Race & Genomics

Abu, N. (2007). The Genetic Reinscription of Race. Annual Review of Anthropology, 86:283–300.

Anderson, M., Moscou, S., Fulchon, C. & Neuspiel, D. (2001). The Role of Race in the Clinical Presentation. Family Medicine, 33 (6): 430-434.

Bamshad, M. (2005). Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter? Journal of the American Medical Association, 294: 937-946.

Barr, D. (2005). The Practitioner’s dilemma: Can We Use a Patient’s Race to Predict Genetics, Ancestry, and the Expected Outcomes of Treatment? Annals of Internal Medicine, 143: 809-815.

Bliss, C. (2011). Racial Taxonomy in Genomics. Social Science & Medicine, 73(7), 1019–1127.

Bliss, C. (2012). Race Decoded: The Genomic Fight for Social Justice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States (3rd ed.). Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.

Braun, L. and Hammonds, E. (2008). Race, Population, and Genomics: Africa as Laboratory. Social Science & Medicine, 67(10),1580–1588.

Braun, L. (2002). Race, Ethnicity, and Health: Can Genetics Explain Disparities? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 45(2): 159-174.

Buchard, E., et al. (2003). The Importance of Race and Ethic Background in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice. New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (12): 1170-1175.

Burroughs, V., Maxey, R., Crawley, L,. and Levy, R. (2002). Cultural and Genetic Diversity in America: The Need for Individualized Pharmaceutical Treatment. National Pharmaceutical Council and National Medical Association.

Caballero, A. (2005). Diabetes in the Hispanic or Latino population: Genes, environment, culture and more. Curr Diab Rep., 5:217-225.

Campbell, M., and Rogalin , C. (2006). Imperatives: The Interaction of Latino and Racial Identification. Social Science Quarterly ,87(5),1030–1052.

Caughy, M., O’Campo, P., and Muntaner, C. (2004). Experiences of racism among African American parents and the mental health of their pre-school aged children. American Journal of Public Health, 94(12): 2118-24.

Condit, C. and Bates, B. (2005). How Lay People Respond to Messages About Genetics, Health, and Race. Clinical Genetics, 68: 97-105.

Cooper, R. (2003). Race, genes, and health – new wine in old bottles? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32: 23-25. [With commentary].

Cooper, R., Kaufman, J. & Ward, R. (2003). Race and Genomics. New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (12): 1166-1169.

Dawson, G. (2003). Human Genome, Race and Medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95 (4): 309-312.

Dovidio, J., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82: 62–68.

Dressler, W., Oths, K. and, Gravlee, C. (2005). Race and Ethnicity in Public Health Research: Models to Explain Health Disparities. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34: 231-252.

Fullwiley, D. (2008). The Biologistical Construction of Race: ‘Admixture’ Technology and the New Genetic Medicine. Social Studies of Science, 38(5), 695–735.

Garcia, R. (2003). The Misuse of Race in Medical Diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(35). http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-y.htm

Gaskin, D., and Hoffman, C. (2000). Racial and ethnic differences in preventable Hospitalizations across 10 states. Medical Care Research Review,57 Suppl(1), 85-107.

Greely, H. (2001). Human genome diversity: What about the other human genome project? Nat. Rev. Genet., 2:222–227.

Edwards, A. (2003). Human genetic diversity: Lewontin’s fallacy. Bioessays, 25(8), 798-801.

Goodman, A. (2000). Why Genes Don’t Count for Racial Differences in Health. American Journal of Public Health, 90 (11): 1699-1701.

Greely, H. (2003). Genome Research and Minorities. Pharmacogenomics. Published Online, Pages: 65-82

Graves, J. (2001). The Emperor’s New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. New Brunswick, NJ, London.

Harris, D., and Sims, J. (2002). Who Is Multiracial? Assessing the Complexity of Lived Race. American Sociological Review, 67(4), 614–627.

Heron, S., Stettner, E., & Haley, L. (n.d.). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Emergency Department: A Public Health Perspective. http://w ww.med-ed.virginia.edu/ courses/ culture/PDF/marcuschapter009rai alethnicdisparitiesrevisedgc.pdf

Hurley, B. (2003). Race and Medical Publications. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95 (4): 307-308.

Jackson, F. (2004). Human genetic variation and health: new assessment approaches based on ethno genetic layering. British Medical Journal, 69: 215-235.

Kahn, J. (2005). Misreading Race and Genomics After BiDil. Nature Genetics, 37(7): 655- 656.

Kaplan, J., and Bennett, T. (2003). Use of Race and Ethnicity in Biomedical Publication. American Medical Association, 289 (20): 2709-2716.

Kaufman J., and Cooper, R. (2001). Commentary: Considerations for use of racial/ethnic classification in etiologic research. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154:291–298.

Khoury, M., McCabe, L., and McCabe, E. (2003). Population Screening in the Age of Genomic Medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (1): 50-58.

Kittles, R. and Weiss, K. (2003). Race, Ancestry, and Genes: Implications for Defining Disease Risk. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 4: 33-67.

LaVeist, T. and Carroll, T. (2003). Race of Physician and Satisfaction with Care Among African American Patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94 (11): 937-943.

Learman, L., Kuppermann, M., Gates, E., Nease, R., Gildengorin, V., and Washington, A. (2003). Social and familial context of prenatal genetic testing decisions: Are there racial/ethnic differences? American Journal of Medical Genetics, 119C(1), 19-26.

Lee, S. (2006). Biobanks of a “Racial” Kind: Mining for Difference in the New Genetics. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(4-5): 443-460.

Lee, S., Mountain, J. and Koenig, B. (2001). The Meanings of “Race” in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research. Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, 1: 33-75.

Levy, R., and Polatsek, J. (2002). Genetic Variations in Response to Medications: Looking at the Implications for Minority Elders. Healthcare and Aging, 9(1).

Lowe, A., Urquhart, A., Foreman, L., and Evett, I. (2001). Inferring ethnic origin by means of an STR profile. Forensic Sci. Int., 119:17–22.

Matthews-Juarez , P. and Juarez, P. (2017). Cultural Competency, Human Genomics, and the Elimination of Health Disparities. Social Work in Public Health, 26(4), 349-365.

Montoya, M. (2011).  Making the Mexican Diabetic: Race, Science, and the Genetics of Inequality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Morris, F. and Sharp, R. (2002). Race, Ethnicity, and Genomics: Social Classifications as Proxies of Biological Heterogeneity. Genome Res., 12: 844-850.

Nebert D., and Menon, A. (2001). Pharmacogenomics, ethnicity, and susceptibility genes. Pharmacogenomics J., 1:19–22.

Nsiah-Jefferson, L. (2003). Pharmacogenomics: Considerations for Communities of Color. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Outram, S. and, Ellison, G. (2006). Anthropological Insights into the Use of Race/Ethnicity to Explore Genetic Contributions to Disparities in Health. Journal of Biosocial Science, 38:83-102.

Phmister, E. (2003). Medicine and the Racial Divide. New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (12): 1081-1082.

Reynolds, P., Kamei, R., Sundquist, J., Khanna, N., Palmer, E., and Palmer, T. (2005). Using the PRACTICE Mnemonic to Apply Cultural Competency Genetics in Medical Education and Patient Care. Academic Medicine, 80(12), 1107-1113.

Reyes, C., Van de Putte, L., Falcon, A, Levy, R. (2004). Genes, Culture and Medicine: Bridging Gaps in Treatment For Hispanic Americans. Washington, DC: National Alliance For Hispanic Health.

Rich, N., Burchard, E. Ziv, E., and Tang, H. (2002). Categorization of Humans in Biomedical Research: Genes, Race and Disease. Genome Biology, 3 (7).

Root, M. (2003). The Use of Race in Medicine as a Proxy for Genetic Differences. Philosophy of Science, 70: 1173-1183.

Rothstein, M., and Epps, P. (2001). Pharmacogenomics and the (ir)relevance of race.  Pharmacogenomics J., 1:104–108.

Sankar, P., Cho, M., Condit, C., Hunt, L., Koenig, B., Marshall, P., Lee, S. and Spicer, P. (2004). Genetic Research and Health disparities. Journal of the American Medical Association. 291: 2985-2989.

Schoenthaler, A., Montague, E., Baier, L., Brown, R., Schwartz, M. and Linzer, M. (2014). Patient-physician racial/ethnic concordance and blood pressure control: The role of trust and medication adherence. Ethn Health, 19(5), 565-78.

Shim, J., Ackerman, S., Darling, K., Hiatt, R. and Soo-Jin Lee, S. (2014). Race and Ancestry in the Age of Inclusion: Technique and Meaning in Post-Genomic Science. J Health Soc Behav., 55(4), 504–518.

Shields, A., Fortun, M., Hammonds, E., King, P., Lerman, C., Rapp, R. and Sullivan, P. (2005). The Use of Race Variables in Genetic Studies of Complex Traits and the Goal of Reducing Health Disparities: A Transdisciplinary Perspective. American Psychologist, 60(1): 77-103.

Stevens, J. (2003). Racial Meanings and Scientific Methods: Changing Policies for NIH-Sponsored Publications Reporting Human Variation Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 28(6), 1033-1087.

Tarazona-Santos, E., Carvalho-Silva, D., Pettener, D., Luiselli, D., De Stefano, G., Labarga, C., Rickards, O., Tyler-Smith, C., Pena, S., and Santos, F. (2001). Genetic differentiation in South Amerindians is related to environmental and cultural diversity: Evidence from the Y chromosome. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 68:1485–1496.

Weinick, R. Zuvekas, S., & Cohen, J. (2000). Racial and ethnic differences in access to and use of health care services, 1977 to 1996. Medical Care Research Reviews, 57, Suppl 1, 36-54.

Whitmarsh, I. (2008).  Biomedical Ambiguity: Race, Asthma, and the Contested Meaning of Genetic Research in the Caribbean. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Winker, M. (2004). Measuring Race and Ethnicity: Why and How? Journal of the American Medical Association, 292(13): 1612-1614.

Ziv, E. and Buchard, E. (2003). Human Population Structure and Genetic Association Studies. Pharmacogenomics, 4 (4): 431-441.


The Genetic Counseling Cultural and Linguistic Competence Toolkit (GCCCT) – The GCCCT is the final product of the 2009 Jane Engelberg Memorial Fellowship (JEMF) award of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. This award facilitated professional development opportunities for Nancy Steinberg Warren, MS, CGC in diversity, cultural competence, and pedagogy. The resulting project outcome is the following website, which is designed as a flexible, online resource portal to benefit the entire genetic counseling profession.