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The Journal of General Internal Medicine (2010). The Journal of General Internal Medicine dedicated its May 2010 supplement to health disparities education. This supplement focuses on approaches to teaching health disparities and health disparities curriculums for students. It contains 27 articles, including "Medical Students' Perceptions of Their Teachers' and Their Own Cultural Competency: Implications for Education" and "Beyond Knowledge, Toward Linguistic Competency: An Experiential Curriculum."
Journal of Transcultural Nursing. (2002). Volume 13, Issue 3, presents several theoretical and conceptual models as well as frameworks to organize knowledge about transcultural nursing and health care.
Journal of Nursing Education. (2007). Volume 48, Issue 6. This June issue is devoted to diversity in nursing education.
Journal of Nursing Education. (2006). Volume 45, Issue 7. This July issue is devoted to cultural competence in nursing education.
Journal of Nursing Education. (2003). Volume 42, Issue 8. This June issue is devoted to cultural competence in nursing education.
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Kelleher, S. (2013). Perceived Benefits of Study Abroad Programs for Nursing Students: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(12), 690-695.
Kelly, P. (2011). Exploring the theoretical framework of cultural competency training. The Journal of Physician Assistant Education; 22(4),38-43.
Kelly, P. (2012). Should we rethink how we teach cultural competency in physician assistant education? The Journal of Physician Assistant Education, 23(3), 42-45.
Kemppainen, J., Kim-Godwin, Y., Mechling, B., Kanematsu, Y., & Kikuchi, K. (2012). Promoting cultural awareness in nursing education through international videoconferences. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(2), 56-61
Kennedy, H., Fisher, L., Fontaine, D., and Martin-Holland, J. (2008). Evaluating Diversity in Nursing Education: A Mixed-Method Study. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(4), 363-370.
Kersey-Matusiak, G. (2012). Delivering Culturally Congruent Nursing Care. NY: Springer Publishing Co.
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Koskinen, L., Kelly, H., Bergknut, E., Lundberg, P., Muir, N., Olt, H., Richardson, E., Sairanen, R and De Vlieger, L. (2012). European Health Care Education Curriculum Framework: Development of a Cultural Framework. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 23(3), 313-319.
Kossman, S. (2003). Student and Faculty Perceptions of Nursing Education Culture and its Impact on Minority Students. DAI, 64 (04B), 1685.
Kowal, E., Franklin, H., and Paradies, Y. (2013). Reflexive Antiracism: A Novel Approach to Diversity Training. Ethnicities, 13(3):316-337
Krainovich-Miller, B. et al. (2008). Measuring Cultural Awareness of Nursing Students: A First Step Toward Cultural Competency. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 250-258.
Kripalani, S., Bussey-Jones, J., Katz, M. and Genao, I. (2006). A Prescription for Cultural Competence in Medical Education. J Gen Intern Med., 21(10), 1116–1120.
Kutob, R., Senf, J., and Harris, J. (2009). Teaching Culturally Effective Diabetes Care: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Fam Med, 41(3), 167-74.
Kumagai, A., and Lypson, M. (2009). Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education. Academic Medicine 84(6), 782-787.
Ladson, G., Lin, J., Flores, A., & Magrane, D. (2006). An assessment of cultural competence of first- and second-year medical students at a historically diverse medical school. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(5), 1457-1462.
Lancellotti, K. (2008). Culture Care Theory: A Framework for Expanding Awareness of Diversity and Racism in Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 179-183.
Larsen, R. and Reif, L. (2011). Effectiveness of Cultural Immersion and Culture Classes for Enhancing Nursing Students’ Transcultural Self-Efficacy. Journal of Nursing Education, 50 (6); 350-354.
Larson, K., Ott, M., & Miles, J. (2010). International Cultural Immersion: En Vivo Reflections in Cultural Competence. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(2), 44-50.
Law, K., and Muir, N. (2006). The Internationalisation of the Nursing Curriculum. Nurse Education in Practice, 6, 149-155.
Lee, M., and Coulehan, J. (2006). Medical students' perceptions of racial diversity and gender equality. Medical Education, 40(7), 691-696.
Leiper, J., Van Horn, E., Hu, J. and Upadhyaya, R. (2008). Promoting Cultural Awareness and Knowledge Among Faculty and Doctoral Students. Nurs Educ Perspect., 29(3),161-4.
Levey, J. (2020). Teaching Online Graduate Nursing Students Cultural Diversity From an Ethnic and Non-ethnic Perspective. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(2), 202-208.
Levine, M. (2009). Transforming experiences: Nursing education and international immersion programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25: 156-159.
Leyva-Moral. (2014). Design and Evaluation of an Educational Course in Cultural Competence for Nursing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132:262-268.
Lie, D., Shapiro, J., Cohn, F., & Najm, W. (2010). Reflective practice enriches clerkship students' cross-cultural experiences. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25 Suppl 2, S119-125.
Lie, D., Boker, J., Crandall, S., DeGannes, C., Elliott, D., Henderson, P., Kodjio, C. and Seng, L. (2008). Revising the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) for Curriculum Evaluation. Medical Education Online, 13(11).
Lie, D., Lee-Rey, E., Gomez, A., Bereknyei, S. and Braddock, CI. (2010). Does Cultural Competency Training of Health Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes? A Systematic Review and Proposed Algorithm for Future Research. Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(3):317-325.
Lie, D., Boker, J. and Cleveland, E. (2006). Using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) to Measure Faculty and Medical Student Perceptions of Cultural Competence Instruction in the First Three Years of the Curriculum. Academic Medicine, 81(6), 557-564.
Lie, D., Carter-Pokras, O., Braun, B., & Coleman, C. (2012). What do health literacy and cultural competence have in common? Calling for a collaborative health professional pedagogy. Journal of Health Communication, 17(Suppl 3), 13-22.
Like, R. (2011). Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions; 31(3): 196–206.
Like, R. (2005). Cultural Competent Family Medicine: Transforming Clinical Practice and Ourselves. American Family Physician, 72(11): Editorial.
Like, R., Barrett, T., & Moon, J. (Summer, 2008). Educating physicians to provide culturally competent, patient-centered care. Perspectives: A View of Family Medicine in New Jersey. New Jersey Academy of Family Physicians 7(2), 10-20.
Long, T. (2014). Influence of International Service-Learning on Nursing Student Self-Efficacy Toward Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(8), 474-478.
Long, T. (2012). Overview of Teaching Strategies for Cultural Competence in Nursing Students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19(3), 102-108.
Luquis, R. and Perez, M. (2003). Achieving Cultural Competence: The Challenges for Health Educators. American Journal of Health Education, 34(3), 131-139.
Lypson, M., Bussey-Jones, J., Glick, S., Brown, A., & Jacobs, E.(2010). Health Disparities Education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(2), 79-81. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1312-2
Majumdar, B., Browne, G., Roberts, J. and Carpio, B. (2004). Effects of Cultural Sensitivity Training on Health Care Provider Attitudes and Patient Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36(2), 161-166.
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Marks, B. (2007). Cultural Competence Revisited: Nursing Students with Disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(2):70-44.
Matlby, H. (2008). A Reflection on Culture Over Time by Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Contemporary Nurse, 28(2), 111-118. Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition.
Marzilli, C. (2015). Challenges facing nursing faculty members teaching culturally competent nursing students using the multiple intelligences theory. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development,1(6): 16-20.
McDougle, L., Ukockis, G., & Adamshick, L. (2010). Evaluation of a new cultural competency training program: CARE columbus. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(9), 757.
Mesler, D. (2014). A comparative study of cultural competence curricula in baccalaureate nursing programs. Nurse Educator, 39, 193–198.
McKinnon, T. and Fealy, G. (2011). Core Principles for Developing Global Service-Learning Programs in Nursing. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32( 2) 95-100.
McPhail, C. and Costner, K. (2004). Seven Principles for Training a Culturally Responsive Faculty. Learning Abstracts, 7(12). (link)
Mills-Wisnewski, S. (2005). Minority Students’ Perceptions Concerning the Presence of Minority Faculty: Inquiry and Discussion. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, (11(2), 49-56.
Milone-Nuzzo, P. (2007). Diversity in Nursing Education: How Well Are We Doing? The Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 343-344.
Mixer, S. (2008). Use of Cultural Care Theory and Ethnonursing Method to Discover How Nursing Faculty Teach Cultural Care. Contemporary Nurse, 28(1-2), 23-36. Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition.
Mlis, Z. (2004). Cultural Competence Models in Nursing: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(4), 317-322.
Montenery, M., Jones, D., Perry, N., Ross, D., and Zoucha, R. (2013). Cultural Competence in Nursing Faculty: A Journey not a Destination. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(6), 52-57.
Montiel-Overall, P. (2010). Cultural Competence in Web-based Instruction: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 6(3), 254-268.
Morton-Miller, R. (2013). Cultural Competence in Nursing Education: Practicing What We Preach. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 8(3), 91-95.
Moule, J. (2011). Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators. Belmont, CA. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Munoz, C., DoBroka, C. and Mohammad, S. (2009). Development of a Multidisciplinary Course in Cultural Competence for Nursing and Human Service Professions. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 495-503.
Musolino, G., Burkhalter, S., Crookston, B., Ward, S., Harris, R., Chase-Cantarini, S., et al. (2010). Understanding and eliminating disparities in health care: Development and assessment of cultural competence for interdisciplinary health professionals a the University of Utah – A 3-year investigation. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 24(1), 25 – 36.
Musolino, G., Babitz, M., Burkhalter, S., Thompson, C., Harris, R., Ward, R. and Chase-Cantarini S. (2009). Mutual Respect in Health: Assessing Cultural Competence for the University of Utah Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Journal of Allied Health, 38(2), 54e-62e.
Nairn, S., Hardy, C., Harling, M., Parumal, L. and Narayanasamy, M. (2012). Diversity and Ethnicity in Nursing Education. Nurse Education Today, 32: 203-207.
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Narayanasamy, A. (2006). Spiritual and Cultural Care Research: The Impact of Empirical Studies of Spirituality and Culture on Nurse Education. Dinton: Quay Publishers.
National Project Advisory Committee of the Office of Minority Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Teaching Cultural Competence in Health Care: A Review of Current Concepts, Policies and Practices. Author. http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/assets/pdf/checked/1/em01garcia1.pdf
Ndiwane, A., Miller, K., Bonner, A., Imperio, K., Matzo, M., McNeal, G., Amerti,l N., and Feldman, Z. (2004). Enhancing Cultural Competencies of Advanced Practice Nurses: Health Care Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 11(3), 118-21.
NLN. (2008). Nursing Education Perspectives: Building a Diverse Nursing Workforce. NLN, 29(3)127-186.
Nokes, K., Nickitas, D., Keida, R., and Neville, S. (2005). Does Service-Learning Increase Cultural Competence, Critical Thinking, and Civic Engagement? Nurs Educ., 44(2), 5-70.
Noone, J., Sideras, S., Gubrud-Howe, P., Voss, H., and Mathews, L. (2012). Influence of a Poverty Simulation on Nursing Student Attitudes Toward Poverty. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(11), 617-622.
O’Connor, R., Barrington, W., Buchanan, D., Bustillos, D., Eagen-Torkko, M., Kalkbrenner, A., Laing, S., Reding, K., and de Castro, A. (2019). Short-Term Outcomes of a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Institute for Nursing Faculty, Journal of Nursing Education, 58(11), 633-640.
Ornelas, I. (2008). Cultural Competency at the Community Level: A Strategy for Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Affairs, 17, 185-194.
Pacquiao, D. (2007). The Relationship Between Cultural Competence Education and Increasing Diversity in Nursing Schools and Practice Settings. Journal of Nursing Education, 18: 28S-37S.
Pecukonis, E., Doyle, O., & Bliss, D. (2008). Reducing barriers to interprofessional training: Promoting interprofessional cultural competence. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 22(4), 417-428.
Pena-Dolhun E., Munoz, C., and Grumback, K. (2003). Cross-Cultural Education in U.S. Medical Schools: Development of an Assessment Tool. Academic Medicine, 78(6), 615-622.
Pharris, M. and Bosher, S. (2008). Transforming Nursing Education: The Culturally Inclusive Environment. NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Powell, K. (2012). Improving cultural competence education: The utility of an intersectional framework. Medical Education, 46(6), 545- 551.
Price, E., Beach, M., Gary, T., Robinson, K., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., Smarth. C., Jenckes, M., Feuerstein, C., Bass, B., Powe, N. and Cooper, L. (2006). A Systematic Review of the Methodological Rigor of Studies Evaluating Cultural Competence Training of Health Professionals. Academic Medicine, 80:578-586.
Prosen, M. (2015). Introducing Transcultural Nursing Education: Implementation of Transcultural Nursing in the Postgraduate Nursing Curriculum. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174(12), 149-155.
Puri, A., and Dominick, C. (2014). International academic service learning: Lessons learned from students’ travel experiences of diverse cultural and health care practices in Morocco. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(1), 45-47.
Rapp, D. (2006). Integrating Cultural Competence into the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum. Medical Education, 40(7), 704-710.
Reed, L. (2012). Exploring the World Outside to Increase Cultural Competency of the Educator Within. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19(1), 23-25.
Rew, L., Becker, h., Cookston, J., Khosropour, S., & Martinez, S. (2003). Measuring Cultural Awareness in Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(6), 249-257.
Rew, L., Becker, H., Chontichachalalauk, J., & Lee, H. (2014). Cultural diversity among nursing students: Reanalysis of the cultural awareness scale. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(2), 71-76. doi:10.3928/01484834-20140122-01
Reyes, H., Hadley, L., & Davenport, D. (2013). A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Competence in Beginning and Graduating Nursing Students. ISRN Nursing. doi: 10.1155/2013/929764.
Ring, J., Nyquist, J. and Mitchell, S. (2008). Curriculum for Culturally Responsive Health Care: The Step-By-Step Guide for Cultural Competence Training. Oxford/New York: Radcliff Publishing,
Rivera-Goba, M. and Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Making a Connection: The Use of Storytelling as a Strategy to Enhance Faculty’s Success With Latina Nursing Students. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(4).
Roddock, H and Turner, D. (2007). Developing Cultural Sensitivity: Nursing Students’ Experiences of a Study Abroad Programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59(4), 361-369.
Ross, L. (2010). Notes from the field: Learning cultural humility through critical incidents and central challenges in community-based participatory research. Journal of Community Practice, 18, 315-335.
Ruddock, H. and Turner. (2007). Developing Cultural Sensitivity: Nursing Students’ Experiences of a Study Abroad Programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(4), 61.
Ryan, M., Ali, N., & Hodson Carlton, K. (2002). Community of Communities: An electronic link to integrating cultural diversity in nursing curriculum. Journal of Professional Nursing, 18(2), 85-92.
Sagar, P. (2014). Transcultural Nursing Educational Strategies. NY: Springer Publishers.
Salas-Lopez, D., Soto-Greene, M., Bolder, C., and Like, R. (2006). Infusing Cultural Competency into Health Professions Education: Best and Promising Practices. Diversity Digest, 9(2).
Sanner, S., Baldwin, D., Cannella, K., Charles, J., & Parker, L. (2010). The Impact of Cultural Diversity Forum on Students’ Openness to Diversity. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(2), 56 – 61.
Schiff, T., and Rieth, K. (2012). Projects in Medical education: "Social Justice in Medicine" a Rationale for an Elective Program as Part of the Medical Education Curriculum at John A. Burns School of Medicine. Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(4 Suppl 1), 64- 67.
Schroeder, C. and DiAngelo, R. (2010). Addressing Whiteness in Nursing Education: The Sociopolitical Climate Project at the University of Washington School of Nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 33: 244–255.
Schuessler, J., Wilder, B., & Byrd, W. (2012). Reflective journaling and development of cultural humility in students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33:96-99.
Schwan, N. (2007). The Relationship Between Cultural Competence, Ethnicity, Professional Training and Experience: A Multi-method Case Study. Published Doctoral Dissertation, Smith College School of Social Work, Northampton, MA.
Scott, C., Martin, M. and Hamilton, G. (2003). Training of medical professionals and the delivery of health care as related to cultural identity groups. Acad Emergency Medicine, 10: 1149–52.
Sealey, L., Burnett, M. and Johnson, G. (2006). Cultural Competence of Baccalaureate Nursing Faculty: Are We Up to the Task? Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13(1), 131-140.
Sears, K. (2012). Improving cultural competence education: The utility of an intersectional framework. Medical Education, 46(6), 545-551.
Selig, S., Tropiano, E. and Greene-Morton, E. (2006). Teaching Cultural Competence to Reduce Health Disparities. Health Promotion Practice, 7(3), suppl, 247s-255s.
Shapiro, J., Lie, D., Gutierrez, D., & Zhuang, G. (2006). "That never would have occurred to me": A qualitative study of medical students' views of a cultural competence curriculum. BMC Medical Education, 6: 31.
Shattell, M., Nemitz, E., Crosson, N. , Zackeru, A., Starr, S., Hu, J., & Gonzales, C. (2013). Culturally competent practice in a pre-licensure baccalaureate-nursing program in the United States: A mixed-methods study. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(6), 383-389. doi:10.5480/11-574.1
Shearer, R. and Davidhizar, R. (2003). Using Role Play to Develop Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(6), 273-276.
Shen, Z. (2004). Cultural Competence Models in Nursing: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15: 308-316.
Shuster, G., Giddens, J., and Roerigh, N, (2011). Emotional Connection and Integration: Dominant Themes Among Undergraduate Nursing Students Using a Virtual Community. Journal of Nursing Education, 50: 222-225.
Smith, W. Betancourt, J., Wynia, M., Bussey-Jones, J., Stone, V., Phillips, C., Fernandez, A., Jacobs, E., and Bowles, J. (2007). Recommendations for Teaching about Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care. Annual of Internal Medicine, 147(9),654-665.
Snyder, M. (2014). Emancipatory Knowing: Empowering Nursing Students Toward Reflection and Action. Journal of Nursing Education, 53: 65-69.
Southwick, M. and Polaschek, N. (2014). Reconstructing Marginality: A New Model of Cultural Diversity in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(5), 249-255.
Stanley, M. (2013). Teaching About Vulnerable Populations: Nursing Students’ Experience in a Homeless Center. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 585-588.
Starr, S., Shattell, M., & Gonzales, C. (2011). Do nurse Educators Feel Competent to Teach Cultural Competency Concepts? Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6(2), 84-88.
Steinke, M., Riner, M., and Shieh, C. (2015). The Impact of Cultural Competence Education on Short-Term Medical Mission Groups: A Pilot Study. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(4), 428-435.
Stiles, A., Schuessler, Z, and James, L. (2018). Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Culture to Bachelor of Science in Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 57(10), 609-613.
Sullivan, C. (2009). Partnering with Community Agencies to Provide Nursing Students with Cultural Awareness Experiences and Refugee Health Promotion Access. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 519-522.
Sumpter, D. and Carthon, M. (2011). Lost in Translation: Student Perceptions of Cultural Competence in Undergraduate and Graduate Nursing Curricula. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27: 43-49.
Sword, W., Reutter, L., Meagher-Stewart, D. and Rideout, R. (2004). Baccalaureate Nursing Students’ Attitudes Toward Poverty: Implication for Nursing Curricula. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(1), 13-19.
Tang, T., Fantone, J., Bozynski, M. and Adams, B. (2000). Implementation and evaluation of an undergraduate sociocultural medicine program. Academic Medicine, 77(6), 578-585.
Teal, C., Shada, R., Gill, A., Thompson, B., Fruge, E., Villarreal, G., et al. (2010). When best intentions aren't enough: Helping medical students develop strategies for managing bias about patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25 Suppl 2, S115-118.
Tervalon, M. (2003). Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students’ Education. Academic Medicine, 78(6), 570-576.
Thom, D., Tirado, M., Woon, T., and McBride, M. (2006). Development and Validation of a Cultural Competency Training Curriculum. BMC Med Educ, 6: 38. (link)
Torino, G. (2015) Examining Biases and White Privilege: Classroom Teaching Strategies That Promote Cultural Competence. Women & Therapy, 38:3-4, 295-307. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02703149.2015.1059213
Tulman, L. and Watts, R. (2008). Development and testing of the Blueprint for Integration of Cultural Competence in the Curriculum Questionnaire. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 161-166.
Ume-Nwagbo, P. (2012). Implications of Nursing Faculties’ Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(5), 262-268.
Upvall, J. (2007). Developing Cultural Competence in Nursing Students Through Their Experiences With a Refugee Population. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 380-383.
Utley-Smith, Q. (2017). Meeting a Growing Need: An online Approach to Cultural Competence Education for Health Professions. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38(3), 159-161.
Vandenberg, H. (2014). Conceptualization of Culture and Cultural Care Among Undergraduate Nursing Students: An Exploration and Critique of Cultural Education. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 21(3), 99-107.
Velde, B., Wittman, P., and Bamberg, R. (2003). Cultural Competence of Faculty and Students in a School of Allied Health. J Allied Health, 32(3), 189-195.
Waite, R.and Calamaro, C. (2010). Cultural Competence: A Systematic Challenge to Nursing Education, Knowledge Exchange, and the Knowledge Development Process. Prospectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 74-80.
Wall-Bassett, E., Hegde, A., Craft, K., and Oberlin, A. (2018). Using Campinha-Bacote’s Framework to Examine Cultural Competence from an Interdisciplinary International Service Learning Perspective. Journal of International Students, 8(1), 274-283.
Warren, F., Keller, D., Haley, H., and Quirk, M. (2003). Developing Culturally Competent Community Faculty: A Model Program. Academic Medicine, 78: 1221-1228.
Watts, R., Cuellar, N. and O’Sullivan, A. (2008). Developing a Blueprint for Cultural Competence Education at Penn. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 136-142.
Wear, D., and Kuczewski, M. (2008). Medical students’ perceptions of the poor: What impact can medical education have? Academic Medicine, 83: 639-645.
Wear, D. (2003). Insurgent Multiculturalism: Rethinking How and Why We Teach Culture in Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 78(6), 549-554.
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Williamson, M. and Harrison, L. (2010). Providing culturally appropriate care: a literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47:761-769.
Woods, M. J. (2006). Immersion in Another Culture: One Strategy for Increasing Cultural Competency. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13(1), 50-54.
Worrell-Carlisle, P. (2005). Service-Learning: A Tool for Developing Cultural Awareness. Nurse Educator, 30(5), 197-202.
Wright, D. J. (2010). Planning a Study Abroad Clinical Experience. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(5), 280-286.
Xiao, J. (2005). Resources in Transcultural Nursing: A Library Orientation Program for Nursing Students. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, 11(2), 56-63.
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Yarbrough, S. (2007). Incorporating Cultural Issues in Education for Ethical Practice. Nursing Ethics, 14(4), 492-502.
Zoucha, R., Mayle, K., & Colizza, D. (2011). The bridging of transcultural response in health care and service learning courses in a community based baccalaureate nursing curriculum: A natural connection. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(4), 1-10.
Primer on Cultural Competency and Health Literacy: The Cultural Competency and Health Literacy Primer is intended to serve as a free resource guide for health professional educators responsible for training the current and future healthcare workforce. The Primer was co-created by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities, and the University of Maryland College Park School of Public Health and the Herschel S. Horowitz Center for Health Literacy. The Primer was designed to provide users with tools and resources to help guide the integration of cultural and health literacy competencies into everyday healthcare practice. (link)
Assessing Change: Evaluating Cultural Competence Education and Training: Authored by the Association of American Medial Colleges in 2015, the intent of this guide is to advance evaluation and research efforts by providing resources for educators and researchers engaged in understanding the outcomes and impact of cultural competence education and training. Based on findings from an extensive literature review and a panel of experts in medical education and cultural competence, the need to strengthen existing efforts in evaluating culturally responsive education and training was identified. While other areas in medical education and training deserve similar emphasis, continued health care inequities underscore the importance of advancing this area of work. The guide features the following resources for educators and researchers: (1) an overview of studies, which includes surveys and assessments of knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to cultural competence, developed into an inventory to provide easy access to existing tools; (2) tools for assessing survey characteristics to determine quality and psychometric properties of existing surveys, and (3) sample evaluation frameworks to bring together curriculum and evaluation planning. https://www.aamc.org/download/427350/data/assessingchange.pdf
Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care Executive Summary: A task force of the Expert Panel for Global Nursing and Health of the American Academy of Nursing, along with members of the Transcultural Nursing Society, has developed a set of standards for cultural competence in nursing practice. The aim of this project was to define standards that can be universally applied by nurses around the world in the areas of clinical practice, research, education, and administration, especially by nurses involved in direct patient care. The document includes a Preface and 12 Standards:
Standard 1. Social Justice
Standard 2. Critical Reflection
Standard 3. Knowledge of Cultures
Standard 4. Culturally Competent Practice
Standard 5. Cultural Competence in HealthCare Systems and Organizations
Standard 6. Patient Advocacy and Empowerment
Standard 7. Multicultural Workforce
Standard 8. Education and Training in Culturally Competent Care
Standard 9. Cross Cultural Communication
Standard 10. Cross Cultural Leadership
Standard 11. Policy Development
Standard 12. Evidence-Based Practice and Research
For each standard, a definition, supporting rationale, and numerous suggestions for implementation are provided. A glossary of terms is appended. All standards are based on the concepts of social justice and human rights, as defined by the United Nations and the International Council of Nurses. These concepts are manifested at a systems or governmental level by political, economic, and social policies that exhibit impartiality and objectivity. All task force members have experience working with peoples from a variety of cultures throughout the world. In developing this document, the task force reviewed more than 50 documents on cultural competence published by nursing and health care organizations worldwide. In addition, an on-line survey solicited comments from nurses in many countries. Responses from nurses representing a variety of settings and educational backgrounds were incorporated into the final document. Every attempt was made to develop standards that can be used globally. (link)
Cultural Competence Education for Students in Medicine and Public Health (2012): The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and ASPH sponsored a Joint Expert Panel on Cultural Competence Education to develop a set of core cultural competencies appropriate for, though not limited to, medical and public health students. These competencies aim to help ensure the development and delivery of appropriate health care and population health services and policies and for a growing diverse population that includes those currently medically underserved. The competencies are designed to enable faculty in medical schools and graduate schools/programs of public health to standardize curricula, benchmark student performance, and prepare graduates for culturally competent practice. The panel additionally provided recommendations for embedding cultural competence education within and across curricula of medicine and public health, highlights of exemplary case studies, and a road map for the future. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Cultural%20Competence%20Education_revisedl.pdf
Curriculum for Culturally Responsive Health Care: The Step-By-Step Guide for Cultural Competence Training: Authors Ring , Nyquist, Mitchell (2008) have published this manual comprising a curriculum for residencies and medical schools looking to implement new, or enhance existing, curricula in culturally responsive care. It describes teaching strategies that to learners and faculty alike, challenging them to grow in their attitudes, awareness, desire, knowledge and skills to effectively practice culturally responsive medicine. It demonstrates commitment to teaching culturally responsive medicine towards the elimination of health disparities, be they related to gender, race/ethnicity, income, sexual orientation, religious background or world view. The manual includes a step-by-step guide for each year of the curriculum, with detailed session descriptions, and sections on teaching techniques, evaluation tools, cultural competence exercises, together with information on further resources. http://www.culturalmedicinetraining.org/resources.html
Cultural Competency in Baccalaureate Nursing Education: Produced in 2008 by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, this document provides a framework to facilitate the attainment of cultural competence by baccalaureate nursing graduates. Consistent with The Essentials of Baccalaureate Nursing Education for Professional Nursing Practice, these competencies apply to practice in a variety of healthcare settings, patients across the wellness illness continuum, and patients across the lifespan, in collaboration with the interprofessional team.
Cultural Competency (link).
Toolkit for Cultural Competent Education: Produced in 2008 by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the purpose of this toolkit is to provide resources and exemplars and to facilitate implementation of cultural competencies in baccalaureate nursing education. The Toolkit identifies significant content, teaching-learning activities, and resources that will help faculty integrate cultural competency in nursing curriculum. Toolkit for Cultural Competent Education. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/toolkit.pdf
A Train The Trainer Guide: Health Disparities Education: Produced by the Society of General Internal Medicine Disparities Task Force in 2008 to provide teaching approaches to disparities education. https://www.sgim.org/File%20Library/SGIM/Communities/Task%20Forces/Disparities/SGIM-DTFES-Health-Disparities-Training-Guide.pdf
Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making us Sick? Produced by California Newsreel, this film is a seven- part documentary series exploring racial and socioeconomic inequalities in health. Discussion Guides for Unnatural Causes to use with the PBS documentary series. Unnatural Causes. http://www.unnaturalcauses.org/
The Deadliest Disease in America: A new documentary that includes accompanying workshops that have been developed to reduce barriers of access to health care. The Deadliest Disease in America is a thought-provoking film that together with intensive workshops highlights clearly the unequal treatment that individuals often receive based on color. This program is used to help community members and health care professionals understand how to identify racism in the health care system, and what to do about it. With both individuals and institutions ready to take responsibility for overcoming racism in our society, this is a crucial time to address racial and ethnic inequities in comprehensive health care reform. (link)
Transforming the Face of Health Professions Through Cultural & Linguistic Competence Education: The Role of the HRSA Centers of Excellence: This curriculum guide, “Transforming the Face of Health Professions Through Cultural & Linguistic Competence Education: The Role of the HRSA Centers of Excellence,” is one result of the efforts of HRSA and the COEs. While directed to Centers of Excellence funded by the HRSA, the guide is applicable to any health care program or institution. The aim on this document is to provide the health professions with strategies, tools, and resources for implementing and integrating cultural and linguistic competency content and methods into existing academic programs under the leadership of the HRSA Centers of Excellence. http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/cultcompedu.pdf
Cultural Competency in Medical Education: A Guidebook for Schools: The Guidebook provides an explanation of why culturally competent medical education is important and includes: it includes, strategies for preparing medical school faculty to teach cultural competency through integration; a suggested curriculum outline for cultural competency that can be tailored to any school; a look at ways to evaluated the efficacy of a culturally competent medical education and student/faculty performance within it; detailed methods for student instruction in cultural competency, based on existing curriculum type; a blueprint for making cultural competency an integrated part of an institution. http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/cultcomp.pdf
Cultural Competence Education for Medical Students: Produced by the Association of American Medical Colleges in 2005, these guidelines assist medical schools in their efforts to integrate cultural competence content into their curricula. This document discusses what cultural competence is, criteria for a culturally competence curriculum, and how to assess and evaluate students in cross-cultural by using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT). https://www.aamc.org/download/54338/data/
Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT): The TACCT is a self-administered assessment tool that can be used by medical schools to examine all components of the entire medical school curriculum. TACCT enables schools to identify gaps and redundancies in their curricula, which will enable schools to make the best use of opportunities and resources. The TACCT can be used for both traditional and problem-based curricula. An AAMC project—called "Medical Education and Cultural Competence: A Strategy to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care" and made possible by The Commonwealth Fund—developed TACCT to assess cultural-competence training in medical schools. https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/tacct/
National Consortium For Multicultural Education For Health Professionals: The Consortium is a group of medical educators awarded grants by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, to develop curricula to address health disparities through medical education. Specifically, the main goal of this initiative is to increase the overall knowledge and skills of medical students, house staff, and other professionals, including practicing physicians on the ethnic, cultural, religious, socioeconomic, linguistic and other factors that contribute to health disparities, and on culturally competent approaches to mitigating these disparities. This website is an excellent resource on training materials/documents/links in the area of cultural competency. http://culturalmeded.stanford.edu/about/
Culture in the Curriculum: This resource targets pre–service university training by creating new curriculum materials tailored to professional programs. (link)
Quality Interactions: A Patient-Based Approach to Cross-Cultural Care: Developed in 2004 by three physicians who are leaders in the field of cross-cultural health care (Betancourt, Green, & Carrillo), this educational resource is an interactive e-learning course designed to improve your ability to deliver quality care to culturally diverse patient populations. It is based on the nationally recognized curriculum developed for and used by the country’s leading medical schools and academic health centers. It is a certified Continuing Medical Education (CME) program for physicians and a Continuing Education Unit (CEU) program for nurses and other health care providers. http://www.qualityinteractions.com/
Cultural Competency Curriculum Modules (CCCM) Project: Sponsored by the American Institutes of Research and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. The project consists of the development and testing of a set of modules to train family physicians to be culturally competent according to the principles of the National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. https://www.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/Content/DocumentArchive_cccm.asp
The Culturally Competent Nursing Modules (CCNM) Project: Sponsored by the American Institutes of Research and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health is designed to help nurses better meet the cultural and linguistic needs of an increasingly diverse patient population, by offering them a case-based curriculum to improve skills in providing culturally competent nursing care. https://ccnm.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/
Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity: Department of Family Medicine/UMDNJ- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and coordinated by Dr. Robert Like, this center was established in the1997-98 academic year, and is dedicated to leadership, advocacy, and excellence in promoting culturally-responsive, quality health care for diverse populations. It has evolved from a program focused primarily on multicultural education and training for health professionals, to an expanded and growing resource for technical assistance, consultation, and research/evaluation services. http://rwjms.umdnj.edu/departments_institutes/family_medicine/chfcd/index.html
Culturally Competent Care On-Line Resource Center: The Culturally Competent Care Education Committee (CCCEC) at Harvard Medical School (HMS) created this on-line resource center to share resources and information on initiatives in cross cultural education and training at HMS, its affiliates and beyond. (link)
The California Endowment: Created in 1996, with a mission to expand affordable, quality health care for underserved individuals and communities and to promote improvement in the health status of all Californians, The California Endowment has produced such documents in cultural competence in health profession’s education as, Principles and Recommended Standards for Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals (https://www.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/content/continuinged.aspultural_competence-1.pdf), and A Manager’s Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals (http://archive.calendow.org/uploadedfiles/managers_guide_cultural_competence(1).pdf).
Diversity Digest: A periodical published by the Association of American Colleges and Universities to provide campus practitioners with readily available information about successful diversity initiatives around the country. Diversity Digest features the following topics: Campus/Community Partnerships; Curricular Transformation; Faculty Development; Institutional Leadership and Commitment; Research; and Student Experience. http://www.diversityweb.org/digest/
Culturally Competencies For Outreach Professionals: These cultural competencies were developed by Dr. Melynda Huskey, Assistant Vice-President for Research in the WSU Office of Equity and Diversity; Dr. Mary Katherine Y. Deen, WSU Extension Diversity Director; and Dr. Louise Parker, WSU Extension Director of Family Programs. Adapted from: Burchum 2002. http://ext.wsu.edu/diversity/pdf/CulturalCompetencies.pdf
Teaching For Inclusion: Diversity in the College Classroom: A publication of The Center for Teaching and Learning at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this publication discusses strategies for inclusive teaching by beginning with the faculty’s diversity, academic culture and teaching and learning styles. The second section of this publication addresses group profiles such as African American students, Hispanic students, Native American students, Asian American students, International students, lesbian, gay & bisexual students, non-traditional students, students with special physical or medical needs, and students with diverse religious and political beliefs. https://ssw.unc.edu/files/web/pdf/TeachforInclusion.pdf
Center on Diversity and Community (CoDaC): CoDaC developed the webpage, Cultural Competency – Higher Education & Beyond which includes recommended links for colleges and universities regarding educational and institutional policies, plans, initiatives, and resources. http://codac.uoregon.edu/
The Diversity Shuffle: Interactive exercise to encourage discussion about differences and similarities within our communities and how they can be addressed. http://apps.nacada.ksu.edu/conferences/ProposalsPHP/uploads/handouts/2011/C169-H04.pdf
Cultural Competency-MUSC: The College of Medicine Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) has developed a website focusing on cultural competency in health professions’ education. Topics of discussion include tips for providing culturally competence care, culturally sensitive medical interviewing tools, working with interpreters, traditional beliefs, alternative medicine, transcultural healthcare resources, and religious and spiritual issues. (link)
STFM Core Curriculum Guidelines: The information presented are recommendations for helping residency programs train family physicians to provide culturally sensitive and competent health care. These guidelines were developed by the STFM task force and groups listed below and have been endorsed by the Society's Board of Directors and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Recommended core curriculum guidelines on culturally sensitive and competent health care. (link)
The Culturally Competent Care Education Committee (CCCEC): CCCEC at Harvard Medical School (HMS) created this on-line resource center to share resources and information on initiatives in cross cultural education and training at HMS, its affiliates and beyond. (link)
Physician Toolkit and Curriculum: Resources to Implement Cross-Cultural Clinical Practice Guidelines for Medicaid Practitioners: The objective of this toolkit is to aid providers in practical applications of the Cross-Cultural Clinical Practice Guidelines. It introduces the basic fundamentals of cross-cultural practice and offers steps and processes essential to delivering quality care to culturally diverse populations. This toolkit is tailored for physicians or clinicians who work in primary-care practice settings that serve culturally diverse Medicaid populations; have participated in some basic cross-cultural training workshop or program; and who seek to enhance delivery of quality of care across all populations served by their practice. (link)
Treating Adolescents with HIV: Tools for Building Skills in Cultural Competence, Clinical Care, and Support: Is a series of online training modules for health care providers working with HIV-infected youth. The series begins, and is framed, by an introductory module covering best practices in adolescent care and the impact of the AIDS epidemic on minority youth. The four additional modules in this series: Psychosocial Issues, Antiretroviral Treatment and Adherence, Transitioning Care, and Prevention with Positives address core issues in HIV care for adolescents. Throughout the course, practical tools are provided to assist with “operationalizing” culturally sensitive best practices in the clinic setting. (link)
Toward Culturally Competent Care: A Toolbox for Teaching Communication Strategies: Developed by Mutha, Allen and Welch (Center for the Health Professions, University of California, San Francisco), this 170-page curriculum is organized into eleven sections that focus on teaching healthcare clinicians to recognize cultural differences in patient interactions and use specific communication skills to improve patient care. The materials can be adapted for sequential one-hour sessions or for daylong seminars. http://futurehealth.ucsf.edu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=d5X/OqyqeuY=
Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Health (REACH) Action Committee: The Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Health (REACH) committee aims to reduce health disparities between different racial, ethnic and cultural groups through advocacy, education and service. Their goals include: strengthening cultural competency in medical education, promoting diversity of the physician workforce, and empowering future physicians to actively engage in the political and social movement towards health equity. http://www.amsa.org/advocacy/action-committees/reach/
Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training on Cultural Competence: Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training (MECTT) is a comprehensive training curriculum that prepares family/ professional teams to improve the services to diverse families of young children with special needs. The project collaborators, George Mason University (GMU) and the Parent Educational Advocacy Training Center (PEATC), developed the materials. The training notebook combines two sections, Participant Materials and a Trainer’s Guide. There are twelve modules developed in collaboration with multicultural community organizations and families. The training modules are as follows: (1) The Basics of Cultural Competence; (2) Cross-cutting Practices; (3) Family Find; (4) Communication and Partnerships; (5) Child Development; (6) Family Centered Assessment Practices; (7) Inclusive Services; (8) IFSP and IEP; (9) Home Visits; (10) Facilitating Transition; (11) Program Change for Cultural Competence; and (12) Developing an Action Plan. http://kihd.gmu.edu/mectt/training/modules
Multicultural Pavilion: Includes resources, such as experiential exercises on becoming culturally competent, for educators and trainers. (link)
Culture Learning: Simulations & Exercises
This website, compiled by the Intercultural Studies Project, is comprised of cultural simulations, exercises, films, and videos related to culture, that can be incorporated into the curriculum as starting points for classroom discussions of such issues. (link)
JAMARDA Resources Inc. : This website provides resources in clinical diversity training and education products for healthcare educators. (link)
WISE- Working to Improve Schools and Education: Maintained by Ithaca College, this resource contains a list of websites on multicultural education and culturally responsive teaching. (link)
Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA): ulture Learning: Simulations & Exercises webpage- Games are a fun and effective way to introduce issues of cultural awareness and intercultural communications to students. The information on this webpage, compiled by the Intercultural Studies Project, is a good place to start looking for specific cultural simulations and exercises and for ways to incorporate them into the curriculum. (link)
Quality InteractionsSM. A Patient-Based Approach to Cross-Cultural Care is a one hour, continuing medical education (CME) course designed for physicians. The course provides physicians and clinicians with the tools and skills to communicate more effectively with patients from diverse backgrounds. The course provides an interactive case study of an African American male with asthma. http://www.qualityinteractions.com/
Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA). Culture Learning: Films and Videos- This page provides suggestions, both specific and general, on the use of films and videos in cultural education. (link)
California Newsreel Film and Video. Produces and distributes cutting edge, social justice films that inspire, educate and engage audiences. (link)
Worlds Apart: A Four-Part Series on Cross Cultural Healthcare. Fanlight Productions. These unique trigger films follow patients and families faced with critical medical decisions, as they navigate their way through the health care system. http://www.fanlight.com/catalog/films/912_wa.php
Media Partnerships Diversity Training Videos. Thought provoking and award-winning selection of diversity training videos to help you build a culture of inclusion. (link)
Communicating Effectively Through an Interpreter. This 28-minute video/DVD is designed to help providers in: choosing an appropriate interpreter, recognizing the signs of professional and unprofessional interpretation, working effectively with a trained interpreter, and guiding an untrained interpreter. http://www.healtorture.org/content/communicating-effectively-through-interpreter
Cultural Competence & Diversity Training. This site shows all the website content related to Cultural Competence Training. http://www.diversityrx.org/topic-areas/cultural-competence-training
Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practices. A 30-minute documentary by Vivian Chávez, that mixes poetry with music, interviews, archival footage, images of community, nature and dance to explain what is “Cultural Humility” and why we need it. The film describes a set of principles that guide the thinking, behavior and actions of individuals and institutions influencing interpersonal relationships as well as systems change. These principles are: lifelong learning and critical self-reflection; recognize and change power imbalances; and institutional accountability. Cultural Humility was originally developed by Doctors Melanie Tervalon and Jann Murray-Garcia (1998) to address health disparities and institutional inequities in medicine. The first segment of this documentary introduces Cultural Humility and features interviews with Melanie Tervalon and Jann Murray-Garcia. The second clip offers a historic context, poetry readings by SF State public health students and an analysis of privilege and power. The third segment is about Cultural Humility in Community Based Participatory Research and Education and features the work of the Chinese Progressive Association and their academic partners. Lastly, the film ends in segment 4 with a reflection on peace, embodied images of nature and a quote by André Lorde. Potential audiences are health and social service professionals, students, providers, organizers and policy makers in public health, social work, medicine, psychology, nursing and education.
Available on You Tube.
Cultural Issues in the Clinical Setting. Kaiser Permanente’s MultiMedia Communications department and the Educational Theatre Program’s CareActors, the brief but dramatic vignettes are accompanied by support materials for facilitators and participants. These materials will be sent on a compact disc and are included in the price. The vignettes, scripted with the help of physicians, nurses and medical anthropologists, raise numerous issues around differing health beliefs and practices, values in conflict, stereotyping, overt and covert prejudices and language barriers as they occur in healthcare settings. Support materials provide questions and discussion points for each vignette. This format lends itself equally well to a series of short modules (30 minutes) or incorporation into a longer workshop. http://gagalanti.com/books/KaiserCulturalIssues5995DVD.pdf
Culturally Competent Healthcare Videos. In 2013, healthcare industry leaders gathered at DiversityInc’s special event, “Culturally Competent Healthcare: How Diversity Creates Better Patient Outcomes,” to discuss health disparities, supplier diversity, clinical trials, Black and Latino physician shortages, and other issues facing patient care today. http://www.diversityinc.com/diversity-events/september-2013-videos/
Quality Care for Diverse Populations. Video/CD-ROM/ Facilitator’s Guide, Contributors: K. Bullock, L.G. Epstein, E.L. Lewis, R.C. Like, J.E. South Paul, C. Stroebel, et al. Produced by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), with partial funding by the Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration, June 2002. http://www.aafp.org/patient-care/public-health/cultural-proficiency.html
Community Voices: Exploring Cross-Cultural Care Through Cancer. Video and Facilitator’s Guide by Jennie Greene, MS & Kim Newell, MD (Available from the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Bldg 2, Rm 105, Boston, MA 02115; Phone (617) 432-0038; Fax: (617)-432-1722; email@example.com, or Fanlight Productions. (link)
The Angry Heart: Impact of Racism on Heart Disease Among African Americans. By Jay Fedigan. Available from Fanlight Productions. (link)
The Color of Fear (Film). Lee, M., Hunter, M., Goss, R., & Bock, R. (2000). Stir-Fry Productions, & Stir-Fry Seminars & Consulting. (2000). The color of fear: A film [Motion picture]. Oakland, CA: Stir-Fry Seminars & Consulting.
A Class Divided (Film). Elliott, J. (2003). Yale University, WGBH (Television station: Boston, MA), & PBS DVD (Film). (2003). A class divided [Motion picture]. New Haven, CT: Yale University Films.
Crash (Film). Haggis, P., and Yari, B. (2004). Crash [Motion picture]. United States: Lions Gate Films.