Race-Based Trauma and Stress
Ahmed et al. (2020). Why is there a higher rate of impostor syndrome among BIPOC? Across The Spectrum of Socioeconomics, 1(2), 1-17.
Ainslie, R. C. (2013). Intervention strategies for addressing collective trauma: Healing communities ravaged by racial strife. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 18(2), 140-152.
Bernstein, K., Ahern, J., Tracy, M., Boscarino, J., Vlahov, D. and Galea, S. (2007). Television watching and the risk of incident probable posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective evaluation. Journal of Nervous Disorders, 95(1):41-7.
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2019). Feeling race: Theorizing the racial economy of emotions. American Sociological Review, 84(1) 1–25.
Bravata, D., Madhusudhan, D., Boroff, M. and Cokley, K. (2020). Commentary: Prevalence, predictors, and treatment of imposter syndrome: A systematic review. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 4(3): 12-16.
Burrowes, A. (2019). Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome A Literature Review on African American Community Healing and Expressive Arts Therapy. Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses. 200. (Link)
Buyers, O., Fitzpatrick, J. McDonald, P and Nelson. G. (2022). Giving while grieving: Racism-related stress and psychological resilience in Black/African American registered nurses. Nursing Outlook, 69(6), 1039-148.
Carter, R. T., Mazzula, S., Victoria, R., Vazquez, R., Hall, S., Smith, S., . . . Williams, B. (2013). Initial development of the Race-Based Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale: Assessing the emotional impact of racism. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(1), 1-9.
Carter, R.T., & Sant-Barket, S.M. (2015). Assessment of the impact of racial discrimination and racism: How to use the race-based traumatic stress symptom scale in practice. Traumatology, 21(1), 32-39.
Carter, R. T., Johnson, V. E., Roberson, K., Mazzula, S. L., Kirkinis, K., & Sant-Barket, S. (2017). Race-based traumatic stress, racial identity statuses, and psychological functioning: An exploratory investigation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(1), 30-37.
Chavez-Dueñas, N. Y., Adames, H. Y., Perez-Chavez, J. G., & Salas, S. P. (2019). Healing ethno-racial trauma in Latinx immigrant communities: Cultivating hope, resistance, and action. American Psychologist, 74(1), 49-62.
Comas-Díaz, L., Hall, G. N., & Neville, H. A. (2019). Racial trauma: Theory, research, and healing: Introduction to the special issue. American Psychologist, 74(1), 1-5.
Comas-Díaz, L. (2016). Racial trauma recovery: A race informed therapeutic approach to racial wounds. In A. Alvarez, C. Liang, & H. A. Neville (Eds.), Contextualizing the cost of racism for People of Color (pp. 249–272).
Evans-Campbell, T., & Walters, K. L. (2006). Catching our breath: A decolonization framework for healing indigenous families. In Rowena Fong, Ruth McRoy, & Carmen Ortiz Hendricks (Eds.) Intersecting Child Welfare, Substance Abuse, and Family Violence: Culturally Competent Approaches. Alexandria, VA, CSWE Publications. (pp. 266-292).
Green, Tristin K. (2013). “Racial Emotion in the Workplace.” USC Law Review, 86:959–1023.
Fralich-LeSarre, M. (2012). Beyond cultural competency: Understanding contemporary problems with historical roots using an African-centered/black psychology lens (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
French, B., Lewis, J., Mosley, D., Adames, H., Chavez-Dueñas4, N., Chen, G., and Neville, H. (2020). Toward a psychological framework of radical healing in communities of color. The Counseling Psychologist, 48(1) 14-46.
Griffin, E., and Armstead, C. (2019). Black’s coping responses to racial stress. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 7, 609-618.
Hargons et al. (2021). “White people stress me out all the time”: Black students define racial trauma. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. (Link)
Helms, J. E., Nicolas, G., & Green, C. E. (2010). Racism and ethnoviolence as trauma: Enhancing professional training. Traumatology, 16(4), 53-62. doi:10.1177/1534765610389595
Hemmings, C. (2016). Counseling individuals of color who have experienced race based trauma: Counselors’ experiences with identifying, training, treating, policy, and perceived competency. A dissertation. Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. (Link)
Hemmings, C., & Evans, A. (2018). Identifying and treating race-based trauma in counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 46, 20-39.
Hicks, S. (2015). A critical analysis of post traumatic slave Syndrome: A multigenerational Legacy of Slavery. Dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Jernigan, M. M., Green, C. E., Perez-Gualdron, Liu, M. M, Henze, K. T., Chen, C….Helms, J. E. (2015). #racialtraumaisreal. Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture, Chestnut Hill, MA. Retrieved from (Link)
Kendi, I. (June 21, 2016). Post-traumatic slave syndrome is a racist idea. Black Prospectives. NJ: African American Intellectual History Society. Retrieved from (Link)
Kira, I. A. (2010). Etiology and treatment of postcumulative traumatic stress disorders in different cultures. Traumatology, 16(4), 128–141. doi:10.1177/1534765610365914
Le, L. (2019). Unpacking the imposter syndrome and mental health as a person of color first generation college student within institutions of higher education. McNair Research Journal SJSU: Vol. 15, Article 5.
Mendez, L., Mozley, M. M., & Kerig, P. K. (2022). Beyond trauma exposure: Discrimination and posttraumatic stress, internalizing, and externalizing problems among detained youth. Journal of interpersonal violence, 37(3-4), 1825-1851.
Metzger, I. W., Anderson, R. E., Are, F., & Ritchwood, T. (2021). Healing interpersonal and racial trauma: Integrating racial socialization into trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for African American Youth. Child maltreatment, 26(1), 17–27. (Link)
Odafe, M., Salami, T. & Walker, R. (2017). Race-related stress and hopelessness in community-based African America adults: Moderating role of social support. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23(4), 561-569.
Pieterse, A. (2018) Attending to racial trauma in clinical supervision: Enhancing client and supervisee outcomes, The Clinical Supervisor, 37:1, 204-220,
Resler, M. (2019). Systems of trauma: Racial trauma. The Family and Children’s Trust Fund. Retrieved from (Link)
Rogers, N. (2011). The creative connection for groups: person-centered expressive arts for healing and social change. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science & Behavior Books.
Sawyer, B., DeLapp, R. C. T., & Williams, M. T. (2016). Community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and barriers to treatment: Implications for African American males in counseling. In W. Ross (Ed.), Counseling African American males: Effective therapeutic interventions and approaches (pp. 33-60). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Subica, A. M., & Link, B. G. (2022). Cultural trauma as a fundamental cause of health disparities. Social Science & Medicine, 292, 114574.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2013). Conversations about historical trauma. (Link)
Torres-Harding, S. R., Andrade, A. L., Jr., & Romero Diaz, C. E. (2012). The racial microaggressions scale (RMAS): A new scale to measure experiences of racial microaggressions in people of color. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2), 153.
Williams, D., Lawrence, J., Davis, B., & Vu, C. (2019). Understanding how discrimination can effect health. Health Services Research, 54, 1374-1388.
Williams, M. T., Printz, D., Ching, T., & Wetterneck, C. (2018). Assessing PTSD in ethnic and racial minorities: Trauma and racial trauma. Directions in Psychiatry, 38(3), 179-196
Williams, M. T., Metzger, I. W., Leins, C., & DeLapp, C. (2018). Assessing racial trauma within a DSM–5 framework: The UConn Racial/Ethnic stress & trauma survey. Practice Innovations, 3(4), 242–260.
Williams, M. T., Pena, A., & Mier-Chairez, J. (2017). Tools for assessing racism-related stress and trauma among Latinos. In L. T. Benuto (Ed.), Toolkit for counseling Spanish-speaking clients. Springer. ISBN: 978-3-319-64880-4. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-64880-4_4
Williams, M. T., Printz, D., & DeLapp, R. C. T. (2018). Assessing racial trauma in African Americans with the Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale. Psychology of Violence.(Link)
Zembylas, M. (2012). Pedagogies of strategic empathy: Navigating through the emotional complexities of anti-racism in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(2), 113-115.