Military Cultural Competence

Abbe, A., Gulick, L.M.V, & Herman, J.L. (2007). Cross-cultural competence in Army leaders: A conceptual and empirical foundation. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Study Report 2008-1. Arlington, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Beks,, T. (2016). The Need for Culturally Relevant Psychotherapies for Veteran Men with PTSD. Journal of Military and Government Counseling, 4(3), 221-226. (Link)

Bonura, K. B., & Lovald, N. (2015). Military cultural competency: Understanding how to serve those who serve. Higher Learning Research Communications, 5(2), 4-13.

Butler, L., Linn, B., Meeker, M., McClain-Meeder, K., and Nochajski, T. (2015).  We Don't Complain About Little Things” Views of Veterans and Military Family Members on Health Care Gaps and Needs. Military Behavioral Health, 3 (2), 116-124.

Carlson, J. (2016).  Baccalaureate Nursing Faculty Competencies and Teaching Strategies to Enhance the Care of the Veteran Population: Perspectives of Veteran Affairs Nursing Academy (VANA) Faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 32(4):314-23.

Castro, F., AhnAllen, C. G., Wiltsey-Stirman, S., Lester-Williams, K., Klunk-Gillis, J., Dick, A. M., & Resick, P. A. (2015). African American and European American veterans’ perspectives on receiving mental health treatment.  Psychological Services, 12(3), 330-338.

Clifford, P., Fischer, R. and Pelletier, N. (2014). Exploring Veteran Disconnection: Using Culturally Responsive Methods in the Evaluation of Veterans Treatment Court Services. Military Behavioral Health, 2(2),  197-202.

Cole, R. (2014). Understanding Military Culture: A Guide for Professional School Counselor. The Professional Counselor, 4(5),497–504.

Coll, J., Weiss, E., and Yarvis, J. (2011).  No One Leaves Unchanged: Insights for Civilian Mental Health Care Professionals Into the Military Experience and Culture. Social Work in Health Care, 50(7), 487-500.

Conrad, P., Allen, P., and Armstrong, M. (2015). Preparing staff to care for veterans in a way they need and deserve. Nurse Education Today,46(3), 109-118.

Constantine, M. G., Hage, S. M., Kindaichi, M. M., & Bryant, R. H. (2007). Social justice and multicultural issues: Implications for the practice and training of
counselors and counseling psychologists. Journal of Counseling and Development, 85, 24-29. ,

Copper, P., Armstrong, M., Young, C., Lacy, D. and Billing, L. (2016). Person-centered older military veteran care when there are consequences. Nurse Education Today,47:61-67.

Convoy, S. P., & Westphal, R. J. (2013). The importance of developing military culture competence. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39(6), 592-595.

Cooper, L., Andrew, S. and Fossey, M. (2016). Educating nurses to care for military veterans in civilian hospitals: An integrated literature review. Nurse Education Today, 47:68-73.

Cross-Cultural Competence Introduction and Overview of Key Concepts. Human Dimension Capabilities Development Task Force Capabilities Development Integration Directorate Mission Command Center of Excellence.

Fenell, D. 2008A distinct culture: Applying multicultural counseling competencies to work with military personnelCounseling Today, 50(12). 89

Gambini, B. (3016).  Health Care's Familiarity with Military Culture Critical to Improving Care for Veterans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 8, 2018 from

Geiger, J., Johnson, E., Sabino, J., Alex, A. and Laudenslager, J. (2016). Veteran and Military-Centric Health Care Tool Kit. Allentown, PA: Lehigh Valley Health Network.

Gleeson, T. and Hemmer, P. (2014). Providing care to military personnel and their families: How we can all contribute. Acad Med., 89(9), 1201-3.

Gordon, L. C. (2016). A Phenomenological Examination of The Civilian Mental Health Clinicians’ Perceptions About Serving Military Members And Their Families. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Halderman, F. (2012). Caring for our troops: An overview of veteran trauma holistic nursing. Beginnings, 32(5), 4-7.

Hall, L. (2011). The importance of understanding military culture. Social Work Health Care. 2011;50(1):4–18.

Harris, G. (2011). Reducing healthcare disparities in the military through cultural competence. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 34:145-81.

Hepner, K.Paddock, S.Watkins, K., Solomon, J.Blonigen, D., and  Pincus, H. (2014). Veterans’ perceptions of behavioral health care in the Veterans Health Administration: A national surveyPsychiatric Services65 (8), 988996.

Johnson, B., Boudiab, L., Freundi, M., Anthony, M., Gmerek, G., and Carter, J. (2013). Enhancing Veteran-Centered Care: A Guide for Nurses in Non-VA Settings. American Journal of Nursing, 113(7), 24-39.

Kilpatrick, D. G., Best, C. L, Smith, D. W., Kudler, H. and Cornelison-Grant, V. (2010). Serving those who have served: Educational needs of health care providers working with military members, veterans and their families. Charleston, SC. Medical University of South Carolina Department of Psychiatry, National Crime Victims Research & Treatment Center.

Lee., J., Sander, K. and Cox. (2014). Honoring those who have served: How can health professionals provide optimal care for members of the military, veterans, and their families? Acad Med., 89(9), 1198-200.

Lehavot, K., Hoerster, K., Nelson, K., Jakupcak, M., and Simpson, T. (2012).  Health indicators for military, veteran, and civilian women.  Am J Prev Med., 42(5),473-80.

Linn, B., Butler, L., Bruce, S., et al. (2015). On working with Veterans: what social work and nursing students need to know. J Mil Veterans’ Health, 23(3):5–11.

Luby, C. (2012). Promoting military cultural awareness in an off-post community of behavioral health and social support service providers. Advances in Social Work, 13: 67–82.

Lypson, M., Ros, P., Zimmerman, N., Goldrath, K., and Ravindranath, D. (2016). Where do soldiers really come from? A faculty development workshop on veteran-centered care. Acad Med., 91:13791383.

Mathewson-Chapman, M. (2017). Addressing Military Cultural Competence in Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 92(12), 1653-1654.

Mattocks, K.Nikolajski, C.Haskell, S.Brandt, C.McCall-Hosenfeld, J.Yano, E., … Borrero, S. (2011). Women veterans’ reproductive health preferences and experiences: A focus group analysisWomen's Health Issues21 (2), 124129

McMillan, L., Crumbley, D., Freeman, J., Rhodes, M., Kane, M. and Napper, J. (2017). Caring for the Veteran, military and family member nursing competencies: Strategies for integrating content into nursing school curricula. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(5), 378-386.

Meyer, E., Writer, B. and Brim, W. (2016) The Importance of Military Culture. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(3), 26.

Meyer, E. (2013).  Case report: Military subcultural competency. Military Medicine, 178(7), 848-50.

Meyer, E. (2012). Developing Military Cultural Competency in Health Care Providers. Academic Medicine, 81(1), p. 3.

Meyer, E., Hall-Clark, B., Hamaoka, D., and Peterson, A. (2015). Assessment of Military Cultural Competence: A Pilot Study. Academic Psychiatry, 39(4), 382-388.

Military Cultural Competence Trainings for Clinicians.  A collection of online military culture competence trainings being offered throughout the nation. Course subjects include: General Military Culture, General Mental Health, Primary care & Health Issues, Employment, Greif & Loss, Military Children & Families, Domestic Violence, Women Returning from Combat, TBI, Substance Abuse and PTSD.

Military Cultural Competence for Child Care Providers: E-Learning Series. This series was developed by eXtension Alliance for Better Child Care in collaboration with the Department of Defense and intent to help healthcare professionals provide culturally competent, responsive care for military families and their children.

Military Cultural Competence Online Course. Developed by the Uniform Service University Center for Developmental Psychology. This interactive online training course provides an overview of military culture to include organizational structure, rank, branches of service, core values, and demographics as well as similarities and differences between the Active and Reserve components. It is intended to assist civilian mental health providers in better understanding, communicating and effectively interacting with service members and their families.

Military Culture: Core Competencies for Healthcare.  The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have jointly sponsored a plan to develop and implement an online Military Culture Training Curriculum for health care professionals.  The curriculum for this training will encourage military cultural competency in health care professionals through the provision of interactive online training in the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes.  There are four modules of the Military Culture: Core Competencies for Healthcare Professionals and each module has an estimated time for completion of two hours.

Monroe, K. (2012).  It’s not all guns and PTSD: Counseling with a cultural lens. Counseling Today. November, 2012.

Moss, J, et al. (2015). Veteran Competencies for Undergraduate Nursing Education. Advances in Nursing Science, 38(4):306-16.

Muramatsu, R. (2013).  Letters to the editor: a mounting need for military cultural competency in civilian behavioral health providers. Mil Med, 13;178(2):121.

Nedegaard, R., and Zwilling, J. (2017). Promoting Military Cultural Competence among Civilian Care Providers: Learning through Program Development. Social Science, 6(13), 1-11.

Ohye, B. Y., Roizner, M., Laifer, L. M., Chen, Y., & Bui, E. (2017). Training clinicians to provide culturally competent treatment to military-connected children: A collaborative model between the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Home Base Program. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(3), 149-155.

Olenick, M., Flowers, M. and Diaz, V. (2015). US veterans and their unique issues: enhancing health care professional awareness. Adv Med Educ Pract. 6: 635–639.

Pappamihiel C., Pappamihiel E. (2013). Cultural Self-Awareness as a Crucial Component of Military Cross-Cultural Competence. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, 13(3), 62-9.

Petrovich, J. (2012). Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Veterans: An Overview of the U.S. Military. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22:863–874.

Redmond, S. A., Wilcox, S. L., Campbell, S., Kim, A., Finney, K., Barr, K. and Hassan, M. (2015). A brief introduction to the military workplace culture. Work, 50: 9- 20.

Reducing healthcare disparities in the military through cultural competence. (2014). The Free Library.

Reger, M,.Etherage, J., Reger, G., and Gahm, G. (2008). Civilian psychologists in the Army culture: The ethnical challenge of cultural competence. Mil Psychol., 20(1), 21–35.

Ross, P., Ravindranath, D., Clay, M., and Lypson, M. (2015). A Greater Mission: Understanding Military Culture as a Tool for Serving Those Who Have Served. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, December, 2015, pp. 514-522.

Sanghera, N. (2017). Developing Military Cultural Competency to Better Serve Those Who Have Served. Optometric Education, 43(1), 8-16. OptometricEducation_FA2017.pdf

Selmeski, B.R. (2007). Military cross-cultural competence: Core concepts and individual development. Kingston: Royal Military College of Canada Centre for Security, Armed Forces, & Society.

Sheppard, S., Malatras, J. and Israel, A. (2010). The impact of deployment on U.S. military families. American Psychologist, 65 (6), 599–609.

Smith, A. (2014). Culturally competent therapy with military veterans: Identifying and  overcoming issues facing providers. Journal of Military and Government Counseling, 2(2), 119-135.

Strom, T., Gavian, M., Possis, E., Loughlin, J., Bui, T., Linardatos, E., Leskela, J. and Siegel, J. ( 2012). Cultural and ethical considerations when working with military personnel and veterans: A primer for VA training programs. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6: 67–75.

Tam-Setoa, L., and English, A. (2019). Need for cultural competency in the mentorship of female Veterans during civilian transitions Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health. doi:10.3138/jmvfh.2017-0049.

Tanielian, T., Farris, C., Batka, C., Farmer, C., Robinson, E., Engel, C., Robbins, M. and Jaycox. L. (2014). Ready to Serve: Community-Based Provider Capacity to Deliver Culturally Competent, Quality Mental Health Care to Veterans and Their Families. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. Available online:

Westphal, R., and Convoy, S. (2015). Military Culture Implications for Mental Health and Nursing Care. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, (20)1, Manuscript 4.

Young, C., Conrad, P., Armstrong, M, and Lacy, D. (2017). Older Military Veteran Care: Many Still Believe They Are Forgotten. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 47:61-67.