 84(1), 53-64.

DeRosa, N. and Kochurka, K. (2006). Implement Culturally Competent Healthcare in Your Workplace. Nursing Management, 11,18-26.

Delphin, M. and Rowe, M. (2008). Continuing Education in Cultural Competence for Community Mental Health Practitioners. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(2), 182-191.

Douglas, M., Rosenkoetter, M., Pacquiao, D., Callister, L., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., Milstead, J., Nardi, D., and Purnell, L. (2014). Guidelines for Implementing Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(2), 111-121.

Douglas, M., Pierce, J., Rosenkoetter, M., Pacquiao, D., Callister, L., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., Milstead, J., Nardi, D., and Purnell, L. (2011). Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care: 2011 Update. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 317-333.

Douglas, M., and Pacquiao, D. (2010). Core Curriculum for Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(Supplement 1).

Drevdahl, D., Canales, M. and Dorcy, K. (2008). Of Goldfish Tanks and Moonlight Tricks: Can Cultural Competency Ameliorate Health Disparities? Advances in Nursing Science, 31(1):13-27.

Dudas, K. (2013). Cultural competence: An evolutionary concept analysis. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(5), 317-321.

Dunagan, P., Kimble, L., Gunby, S., and Andrews, M. (2016) Baccalaureate Nursing Students’ Attitudes of Prejudice: A Qualitative Inquirer. Journal of Nursing Education, 55(6), 345-348.

Eddey, G. and Robey, K. (2005). Considering the Culture of Disability in Cultural Competence Education. Academic Medicine, 80 (7), 706-712.

Edwards, K. (2003). Increasing Cultural Competence and Decreasing Disparities in Health. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(4), 111-112.

Elisha, S., Nagelhout, J., Gupte, S., Koh, K., Maglalang, M., & Chong, N. (2008). A successful partnership to help reduce health disparities: The Institute for Culturally Competent Care and the Kaiser Permanente School of Anesthesia/California State University Fullerton. AANA, 70(8), 437 – 442.

Engebretson, J., Mahoney, J. and Carlson, E. (2008). Cultural Competence in the Era of Evidence-Based Practice. J Prof Nurs, 24(3),172-178.

Epstein, L. (2007). Culturally Appropriate Health Care by Culturally Competent Health Professionals. International Workshop Report. The Israel National Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research, Caesarea, Israel, October 2007.

Escallier, L., Fullerton, J. and Messina, B. (2011). Cultural Competence Outcomes Assessment: A Strategy and Model. International Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 3(3), 35-42.

Fitzgerald, E., Myers, J., and Clark, P. (2017). Nurses Need Not  be Guilty Bystanders: Caring for Vulnerable Immigrant Population. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing., 22(1).

Flaskerud, J. (2007). Cultural competence: What effect on reducing health disparities? Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28, 431 – 434.

Fletcher, F., Crabtree, A., McKennit, D., Landrie, M., and Magee, P. (2006). A Systematic Review of the Academic Literature Related to the use and Development of Cultural Competence in Health Promotion and Community Service Professionals. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Cancer Board and University of Alberta.

Flores, G. (2012). Technical report—Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Health and Health Care of Children. Pediatrics, 125, e979–e1020.

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Reinholdt, M. and Ousman, K. (2016). Cultural Humility: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 210-217.

Fortier, J., and Bishop, D. (2004). Setting the Agenda for Research and Cultural Competence in Health Care: Final Report. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health.

Gahlet, S., Sohmer, D., Sacks, T., Mininger, C., McClintock, M., and Olufunmilayo, O. (2008). Targeting Heath Disparities: A Model Lining Upstream Determinants to Downstream Interventions. Health Affairs, 27, 339-349.

Galanti, J. (2004). Caring for Patients From Diverse Cultures. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gee, G. C., & Ford, C. L. (2011). Structural racism and health inequities. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 8(1), 115-132.

Giger, J., Davidhizar, R., Purnell, L., Harden, J., Phillips, J. and Strickland. (2007). American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel Report: Developing Cultural Competence to Eliminate Health Disparities in Ethnic Minorities and Other Vulnerable Populations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(2), 95-102.

Giger, J., and Davidhizar, R. (2008). Transcultural Nursing (5th edition). St. Louis: Mosby Year Book.

Geiger, H. (2001). Racial Stereotyping and Medicine: The Need for Cultural Competence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164 (2), 1699-1701.

Graves, D., Like, R., Kelly, N., and Hohensee, A. (2007). Legislation as Intervention: A Survey of Cultural Competence Policy in Health Care. Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, 10: 339-361.

Green, A., Carney, D., Pallin, D., Ngo, L., Raymond, K., Iezzoni, L. and Banaji, M. (2007). Implicit Bias Among Physicians and its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9),1-8.

Gregg J.and Saha S. (2006). Losing Culture on the Way to Competence: The Use and Misuse of Culture in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2006;81:542–547

Gustafson, D. (2005). Transcultural Nursing Theory From a Critical Cultural Perspective. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(1), 2-16.

Hall, J. and Fields, B. (2013). Continuing the conversation in nursing on race and racism. Nurs Outlook, 61(3):164-73.

Hark, L., DeLisser, H. and Morrison, G. (2009). Achieving Cultural Competency: A Case-Based Approach to Training Health Professionals. NJ: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Harper, M. (2006). Ethical Multiculturalism an Evolutionary Analysis. Advances in Nursing Science, 29:110-24.

Harris-Haywood, S., Goode, T., Gao, Y., Smith, K., Bronheim, S., Flocke, S., et al. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of a cultural competency assessment instrument or health professionals. Med Care, 52(2), e7-e15.

Harris, G. (2010). Cultural competence: Its promise for reducing healthcare disparities. JHHSA, (Summer), 3 – 52.

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Baker, D., Nerenz, D., Feinglass, J., & Beal, A. C. (2007). Disparities in Health Care Are Driven by Where Minority Patients seek care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(12), 1233-1239.

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Pierce, D. and Pittman, M. (2004). Who, When and How: The Current State of Race, Ethnicity and Primary Language Data Collection in Hospitals. NY: Commonwealth Fund. (link)

Hassouneh-Phillips, D.  and Beckett, A. (2003). An Education in Racism. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(6), 258-265.

Health Research & Educational Trust. (2013). Becoming a culturally competent health care organization. hpoehretaha-guides/1395.

Hegyvary, T. (2006). Health Disparities Related To Race and Ethnicity. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Third Quarter: 205.

Helman, C. (2007). Culture, Health and Illness (5th edition). Oxford: UK Butterworth Heinemann.

Henderson, S., Kendall, E., & See, L. (2011). The effectiveness of culturally appropriate interventions to manage or prevent chronic disease in culturally and linguistically diverse communities: A systematic literature review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 19(3), 225-249. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2524.2010.00972.x

Hester, R. (2012). The promise and paradox of cultural competence. HEC Forum, 24(4), 279-291.

Higginbottom, G., Richter, M., Mogale, R., Ortiz, L., Young, S., and Mollel, O. (2011). Identification of Nursing Assessment Models/Tools Validated in Clinical Practice For Use With Diverse Ethno-Cultural Groups: An Integrative Review of the Literature. BMC Nursing 2011, 10:16

Hogan-Garcia, M. (2003). The Four Skills of Cultural Diversity Competence: A Process for Understanding and Practice.CA: Thompson & Brooks/Cole.

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J., Worthington, E, Utsey, S. (2013). Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(3), 353-366.

Horvat, L., Horey, D., Romios, P., & Kis-Rigo, J. (2014). Cultural competence education for health professionals [Cochrane Review]. Retrieved from 10.1002/1465185.CD009405.pub2.

Ingram, R. (2012). Using Campinha-Bacote’s process of cultural competence model to examine the relationship between health literacy and cultural competence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(3), 695-704. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05822.x

Institute of Medicine. (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: Author.

Institute of Medicine (2004). In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce (2004). Washington, DC: National Academic Press. Available online at:

James, C. (2013, April). The Affordable Care Act and Its Potential to Reduce Health Disparities. Paper presented at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Mark Twain House 351 Farmington Ave. Hartford, CT. Retrieved from

Jirwe, M., Gerrish, K., & Emami, A. (2006). The Theoretical Framework of Cultural Competence. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 12, (3), 6-16.

Journal of Transcultural Nursing. (2002). Entire July issue (Volume 13, Issue 3) focuses on the extant models, theories & frameworks of transcultural nursing.

Kagawa-Singer, M. and Kassim-Lakha, S. (2003). A Strategy to Reduce Cross-cultural Miscommunication and Increase the Likelihood of Improving Health Outcomes. Academic Medicine, 78(6), 577-587.

Kai, J. (2003). Ethnicity, Health and Primary Care. Oxford: UK University Press.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). Key Facts: Race, Ethnicity and Medical Care, 2007 Update,” CA: Author:

Kersey-Matusiak, G. (2012). Delivering Culturally Congruent Nursing Care. NY: Springer Publishing Co.

Koh, H., Gracia, N. and Alvarez, M. (2014). Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services — Advancing Health with CLAS. New England Journal of Medicine, 371:198-20.

Komaric, N., Bedford, S., and van Driel, M. (2012). Two sides of the coin: patient and provider perceptions of health care delivery to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. BMC Health Serv Res, 12:322.

Kumagai, A., and Lypson, M. (2009). Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education. Academic Medicine 84(6), 782-787.

Kehoe, K. & Melkus, G., Newlin, K. (2003). Cultural Competence Within the Context of Care: An Integrative Review. Ethnicity & Disease, 13(3): 344-353.

Krieger, N., Carney, D., Lancaster, K., Waterman, P. D., Kosheleva, A., & Banaji, M. (2010). Combining explicit and implicit measures of racial discrimination in health research. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1485-1492.

Kwong, M. (2009). Applying Cultural Competency in Clinical Practice: Findings From Multicultural Expert’s Experience. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 18: 146-165.

LaVeist, T. (2005) . Minority Populations and Health: An Introduction to Health Disparities in the United States. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lie, D., Lee-Rey, E. & Braddock, C. (2011). Does Cultural Competency Training of Health Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes? A Systematic Review and Proposed Algorithm for Future Research. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26 (3); 317-325.

Leininger, M. and McFarland, M. (2006). Culture Care Diversity & Universality: A Worldwide Nursing Theory (2nd.) Massachusetts: Jones and Barlett.

Leininger, M., and McFarland, M. (2002). Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research & Practice (3rd ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.

Leuning, D., Swiggum, P., Wiegert, H., & McCullough-Zander, K. (2002). Proposed Standards for Transcultural Nursing. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(1), 40-46.

Lipson, J., Dibble, S., & Minarik, P. (2005). Culture and Clinical Care. CA: UCSF Nursing Press.

Lowe, J. & Archibald, C. (2009). Cultural diversity: The Intention of Nursing. Nursing Forum, 44(1), 11-18.

Lum, D. (2005). Cultural Competence, Practice Stages, and Client Systems: A Case Study Approach. CA: Thomson/Brooks/ Cole.

Lynam, J. (2008). Culture, Health, and Inequalities: New Paradigms, New Practice Imperatives. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(2), 138-148.

Maclean, J., Johnson, M., Rogers, R., & Hoffman, W. (2002). Collecting Data on Race and Ethnicity in Managed Care: Challenges and Suggestions. JCOM, 9(5), 259-262.

Marmot, M. and Bell, R. (2009). Action on Health Disparities in the US: Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 1169-1171.

McEldowney, R. and Connor, M. (2011). Cultural Safety as an Ethic of Care: A Praxiological Process. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 342-349.

McGuire, T. and Miranda, J. (2008). New Evidence Regarding Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Mental Health: Policy Implications. Health Affairs, 27(2), 393-403.

McNeil, J., Campinha-Bacote, J., Tapscott, E. & Vample, G. (2002). BESAFE: National Minority AIDS Education and Training Center Cultural Competency Model. Washington, DC: Howard University Medical School. Online at:

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Meghani, S., Brooks, J., Gipson-Jones, T., Waite, R., Whitfield-Harris, L. & Deatrick. J. (2009). Patient-Provider Race Concordance: Does it Matter in Improving Minority Patient’s Health Outcomes? Ethnicity & Disease, 14(1), 107-130.

Minority Health (OMH) of the United States (US) Department of Health and Human Services (2005). What is cultural competence? Office of Minority Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The National CLAS Standards.

Morales, L., Puyol, J., and Hays, R. (2003). Improving Patient Satisfaction Surveys to Assess Cultural Competence in Health Care. Oakland, CA: California Health Care Foundation.

Munoz, C. and Luckman, J. (2005). Transcultural Communication in Nursing. NY: Thompson Delmar Learning.

Murphy, S. (2006). Mapping the Literature of Transcultural Nursing. J Medical Library Association, 94(2 Suppl): E143–E151.

Naples-Springer, A., Santoyo, J., Houston, K., Perez-Stable, E. and Stewart, A. (2005). Patients’ perceptions of cultural factors affecting the quality of their medical encounters. Health Expectations, 8:4–17.

Narayanasamy, A. (2002). The ACCESS Model: A Transcultural Nursing Practice Framework. British Journal of Nursing, 11, 643-650.

Narayanasamy, A., and White, E. (2005). A Review of Transcultural Nursing. Nurse Education Today, 25, 102 – 111.

National Committee for Quality Assurance, & Lilly USA, LLC. (2011). Multicultural health care: a quality improvement guide.

National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (2005). Eliminating Health Disparities: Strengthening Data on Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language in the United States. Author.

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Osborne, D., Hinkle, L., Hanlon, C., Rosenthal, J. (2011). Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities through Health Care Reform: State Experience. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

Paez, K., Allen, J., Carson, K., & Cooper, L. (2008). Provider and Clinic Cultural Competence in a Primary Care Setting. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1204-1216.

Papadopoulous, I., and Lee, S. (2002). Developing Culturally Competent Researchers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(3), 258-264.

Papps, E. (2005). Cultural Safety: Daring to be Different. In D. Wepa (Ed.), Cultural Safety in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 20-28). Auckland, NZ: Pearson Education.

Parekh, R. (2014). The Massachusetts General Hospital Textbook on Diversity and Cultural Sensitivity in Mental Health: Springer New York.

Paul-Emile, K. (2012). Patients’ racial preferences and the medical culture of accommodation. UCLA Law Review, 60(4):462-504.

Pearson, A., Srivastava, R., Craig, D., Tucker, D., Grinspun, D., Bajnok, I., et al. (2007). Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare. International Journal of Evidence Based Healthcare, (5), 54 – 91.

Perez, T., Hattis, P. and Barnett, K. (2007).  Health professions accreditation and diversity: A review of current standards and processes. Battle Creek, MI:W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

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Prescott-Clements, L., Schuwirth, L., van der Vleuten, C., Hurst, Y., Whelan, G., Gibb, E. & Rennie, J. (2013). The cultural competence of health care professionals: Conceptual analysis using the results from a national pilot study of training and assessment. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 36, 191–203.

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Purnell, L., & Paulanka, B. (2008). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach (3rd Edition). PA: F.A. Davis.

Putsch, R. and SenGupta, I., Sampson, A. and Tervalon. (2003). Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best Practices, Innovations, and Horizons.

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Rosenjack- Burchum, J. (2002). Cultural Competence: An Evolutionary Perspective. Nursing Forum, 37(4), 5-15.

Ross, P., Cene, C., Bussey-Jones, J., Brown, A., Blackman, D., Fernandez, A, Fernandez, L., Glick, S., Horowitz, C., Jacobs, E., Peek, M., Wilkerson, L., and Lypson, M. (2010). A Strategy For Improving Health Disparities Education in Medicine. Gen Intern Med, 25 (2), S160-3. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1283-3

Rothman, J. (2008). Cultural Competence in Process and Practice: Building Bridges. CA: University of California, Berkeley

Rust, G., Kondwani, K., Martinez, R., Danise, R., Wong, W., Fry-Johnson, Y., Woody, R., Daniels, E., Herbert-Carter, J., Aponte, L. and Strothers, H. (2006). A Crash-Course in Cultural Competence. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(2), 29-36.

Sabin, J., Rivara, F., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care. Medical Care, 46(7), 678-685. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181653d58

Sagar, P. (2012). Transcultural Nursing Theories and Models. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Satcher, D. and Rubens J. (2006). Multicultural Medicine and Health Disparities. McGraw-Hill.

Schim, S., Doorenbos, A., Benkert, R. and Miller, J. (2007). Culturally Congruent Care: Putting the Puzzle Together. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(2), 103-110.

Seibert, P., Stridh-Igo, P., & Zimmerman, C. (2002). A Checklist to Facilitate Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity. J.Med.Ethics, 28 (3): 143-146.

Seright, T. (2007). Perspectives of Registered Nurse Cultural Competencies in a Rural State – Part I. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 7(1), 47-56.

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Siantz, M. (2008). Leading Change in Diversity and Cultural Competence. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 167-171.

Smedley, B., Stith, A., & Nelson, A. (2002). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Board on Health Sciences Policy. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

Smith, L. (2013). Reaching for cultural competence. Nursing, 43(6), 30-38. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000429794.17073.87.

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Southwick, M. and Polaschek, N. (2014). Reconstructing Marginality: A New Model of Cultural Diversity in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(5), 249-255.

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Sperry, L. (2012). How cultural competence develops. Seminary Journal, 18(2), 48-52.

Stacks, J., Salgado, M. and Holmes, S. (2004). Cultural Competence and Social Justice: A Partnership for Change. Transitions, 15(3), 3-7.

Stanhope, V., Solomon, P., Pernell-Arnold, A., Sands, R., and Bourjolly, J. (2005). Evaluating Cultural Competence Among Behavioral Health Professionals. Psych Rehabil J, 28:225-234.

State of New Jersey 211th Legislature. (2004) Requiring physician cultural competency training as a condition of licensure. Senate No. 144 and Senate Substitute for Assembly No. 492. Adopted March 29, 2004.

Strelitz, P. and Watson, K. (March/April, 2008). Critical perspectives on cultural competence as a strategic opportunity for achieving high performance in healthcare organizations. Radiology Management, 42-47.

Stone J. (2005). Culture and Disability: Providing Culturally Competent Services. CA: Sage Publications.

Sue, D., Capodilupo, C., Torino, G., Bucceri, J., Holder, A., Nadal, K. & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggression in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62, 271–286 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271

Sue, S. (2008). Cultural Competency: From Philosophy to Research and Practice. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 237-245.

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Taylor, J. (2003). Confronting “Culture” in Medicine’s “Culture of No Culture.” Academic Medicine, 78(6), 555-559.

Taylor, J. (2003). The Story Catches You and You Fall Down: Tragedy, Ethnography, and “Cultural Competence.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17: 159-181.

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National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCA):
NHPCA’s Council on Hospice Care in Diverse Communities

Quality Interactions Newsletter

Think Cultural Health

AIDS Education and Training Center-National Multicultural Institute

National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC)

Center for Healthy Families and Culture Diversity

Cultural Competence Project

HRET Health Disparities Tool Kit

National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities

Rural Assistance Center – Health Literacy

Evidenced Based Culturally Competent Care

Ethnicity Online

CLAS Act  Virginia

The Provider’s Guide to Quality and Culture

Culturally & Linguistically Appropriate Services National Standards


Office of Minority Health Resource Center

CAHPS Cultural Competence Item Set

The National Council of La Raza’s (NCLR) Institute for Hispanic Health

Anti-Racism Resources


Awesome Library – Multicultural Site

MEDLINEplus Health Information


Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange (CIRRIE)

Kaiser Family Foundation – Minority Health

Cross Cultural Health Care Program (CCHCP)

Commonwealth Fund (Underserved populations & patient-centered care)

Enriching Medicine Through Diversity

Resources for Cross-Cultural Health Care

Cultural Clues

The Center for Cross-Cultural Health

National Resource Center

Multilingual Glossary of Medical Terms

Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS) Informational Links

Center For Cross-Cultural Research

The Hmong Health Information Project (Hmong HIP)

International Cancer Council (ICC)

Walking the Walk: Links to Diversity

National Standards of Practice For Interpreters in Health Care

National Council on Interpreting in Health Care

Recommended Resources for Culturally Competent Healthcare

The Genetic Counseling Cultural and Linguistic Competence Toolkit (GCCCT)

Monograph on Cultural Competence