Oral Health


Adair, P., Pine, C., Burnside, G., Nicoll, A., Gillett, A., Anwar, S., et al. (2004). Familial and Cultural Perceptions and Beliefs of Oral Hygiene and Dietary Practices Among Ethnically and Socio-economically Diverse Groups. Community Dental Health, 21, 102-111.

Al-Batayneh, O., Owais, A. and Khader, Y. (2014). Oral Health Knowledge and Practices among Diverse University Students with Access to Free Dental Care: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 135-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2014.43021

Alrqiq, H., Scott, T. and Mascarenhas, A. (2015).  Evaluating a Cultural Competency Curriculum: Changes in Dental Students’ Perceived Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills. J Dent Educ., 79(9), 1009-1015.

Andersen, R., Carreon, D., Friedman, J., Baumeister, S., Afifi, A., Nakazono, T. and Davidson, P. (2007). What Enhances Underrepresented Minority Recruitment to Dental Schools? J Dent Educ., 71(8): 994-1008.

Andersen, R., and Davidson, P.  (2009). Evaluating the Dental Pipeline Program: Recruiting Minorities and Promoting Community-Based Dental Education, 2003-2007 [United States]. ICPSR25581-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR25581.v1

Anderson, R., Davidson, P., Atchison, K., Hewlett, E., Freed, R, Friedman, J., Thind, A., Gutierrez, J., Nakazono, T., and Carreon, D. (2005). Pipeline, profession, and practice program: Evaluating change in dental education. Dental Education, 69(2), 239-48.

Anderson, L., Scrimshaw, S., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J., and Normand, J. (2003). Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med, 24(3 Suppl), 68-79.

Andersen, R., Friedman, J., Carreon, D., Bai, J., Nakazono, T., Afifi, A., Gutierrez, J. (2009). Recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority and low-income dental students: effects of the pipeline program. J Dent Educ, 73(Suppl 2), S238-S258.

Anees, K. and Bedi, R. (2000). Dental Medication for Muslim Patients. Dental Update, (27): 449-452.

Astrohm, A., Jackson, W. & Mwangosi, I. (2000). Knowledge, belief and behavior related to oral health among Tanzanian & Ugandan teacher trainees. ACTA Odontologica Scandinavica, 58(1): 11-18.

Behar-Horenstein, L., Garvan, C., Su, Y., Feng, X. and Catalanotto, F. (2016). Assessing Cultural Competence among Florida’s Allied Dental Faculty.   Journal of Dental Hygiene, 90 (3), 192-6.

Behar-Horenstein, L., Garvan, C., Mooreand, T., and Catalanotto, F. (2013). The Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers: A Validity Study with Dental Students. Journal of Dental Education, 77(8), 998-1005.

Behar-Horenstein, L. and Garvanm C. (2016). Relationships Among the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale, Deamonte Driver Survey, and Defining Issues Test 2. Journal of Dental Education, 80(3), 355-364.

Behar-Horenstein, Garvan, C., Moore, T., and Catalanotto, F. (2012). The Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers: A Validity Study with Dental Students. Journal of Dental Education, 77(8), 998-1005. PDF

Behar-Horenstein, L., Feng, X., Roberts, K., Gibbs, M., Catalanotto, F. and Hudson-Vassell, C. (2015). Developing Dental Students’ Awareness of Health Care Disparities and Desire to Serve Vulnerable Populations Through Service-Learning. J Dent Educ., 79(10), 1189-200.

Bimstein, E., Gardner, Q., Riley, J., and Gibson, R. (2008). Educational, Personal, and Cultural Attributes of Dental Students’ Humanitarian Trips to Latin America. J Dent Educ., 72(12): 1493 – 1509.

Broder, H. and Janal, M. (2006). Promoting interpersonal skills and cultural sensitivity among dental students. Journal of Dental Education, 70(4), 409-416.

Broderick, E., and Niendorff, W. (2000). Estimating dental treatment needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Journal of Public Health Dentistry Information, 60 (1), 250-5.

Butani, Y., Weintraub, J. and Barker, J. (2008). Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature. BMC Oral Health, 8:26.   doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-26

Carreon, D., Davidson, P., and Andersen, R. (2009). The Evaluation Framework for the Dental Pipeline Program with Literature Review, J Dent Educ., February 1, 2009; 73(2 suppl): S23 – 36.

Chattophadyay, A. (2008). Oral Health Disparities in the United States. The Dental Clinics of North America, 52, 297-318.

Chu, G., Kalaczinski, L., Russo, D., and Leasher, J. (2017). Diversity in our Colleges and Schools of Optometry. Optometric Education, 43(1), 19-27.

Classe-Cutrone, R., McCann, A., Campbell, P., DeWald, J. and Schneiderman,  E. (2017). The Impact of Community Rotations on the Cultural Competence of Dental Hygiene Students. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 9(3).

Connolly, I., Darby, M., et al. (2000). The cultural adaptability of health sciences faculty. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 74(2):102-109.

Corrigan, M., Newton, J., et al. (2001). The mouth-body split: Conceptual models of oral health and their relationship to general health among ethnic minorities in South Thames Health Region. Community Dental Health, 18: 42-46.

Cruz, G., Galvis, D., et al. (2001). Self-perceived oral health among three subgroups of Asian-Americans in New York City: A preliminary study. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 29(2): 99-106.

Cruz, G., Galvis, D., Barrow, S., et al. (2003). Dental health status and indicators of treatment needs of four Hispanic subgroups in New York City. Dent Clin North Am., 47(1):41–55, viii.

Curriculum and Clinical Training in Oral Health for Physician and Dentists. (2006). Journal of Dental Education, 72(2) Supplement, pp.73-85. Panel 2 Report Funded by Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

Daugherty-Wood, H. (2015). Measuring the Impact of Cultural Competence Training for Dental Hygiene Students.  https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1429889900&disposition=inline

Davidson, P., Nakazono, T., Afifi, A. and Gutierrez, J. (2009). Methods for Evaluating Change in Community-Based Dental Education. Journal of Dental Education, 73,, (2), no. 2 (suppl) S37-S51.

Davidson, L. and Rodd, H. (2001). Interrelationship between dental age and chronological age in Somali. Community Dental Health, 18: 27-30.

Denial, A. (2017). Achievement of Cultural Competency is an Ongoing Process. Optometric Education, 43(1), 42-43.

Denial, A., Hoppe, E., and Carlson, N. (2006). Assessing Cultural Competency in Optometric Faculty. Optometric Education, 31(3), 92-95.

Donate-Bartfield, E., and Lausten, L. (2002). Why practice culturally sensitive care? Integrating ethics and behavioral science. Journal of Dental Education, 66, 1006-1011.

Doty, H. and Weech-Maldonado, R. (2003). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Adult Prevention Dental Care. Journal of Health Care For The Poor & Underserved, 14(4), 516-534.

Doucette, H., Maillet, P., Brillant, M. and Tax, C. (2015).  Dental hygiene students’ perceptions of a cultural competence component in a tobacco dependence education curriculum: a pilot study J Dent Educ., 79(6), 680-5.

Dumas, J. (2017). Adventures in Minority Recruiting: A Closer Look at Recruiting Minorities at Southern College of Optometry, Optometric Education 43(1), 17-19.

Evans, E. (2006). An Elective Course in Cultural Competence for Healthcare Professionals. Am J Pharm Educ., 70(3): 55.  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1636952

Fitch, P. (2004). Cultural competence and dental hygiene care delivery: Integrating cultural care into the dental hygiene process of care. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 78(1), 11-21.

Fitzgerald, M., Guenther, M., Lantz, M. and Green, T. (2005). Effectiveness of Standardized Patient Instructors in Teaching Cross-Cultural Communication Skills. The IADR/AADR/CADR 83rd General Session, March 9-12, 2005, Baltimore, MD.

Flynn, P. and Sarkarati, N. (2018). Improving Evaluation of Dental Hygiene Students’ Cultural Competence with a Mixed-Methods Approach. J Dent Educ., 82(2):103-111. 

Formicola, A., D’Abreu, K., and Tedesco, L. (2010). Underrepresented Minority Dental Student Recruitment and Enrollment Programs: An Overview from the Dental Pipeline Program. American Dental Education Association, 74(10), 10 suppl S67-S73.

Formicola, A., et al. (2003). Creating an Environment for Diversity in Dental Schools: One School’s Approach. Journal of Dental Education, 67(5): 491-499.

Formicola, A., Stavisky, J. and Lewy, R. (2003). Cultural Competency: Dentistry and Medicine Learning from One Another. Journal of Dental Education, 67:869-875.

Forsyth, C., Irving, M., Tennant, M., Shor, S. and Gilro, J. (2017). Teaching Cultural Competence in Dental Education: A Systematic Review and Exploration of Implications for Indigenous Populations in Australia. J Dent Educ., 81(8), 956-968.

Garcia, R. (2005). Addressing Oral Health Disparities in Diverse Populations. J Am Dent Assoc,36(9), 1210 – 1212.

Garcia, R., Cadoret, C., and Henshaw, M. (2008). Multicultural Issues in Oral Health. Dent Clin North Am, 52(2): 319–vi.

Garvan, G., Garvan, C., and Behar-Horenstein, L. (2016). Developing and Testing the Short-Form Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Assessing Cultural Competence. Journal of Dental Education, 80(10), 1245-1252.

Gates, P., Ubu, N., Smithey, L., Rogers, J., Haden, K., Rodriguez, T., Albino, J., Evans, C., Zarkowski, P., Weinstein, G., and Hendricson, W. (2013). Faculty Development for Underrepresented Minority Dental Faculty and Residents Journal of Dental Education, 77(32), 276-291.

Gerad, G., Garyan, C, and Behar-Horenstein,  L.(2016). Developing and Testing the Short-Form Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Assessing Cultural Competence. Journal of Dental Education, 80(10), 1245-1252.

Gibbs, L., Waters, E., de Silva, A., et al. (2014). An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from refugee and migrant backgrounds: A protocol paper for Teeth Tales. BMJ Open, 4. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/3/e004260.full.pdf+html

Gilbert, G., Litaker, M., and Makhija, S. (2007). Differences in Quality between Dental Practices Associated with Race and Income Mix of Patients. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 18: 847–867.

Graham, E. (2006). Educating Dental Students About Oral Health Care Access Disparities. J Dent Educ. 70(11): 1208-1211.

Graham, E., Domoto, P., et al. (2000). Dental injuries due to African traditional therapies for diarrhea. Western Journal of Medicine, 173(2): 135-137.

Gregorczyk, S., and Bailit, H. (2008). Assessing the Cultural Competency of Dental Students and Residents. Journal of Dental Education, 72(10), 1122-1127.

Gunderson, D., Bhagavatula, P., Pruszynski, J., and Okunseri, C. (2012). Dental students’ perceptions of self-efficacy and cultural competence with school-based programs. J Dent Educ, 76(9):1175–1182.

Han, J. Kim, K. (2017). Cultural Competence and Influencing Factors of Dental Hygiene Students. J Dent Hyg Sci., 17: 242-249.

Haden, N., Catalanotto, F., Alexander, C., Bailit, H., et al. (2003). Improving the Oral Health Status of All Americans: Roles and Responsibilities of Academic Dental Institutions. Journal of Dental Education, 67(5): 563-583.

HDA Symposium Proceedings. (2002). “Oral Disparities and the Hispanic population: A framework for action in response to the Surgeon General’s Report. Chicago. “HDA Symposium Proceedings A Supplement to Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, 23(12).

Hewlett, E., Davidson, P., Nakazono, T., Baumeister, S., Carreon, D., and Freed, D. (2007). Effect of School Environment on Dental Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competency Curricula and Preparedness to Care for Diverse Populations. J Dent Educ., 71(6): 810-818.

Hilton, I. and Lester, A. (2010). Oral health disparities and the workforce: A framework to guide innovation Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 70:515-523. http://mn.gov/health-reform/images/WG-PPH-2012-04-Public-Comments-Apple-Tree-Dental%20Attachments-Oral-Health-Disparities.pdf

Isaac, C., Behar-Horenstein, L., Lee, B. and Catalanotto, F. (2015). Impact of Reflective Writing Assignments on Dental Students’ Views of Cultural Competence and Diversity. Journal of Dental Education, 79(3), 312-321.

Jacobsen, P., Fredekind, R., et al. (2000). An updated multiple language health history for dental practice. Journal of the California Dental Association, 28(7): 492.

Jasinevicius, T., Pyle, M, Lalumandier, J., Nelson, S., Kohrs, K., and Sawyer, D. (2005). The angle of the articular eminence in modern dentate African-Americans and European-Americans. Cranio., 23(4):249-456.

Johnson, B., Loomer, P., Siegel, S., Pilcher, E., Leigh, J., Gillespie, M., Simmons, R., and Turner, S. (2007).  Strategic partnerships between academic dental institutions and communities: Addressing disparities in oral health care.  JADA. 138, 1366-1372.

Jones, D. (2000). Providing dental care for disabled patients.  Journal of California Dental Association, 28(8): 563-565.

Jones, D., Niendorff, W., & Broderick, E. (2000). A review of oral health of American Indian and Alaska Native elders. Journal of Public Health Dentistry Information, Vol. 60.

Kawamura, M., Wright, F., Declerck, D., et al. (2005). An exploratory study on cultural variations in oral health attitudes, behaviour and values of freshmen (first-year) dental students. International Dental Journal, 55, 205-211.

Kawamura, M., Yip, H., Hu, D., & Komabayaski, T. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of dental health attitudes and behaviour among freshman dental students in Japan, Hong Kong and West China. International Dental Journal, 51(3), 159-163.

Kawamura, M., Honkala, E., Widstrom, E., et al. (2000). Cross-cultural differences of self-reported oral health behaviour in Japanese and Finnish dental students. International Dental Journal, 50, 46-50.

Kawamura, M., Spadafora, A., Kim, K.J. and Komabayashi, T. (2002). Comparison of United States and Korean Dental Hygiene Students Using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI). International Dental Journal, 52, 156-162.

Keenan, L. (2009). Providing oral health care across cultures. J Dent Hyg. 83 (4), 180.

Ko, M., Edelstein, R., Heslin, K., and Grumbach, K (2005). Impact of the University of California, Los Angeles/Charles R. Drew University Medical Education Program on medical students’ intentions to practice in underserved areas. Acad Med,  80(9):803-8.

Kressin, N. (2005). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Lessons from Medicine for Dentistry. J Dent Educ. 69(9): 998-1002 .

Kumar, S. (2012). Oral Hygiene Awareness among Two Non Professional College Students in Chennai, India—A Pilot Study. Advances in Life Science and Technology, 5, 31-36.

Kuthy, R., Heller, K., Riniker, K., MsQuistan, M. and Qian, F. (2007). Students’ Opinions About Treating Vulnerable Populations Immediately After Completing Community-Based Clinical Experiences. J Dent Educ. 71(5): 646-654.

Kwan, S. (2000). Transcultural oral health care: 2. Developing transcultural oral health promotional materials. Dental Update, 27(6), 346-348.

Kwan, S. and Bedi, R. (2000). Transcultural oral health and the Chinese– an invisible community. Dental Update, 27(6): 296-299.

Lawrence, H. (2001). Cross-cultural perceptions of oral health and oral-health-related quality of life. Community Dental Health, 18(4), 207-208.

Lévesque, M., Dupéré, S., Loignon, C., Levine, A., Laurin, I., Charbonneau, A. and Bedos, C. (2009).  Bridging the poverty gap in dental education: How can people living in poverty help us? J Dent Educ., 73(9):1043–54.

Lukes, S., and Miller, F. (2002). Oral health issues among migrant farmworkers. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 76, 134-140.

Magee, K., Darby, M., Connolly, I. and Thomson E. (2004). Cultural adaptability of dental hygiene students in the United States: A pilot study. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 78(1), 22-29.

Mann, N. (2013). The Use of Gaming and Literature in Teaching Cultural Competence. Available from: http://opus.ipfw.edu/dental_facpres/53

Marino, R., Calache, H. and Morgan, M. (2013). A Community-Based Culturally Competent Oral Health Promotion for Migrant Older Adults Living in Melbourne, Australia. Journal of the American Geriatrics, Society, 61(2).

Marshal, E. (2017). The Path to Cultural Competence in Optometric Education and Practice: A Timeline to Multicultural Clinical. Optometric Education, 43(1), 28-38.

McGrath, C., Liu, K., & Lam, C. (2002). Physiognomy and teeth: An ethnographic study among young and middle-aged Hong Kong adults. British Dental Journal, 192(9), 522-525.

Milgrom, P., Garcia, R., Ismail, A., Katz, R. and Weintraub, J. (2004). Improving America’s access to care: the NIDCR addresses oral health disparities. JADA, 135:1389–1396.

Mindiola, M., Mickel, A., Sami, C., Jones, J., Lalumandier, J. and Nelson, S. (2006). Endodontic Treatment in an American Indian Population: A 10-Year Retrospective Study. Journal of Endodontics, 32(9), 828-832.

Mitchell, D. and Lassiter, S. (2006). Addressing health care disparities and increasing workforce diversity: The next step for the dental, medical, and public health professions. American Journal of Public Health. 96(12), 2093-2097.

Mogensen, H. O. (2000). False Teeth and Real Suffering: The Social Course of ‘Germectomy’ in Eastern Uganda. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 24(3): 331-351.

Monnin, B. (2018). Cultivating Cultural Competency in the Dental Setting. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene, (January 2018).

Mouradian, W., Berg, J, and Somerman, M. (2003). The Role of Cultural Competency in Health Disparities: Training of Primary Care Medical Practitioners in Children’s Oral Health. Journal of Dental Education, 67:860-868.

Mouradian, W., Huebner, C, and DePaola, D. (2004). Addressing health disparities through dental-medical collaborations, Part III: Leadership for the public good. Journal of Dental Education, 68(5), 505-512.

Mouradian, W., Schaad, D., Kim, S., Leggott, P., Domoto, P., Maier, R., Stevens, N., and Koday, M. (2003). Addressing disparities in children’s oral health: A dental-medical partnership to train family practice residents. Journal of Dental Education, 67(8),886-95.

Nash, D. and Nagel, R. (2005). Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist. Am J Public Health, 95:1325–9.

National Academy of Sciences. (2011). Improving access to oral health care for vulnerable and underserved populations. An Institute of Medicine report. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011.

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. (2001). A Plan to Eliminate Craniofacial, Oral and Dental Disparities. Washington, DC: Author.

Newcomb, T. and Sokolik, T. (2012). Cultural Competency. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene, 10(4): 58-61. http://www.dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/ddhright.aspx?id=13230

Newton, J., Corrigan, M., Gibbons, D., & Locker, D. (2003). The self-assesses oral health status of individuals from White, Indian, Chinese and Black Caribbean communities in South-east England. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 31(3), 192-199.

Ng, M. (2003). Multicultural influences on child-rearing practices: Implications for today’s pediatric dentist. Pediatric Dentistry, 25(1), 19-22.

Nicholson, S., Hayes, M. and Taylor, J. (2016).  Cultural Competency Education in Academic Dental Institutions in Australia and New Zealand: A Survey Study. J Dent Educ., 80(8), 966-74.

Novak, K., Whitehead, J., Close, J., and Kaplan, A. (2004). Students’ perceived importance of diversity exposure and training in dental education. J Dent Educ. 68(3), 355-360.

Ocegueda, D., Van Ness, C., Hanson, C. and Holt, L. (2016). Cultural Competency in Dental Hygiene Curricula.  Dent Hyg., 90 Suppl 1:5-14.

Pilcher, E., Charles, L. and Lancaster. (2008). Development and Assessment of a Cultural Competency Curriculum. J Dent Educ. 72(9), 1020-1028.

Presson, S., Niendorff, W., & Martin, F. (2000). Tooth loss and need for extractions in American Indian and Alaska Native dental patients. Journal of Public Health Dentistry Information, Vol. 60.

Price, S., Brunson, W., Mitchell, D., Alexander, C., and Jackson, D. (2007). Increasing the enrollment of underrepresented minority dental students: experiences from the dental pipeline program. J Dent Educ,71(3), 339–47.

Raja, A., Anees, K., et al. (2000). Dental care and treatment during the Fast of Ramadan. Dental Update, 27: 392-394.

Ramos-Gomez, F., Cruz, G., Watson, M., Canto, M., and Elias, A. (2005). Latino oral health: a research agenda towards eliminating oral health disparities. JADA, 136:1231–40.

Randolph, W., Ostir, G., and Markides, K. (2001). Prevalence of tooth loss and dental service use in older Mexican Americans. Journal of American Geriatric Sociology, Vol. 49.

Rayman, S. and Almas, K. (2007). Transcultural Barriers and Cultural Competence in Dental Hygiene Practice. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 8(4), 43-51.

Riggs, E., van Gemert, C., Gussy, M., Waters, C., and Kilpatrick, N. (2012). Reflections on cultural diversity in oral health promotion and prevention. Global Health Promotion, 19(1), 60-63.

Riggs, E., Gussy, M, Gibbs, L., van Gemert, C., Water, E., Priest, N, Watt, R., Renzaho, A., and Kilpatrick, N. (2013). Assessing the cultural competence of oral health research conducted with migrant children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol., 42(1),43-52.

Rowland, M., Bean, C. and Casamassimo, P. (2006). A Snapshot of Cultural Competency Education in U.S. Dental Schools. Journal of Dental Education, 70(9): 982-990.

Rubin, R., Rustveld, L., Weyant, R., and Close, J. (2008). Exploring Dental Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence and Social Responsibility. J. Dent Educ., October 1, 2008; 72(10): 1114 – 1121.

Rubin, R. (2004). Developing Cultural Competence and Social Responsibility in Preclinical Dental Students. Journal of Dental Education, 68 (4), 460-7.

Saleh, L., Kuthy, R., Chalkley, Y., and Mescher, K. (2006). An Assessment of Cross-Cultural Education in U.S. Dental Schools. J Dent Educ., 70(6): 610-623.

Scott, G. and Simile, C. (2005). Access to dental care among Hispanic or Latino subgroups: United States, 2000–03. Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics, 354. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad354.pdf

Sekiguchi, E., Guay, A., Brown, L. and Spangler, T. (2005). Improving the oral health of Alaska natives. Am J Public Health, 95:769–73.

Sinkford, J., Valachovic, R., Weaver, R., and West, J. (2010). Minority dental faculty development: Responsibility and challenge. J Dent Educ, 74(12),1388-93.

Skrepcinski, F., and Niendorff, W. (2000). Periodontal disease in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Journal of Public Health Dentistry Information, Vol. 60.

Slaughter, A. and Evans, L. (2007). Culturally Sensitive Oral Health Educational Materials for Older African Americans. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 868–886.

Slaughter, A., Smith, V., and Taylor, L. (2004). Progressing toward a more culturally competent approach to dental care for African American elders. Special Care in Dentistry, 24, 301-307.

Smith, C., Ester, T., and Inglehart, M. (2006). Dental Education and Care for the Underserved Patients: and Analysis of Student’s Intentions and Alumni Behavior. Journal of Dental Education, 70(4).

Spencer, A., and Trigilidas, J. (2008). Bridging the Gap: Does Cultural Competency make a Difference in the Provision and Efficacy of Oral Health Care? Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. http://www.dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/2008/12_December/Features/Bridging_the_Gap.aspx

Sprague, P., and Winslow, G. (2002). Dental ethics cultural expectations and dental care. General Dentistry, 50(1): 26-28.

Spolsky, V., Marcus, M., Coulter, I., Der-Martirosian, C., and Atchison, K. (2000). An empirical test of the validity of the Oral Health Status Index (OHSI) on a minority population. J Dent Res., 79:1983–8.

Stewart, D., Ortega, A., Dausey, D. and Rosenheck, R. (2002). Oral health and use of dental services among Hispanics. J Public Health Dent., 62(2):84–91.

Su, Y. and Behar-Horenstein. L. (2017).  Color-Blind Racial Beliefs Among Dental Students and Faculty. Journal of Dental Education, 81(9), 1098-1107.

Su, Y. and Behar-Horenstein, L. (2018). Assessment of Psychometric Properties of an Oral Health Care Measure of Cultural Competence Among Dental Students Using Rasch Partial Credit Model. Journal of Dental Education, 82 (10), 1105-1114.

Sundby, A. and Peterson, P. (2003). Oral health status in relation to ethnicity of children in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. Int J Paediatr Dent,13:150-7.

Tavoc, T., Newsom, R. and DeWald, J. (2009). Cross-Cultural Adaptability of Texas Dental Hygienists and Dental Hygiene Students: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Dental Education, 73(5), 563-570.

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. (2002). A Plan to Eliminate Craniofacial, Oral, and Dental Health Disparities. Washington, DC: Author.

Theile, C. (2011). Cultural Competence and the Delivery of Dental Hygiene Services: A Program Evaluation of Curriculum Effectiveness. Dissertation: Fielding Graduate University.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office of Minority Health. (2008). A strategic framework for improving racial/ethnic minority health and eliminating racial/ethnic health disparities. Rockville: Office of Minority Health.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). “HHS Launches Oral Health Initiative.” Washington, DC: Author.

Vazquez, L., and Swan, J. (2003). Access and attitudes toward oral health care among Hispanic in Wichita, Kansas. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 77(2), 85-96.

Victoroff, K., Williams, K. and Lalumandier, J. (2012). Dental Students’ Reflections on Their Experiences with a Diverse Patient Population. Journal of Dental Education, 77(8), 982-989. http://www.jdentaled.org/content/77/8/982.full

Wagner, J. and Redford-Badwal, D. (2008). Dental students’ beliefs about culture in patient care: Self-reported knowledge and importance. Journal of Dental Education, (5):571-6.

Wagner, J., Arteaga,S., D’Ambrosio, J., Hodge, C., Ioannidou, E., Pfeiffer, C., and Reisine, S. (2008). Dental Students’ Attitudes Toward Treating Diverse Patients: Effects of a Cross-Cultural Patient-Instructor Program. Journal of Dental Education, 72(10), 1128 – 1134.

Wagner, J., Arteaga, S., D’Ambrosio, J., Hodge, C., Ioannidou, E., Pfeiffer, C., Yong, L. and Reisine, S. (2007). A Patient-Instructor Program to Promote Dental Students’ Communication Skills with Diverse Patients. Journal of Dental Education, 71(12),1554 – 1560.

Watson, M., Horowitz, A., Garcia, I. & Canto, M. (2001). A community participatory oral health promotion program in an inner city Latino community. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 61(1).

Wides, C., Brody, H., Alexander, C., Gansky, S., and Mertz, E. (2013). Long-term outcomes of a dental postbaccalaureate program: increasing dental student diversity and oral health care access. J Dent Educ, 77(5),537-47.

Williams, K., Demko, K., Lalumandier, J., and Wotman, S. (2008). Caring for African-American patients in private practice: Disparities and similarities in dental procedures and communication. Journal of the American Dental Association, 39(9):1218-1226. 

Wiltshire, A., Ross, M., and Brimlow, D. (2001). Empathetic communication between dental professionals and persons living with HIV and AIDS. J Dent Educ, 66(1):86-92.

Yoshida, T., Milgrom, P., and Coldwell, S. (2002). How do U.S. and Canadian Dental Schools Teach Interpersonal Skills? Journal of Dental Education, 66:1281-1287.

Zakariasen, K., Williams, K., and Lalumandier, J. (2013). Dental Students’ Reflections on Their Experiences with a Diverse Patient Population. Journal of Dental Education, 77 (8), 982-989.


Oral Health Initiative 2010 – Oral health is essential to overall general health and well-being, but as Healthy People 2020 national oral health objectives are being finalized, there is growing recognition that many challenges identified 20 years ago have not been adequately addressed. Dental caries (tooth decay) is the single most common chronic childhood disease; there are striking disparities in oral diseases among various disadvantaged and underserved population subgroups; and approximately one-third of the U.S. population has no access to community water fluoridation. Nine new initiatives, highlighted in Promoting and Enhancing the Oral Health of the Public: HHS Oral Health Initiative 2010 , reflect Agency and Office commitment of new activities in support of an HHS Oral Health Initiative.

Cultural Competency Program for Oral Health Professionals
Developed in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Minority Health, this is the first e-learning program that is based on the enhanced National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and Health Care, published by the HHS Office of Minority Health in 2013. The National CLAS Standards help health and health care organizations implement culturally and linguistically appropriate services. This e-learning program that provides basic cultural and linguistic competency knowledge and skills so that you can: (1) Expand your patient base by providing more culturally and linguistically appropriate care to a wider diversity of patients; (2) Deliver a higher quality of care to help your patients meet their oral health care goals, while honoring and respecting their cultural beliefs and practices; (3) Decrease clinical errors that may arise due to cultural and linguistic differences in communication and differences in oral health literacy; and (4) Gain essential tools to help recognize and lessen the racial and ethnic health care disparities that persist in oral health.

Hispanic Dental Association

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation‘s Project on Cultural Competency in Dentistry

Journal of Dental Education
Article entitled “The Role of Cultural Competency in Health Disparities: Training of Primary Care Medical Practitioners in Children’s Oral Health”.

“Developing Cultural Competence and Social Responsibility in Preclinical Dental Students”

Cultural Competency: “Dentistry and Medicine Learning from One Another”

Video on Cultural Competence and Oral Health

Test and Dissemination of a Multicultural Dental Education Program:
Project Funded by Robert Wood Johnson (RWJF). Contact: James R. Freed, DDS, MPH -(310) 825-6733; jrfreed@ucla.edu. This Project Produced The Following Audio-Visuals & Computer Software:
Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Stimulus Vignettes (10 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996; Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Dentist-Patient 1 (46 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996; Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Dentist-Patient 2 (37 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996; Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Dentist-Patient 3 (32 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996; Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Dentist-Patient 4 (34 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996; Cultural and Behavioral Issues in Dental Care: Dentist-Patient 5 (21 minute videotape). Los Angeles, California: UCLA School of Dentistry, Regents of the University of California, 1996.