Race & Genomics


American Academy of Pediatrics Board of Directors, & Executive Committee. (2021). AAP perspective: race-based medicine.  Pediatrics148(4).

Amutah, C., Greenidge, K., Mante, A., Munyikwa, M., Surya, S. L., Higginbotham, E., … & Aysola, J. (2021). Misrepresenting race—the role of medical schools in propagating physician bias. New England Journal of Medicine384(9), 872-878.

Anderson, A. N., Chan, A. R., & Roman, Y. M. (2022). Pharmacogenomics and clinical cultural competency: Pathway to overcome the limitations of race. Pharmacogenomics, (0).

Ben-Eghan, C, Sun, R. et al. (2020). Don’t ignore genetic data from minority populations. Nature, 585(7824), 184–6.

Bhatnagar, W. et al. (2015). Disparities in black and white patients with multiple myeloma referred for autologous hematopoietic transplantation: a single center study. Cancer, 121(7):1064-70.

Birney, E., Inouye, M., Raff, J., Rutherford, A., & Scally, A. (2021). The language of race, ethnicity, and ancestry in human genetic research.  arXiv preprint arXiv:2106.10041.

Bliss, C. (2011). Racial Taxonomy in Genomics. Social Science & Medicine, 73(7), 1019–1127.

Bliss, C. (2012). Race Decoded: The Genomic Fight for Social Justice.  Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Blue, B., Luo, S., Sanfilippo, K., et al. (2017). Race-based differences in routine cytogenetic profiles of patients with multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology, 176(2), 322-324.

Bonham, V. L., Callier, S. L., & Royal, C. D. (2016). Will precision medicine move us beyond race? The New England Journal of Medicine374(21), 2003.

Borrell, L. N., Elhawary, J. R., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Witonsky, J., Bhakta, N., Wu, A. H., … & Burchard, E. G. (2021). Race and genetic ancestry in medicine—A time for reckoning with racism. New England Journal of Medicine, 384(5), 474-480.

Brothers, K. B., Bennett, R. L., & Cho, M. K. (2021). Taking an antiracist posture in scientific publications in human genetics and genomics. Genetics in Medicine23(6), 1004-1007.

Callier, S. L., Cunningham, B. A., Powell, J., McDonald, M. A., & Royal, C. D. (2019). Cardiologists’ perspectives on race-based drug labels and prescribing within the context of treating heart failure. Health Equity3(1), 246-253.

Cerdeña, J. P., Plaisime, M. V., & Tsai, J. (2020). From race-based to race-conscious medicine: How anti-racist uprisings call us to act. The Lancet396(10257), 1125-1128.

Channaoui, N., Bui, K., & Mittman, I. (2020). Efforts of diversity and inclusion, cultural competency, and equity in the genetic counseling profession: A snapshot and reflection. Journal of Genetic Counseling29(2), 166-181.

Cullen, M. R., Lemeshow, A. R., Russo, L. J., Barnes, D. M., Ababio, Y., & Habtezion, A. (2022). Disease-Specific Health Disparities: A Targeted Review Focusing on Race and Ethnicity. In Healthcare, 10(4), 603).

Dordunoo, D., Abernethy, P., Kayuni, J., McConkey, S., & Aviles-G, M. L. (2022). Dismantling” Race” in Health Research. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 08445621221074849.

Edwards, T. L., Breeyear, J., Piekos, J. A., & Edwards, D. R. V. (2020). Equity in health: Consideration of race and ethnicity in precision medicine. Trends in Genetics36(11), 807-809.

Fernander, A. (2022). What does critical race theory have to do with academic medicine? Journal of the National Medical Association.

Frank, D., Gallagher, T. H., Sellers, S. L., Cooper, L. A., Price, E. G., Odunlami, A. O., & Bonham, V. L. (2010). Primary care physicians’ attitudes regarding race-based therapies. Journal of General Internal Medicine25(5), 384-389.

Freese, J. (2018). The arrival of social science genomics.  Contemporary Sociology47(5), 524-536.

Gara, M., Minsky, S., Silverstein, S., Miskimen, T., & Strakowski, S. (2019). A naturalistic study of racial disparities in diagnoses at an outpatient behavioral clinic. Psychiatric Services, 70(2), 130-134.

Garvey, A., Lynch, G., Mansour, M., Coyle, A., Gard, S., & Truglio, J. (2022). From Race to Racism: Teaching a Tool to Critically Appraise the Use of Race in Medical Research. MedEdPORTAL18, 11210.

Goodman, C. W., & Brett, A. S. (2021). Race and Pharmacogenomics—Personalized Medicine or Misguided Practice?. JAMA325(7), 625-626.

Halbert, C. H. (2022). Equity in Genomic Medicine. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics23.

Hindorff, L. A., Bonham, V. L., Brody, L. C., Ginoza, M. E., Hutter, C. M., Manolio, T. A., & Green, E. D. (2018). Prioritizing diversity in human genomics research. Nature Reviews Genetics19(3), 175-185.

Heron, S., Stettner, E., & Haley, L. (n.d.). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Emergency Department: A Public Health Perspective. (Link)

Hoffman, K., Trawalter, S., Axt, J., & Oliver, M. (2016). Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between Blacks and Whites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 13(16), 4296–4301.

Husain, S. A., King, K. L., & Mohan, S. (2022). Differences between Race‐based and Race‐free Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Living Kidney Donors. American Journal of Transplantation, 22(5), 1504-1505.

Ioannidis, J. P., Powe, N. R., & Yancy, C. (2021). Recalibrating the use of race in medical research. Jama325(7), 623-624.

Kahn, J. (2013). Race in a bottle: The story of BiDil and racialized medicine in the genomic age. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kahn, J. (2012). The troubling persistence of race in pharmacogenomics. J Law Med Ethics, 40(4), 873–85.

Key, B., and Mumba, M. (2019). Using precision medicine to individualize healthcare.  Nursing, 49(8), 43-45.

Kowal, E. (2022). Structuring Race into the Machine: The Spoiled Promise of Postgenomic Sequencing Technologies. In The Palgrave Handbook of the Anthropology of Technology (pp. 165-182). Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

Landry, L. G., Ali, N., Williams, D. R., Rehm, H. L., & Bonham, V. L. (2018). Lack of diversity in genomic databases is a barrier to translating precision medicine research into practice. Health Affairs37(5), 780-785.

Lord, B. D., Martini, R. N., & Davis, M. B. (2022). Understanding how genetic ancestry may influence cancer development. Trends in Cancer.

Magavern, E. F., Gurdasani, D., Ng, F. L., & Lee, S. S. J. (2022). Health equality, race and pharmacogenomics.  British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology88(1), 27-33.

Maglo, K., Rubinstein, J., Huang, B., & Ittenbach, R. (2014). BiDil in the clinic: An interdisciplinary investigation of physicians’ prescription patterns of a race-based therapy. AJOB Empirical Bioethics, 5(4), 37-52.

Matthews-Juarez , P. and Juarez, P. (2017). Cultural Competency, Human Genomics, and the Elimination of Health Disparities. Social Work in Public Health, 26(4), 349-365.

Mohottige, D., Boulware, L. E., Ford, C. L., Jones, C., & Norris, K. C. (2022). Use of race in kidney research and medicine: concepts, principles, and practice. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology17(2), 314-322.

Montoya, M. (2011).  Making the Mexican Diabetic: Race, Science, and the Genetics of Inequality.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Mullen, M., Zhang, A., Lui, G. K., Romfh, A. W., Rhee, J. W., & Wu, J. C. (2021). Race and genetics in congenital heart disease: Application of iPSCs, omics, and machine learning technologies. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine8, 37.

Nielsen, R. (2021). Modern population genetics and race. In Remapping Race in a Global Context (pp. 157-163). Routledge.

Popejoy, A. B., Ritter, D. I., Crooks, K., Currey, E., Fullerton, S. M., Hindorff, L. A., … & Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Ancestry and Diversity Working Group (ADWG). (2018). The clinical imperative for inclusivity: Race, ethnicity, and ancestry (REA) in genomics. Human Mutation39(11), 1713-1720.

Oni-Orisan, A., Mavura, Y., Banda, Y., Thornton, T. A., & Sebro, R. (2021). Embracing genetic diversity to improve Black health. New England Journal of Medicine384(12), 1163-1167.

Ortega, V., & Meyer, D. (2014). Pharmacogenetics: Implications of race and ethnicity on defining genetic profiles for personalized medicine. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133(1), 16-26.

Powe, N. R. (2020). Black kidney function matters: Use or misuse of race? Jama324(8), 737-738.

Reddick, B. (2021). Fallacies and dangers of practicing race-based medicine. American Family Physician104(2), 122-123.

Richmond II, S. P., & Grubbs, V. (2022). How Abolition of Race-Based Medicine Is Necessary to American Health Justice. AMA Journal of Ethics24(3), 226-232.

Roberts, D. (2021).  Abolish race correction. Lancet, 397(10268), 17–8.

Schiff, T., & Caplan, A. (2022). Imperfect Improvement: Estimating Kidney Filtration without a Race Coefficient. Clinical Chemistry68(4), 487-488.

Schoenthaler, A., Montague, E., Baier, L., Brown, R., Schwartz, M. and Linzer, M. (2014). Patient-physician racial/ethnic concordance and blood pressure control: The role of trust and medication adherence. Ethn Health, 19(5), 565-78.

Scott, J., Cousin, L., Woo, J., Gonzalez-Guarda, R., & Simmons, L. A. (2022). Equity in genomics: A brief report on cardiovascular health disparities in African American adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing37(1), 58-63.

Shim, J., Ackerman, S., Darling, K., Hiatt, R. and Soo-Jin Lee, S. (2014). Race and Ancestry in the Age of Inclusion: Technique and Meaning in Post-Genomic Science. J Health Soc Behav., 55(4), 504–518.

Skinner, D. (2020). Forensic genetics and the prediction of race: What is the problem?  BioSocieties15(3), 329-349.

Tsai, J. (2022). How Should Educators and Publishers Eliminate Racial Essentialism? AMA Journal of Ethics24(3), 201-211.

van Ryn, M., Burgess, D., Dovidio, J., Phelan, S., Saha, S., Malat, J., . . . Perry, S. (2011).  The impact of racism on clinician cognition, behavior, and clinical decision making.  Du Bois Review, 8(1), 99-218.

Vandiver, K. M., Erdei, E., Mayer, A. G., Ricciardi, C., O’Leary, M., Burke, K., & Zelikoff, J. T. (2022). Building Environmental Health and Genomics Literacy among Healthcare Providers Serving Vulnerable Communities: An Innovative Educational Framework.  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(2), 929.

Vyas, D. A., Eisenstein, L. G., & Jones, D. S. (2020). Hidden in plain sight—reconsidering the use of race correction in clinical algorithms.  New England Journal of Medicine383(9), 874-882.

Wailoo, K. (2018). Historical aspects of race and medicine: The case of J. Marion Sims. JAMA320(15), 1529-1530.

Woods, D., Mentes, J., Cadogan, M. and Phillips, L. (2017). Aging, Genetic Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural competence through awareness of drug responses in elderly minority elders. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(1), 56-62.

Wright, J. L., Freed, G. L., Hendricks-Muñoz, K. D., Jarvis, J. N., Maldonado, Y. A., Raphael, J. L., … & Coyne-Beasley, T. D. (2022). Achieving equity through science and integrity: Dismantling race-based medicine. Pediatric Research, 1-4.

Yearby, R. (2021). Race based medicine, colorblind disease: How racism in medicine harms us all. The American Journal of Bioethics21(2), 19-27.

Yudell, M., Roberts, D., DeSalle, R., & Tishkoff, S. (2016). Taking race out of human genetics.  Science351(6273), 564-565.

Zhang, F., & Finkelstein, J. (2019). Inconsistency in race and ethnic classification in pharmacogenetics studies and its potential clinical implications. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine12, 107.


The Genetic Counseling Cultural and Linguistic Competence Toolkit (GCCCT) – The GCCCT is the final product of the 2009 Jane Engelberg Memorial Fellowship (JEMF) award of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. This award facilitated professional development opportunities for Nancy Steinberg Warren, MS, CGC in diversity, cultural competence, and pedagogy. The resulting project outcome is the following website, which is designed as a flexible, online resource portal to benefit the entire genetic counseling profession.