Minority Healthcare Professionals: Mentoring, Recruitment & Retention  

Articles

Ackerman-Barger, K., Boatright, D., Gonzalez-Colaso, R., Orozco, R., & Latimore, D. (2020). Seeking inclusion excellence: Understanding racial microaggressions as experienced by underrepresented medical and nursing students. Academic Medicine, 95(5), 758–763.

Adams, L., Campbell, J. and Deming, K. (2017). Diversity: A key aspect of 21st century faculty roles as implemented in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program. Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 267-277.

Alicea-Planas, J. (2017). Shifting Our Focus to Support the Educational Journey of Underrepresented Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(3), 159-163.

Allen, J. M., Abdul-Mutakabbir, J. C., Campbell, H. E., & Butler, L. M. (2021). Ten recommendations to increase Black representation within pharmacy organization leadership.  American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy78(10), 896-902.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017).  The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. (Link)

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2019). Enhancing Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. (Link)

Barbe, T., Kimble, L.P., Bellury, L.M., & Rubenstein, C. (2018). Predicting student attrition using social determinants: Implications for a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(5), 352-356.

Barbe, T et al. (2018). Predicting student admission using social determinants: Implications for a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(5), 352-.

Bellon-Harn, M. L., & Weinbaum, R. K. (2017). Cross-cultural peer mentoring: Mentor outcomes and perspectives. Teaching and Learning in Communication Sciences & Disorders, 1(2), 3.

Bennett, M. P., Lovan, S., Smith, M., & Elllis-Griffith, C. (2021). Nursing’s leaky pipeline: Barriers to a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 37(2), 441– 450.

Brody, A., Farley, J., Gillespie, G., Hickman, R., Hodges, E., Lyder, C., Palazzo, S., Ruppar, T. Schiavenato, M and Pesut, D. (2017). Diversity dynamics: The experience of male Robert Wood Johnson Foundation nurse faculty scholars . Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 278-288.

Brooks, L., Medina, R., Pitts, C. J., Dahlem, C. H. G., Downes, L., & Beard, K. V. (2022). Building a Culturally Responsive Workforce: Faculty of Color in Nursing Education. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners.

Byrd, D. (2022) Best practices for diversifying nursing education: Observations from consultant's experience. Journal of Nursing Education, 61(9), 542-544.

Campbell, K., & Rodriguez, J. (2018). Mentoring Underrepresented Minority in Medicine (URMM) Students Across Racial, Ethnic, and Institutional Differences. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(5), 421-423.

Campbell, J., McBride, A., Etcher, L, and Deming, K. (2017). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program leadership training.  Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 290-302.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). A Culturally Conscious Model of Mentoring. Nurse Educator, 35(3), 130-135.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (n.d.) Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring (IAPCC-M). OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates; OH (Link)

Carthon, J. et al. (2021). Disparities in nurse job satisfication and intent to leave the job. Implications for retaining a diverse workforce. Journal of Nursing Administration, 51(6), 310-317.

Cineas, N., & Schwartz, D. B. (2022). Mentorship and the Minority Experience Within the Nursing Profession: Identifying and Developing Programs to Address the Challenges and Barriers to Advancement Facing Minority Nurses and Nurse Leaders. Nurse Leader.

Carnevale, T. and Priode, K. (2018). “The good ole' girls' nursing club”: The male student perspective.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing29, 285–29.

Chaabane, S., Chaabna, K., Bhagat, S., Abraham, A., Doraiswamy, S., Mamtani, R., & Cheema, S. (2021). Perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies among nursing students in the Middle East and North Africa: an overview of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews10(1), 1-17.

Craft-Blacksheare, M. (2018). New Careers in Nursing: An Effective Model for Increasing Nursing Workforce Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(3):178-183.

DeWitty, V. (2019). Leading across differences. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(4), 191-192.

Doede, M. (2017). Race as a predictor of job satisfaction and turnover in US nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 25, 207-214.

Donnelly, G. (2020). Confronting racism in nursing. Holistic Nursing Practice, November/December, 321-322. 

Dumas, J. (2017). Adventures in Minority Recruiting: A Closer Look at Recruiting Minorities at Southern College of Optometry. Optometric Education, 43(1), 17-19.

Ebu Enyan, N. I., Boso, C. M., & Amoo, S. A. (2021). Preceptorship of student nurses in Ghana: a descriptive phenomenology study. Nursing Research and Practice2021.

Effland, K. (2017). Mentoring: Equity in Midwifery Education. (Link)

Endinjok, F., & Augustin, F. (2022). Supporting Undergraduate Hispanic Students in Nutrition and Dietetics. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences114(1), 13-19.

Englund, H. (2018). Relationship Between Marginality and Minority Status in Undergraduate Nursing Studenys. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(6), 339-346.

Espino, M. M., & Zambrana, R. E. (2019). " How Do You Advance Here? How do You Survive?" An Exploration of Under-Represented Minority Faculty Perceptions of Mentoring Modalities. The Review of Higher Education42(2), 457-484.

Everett, M. (2022).  Factors That Affect the Success of Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students: An Integrative Review of the Literature. Nurs Educ Perspect., 43(2), 91-95.

Filut, A. et al. (2020). Discrimination towards physicians of color: A systematic review. Journal of the National Medical Association, 112(2), 117-140.

Foley, D. (2018). Culturally Diverse Pedagogy: A Prelude to a More Culturally Diverse Workforce. Ohio Nurses Review, 93(3), 22-25.

Fuller, B., and Mott-Smith, J. (2017). Issues Influencing Success: Comparing the Perspectives of Nurses Educators and Diverse Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(7), 389-396.

Garran, A. et al. (2019). How should organizations respond to racism against health care workers? AMA Journal of Ethics, 21(6), E499-E504.

Gates, S. (2018). What Works in Promoting and Maintaining Diversity in Nursing Programs? Nursing Forum, 53, 190-196.

Gona, C., Pusey-Reid, E., Lussier-Duynstee, P., & Gall, G. (2019). The experiences of Black nursing alumni at a predominantly White institution. Nurse Educator, 44(6), 312–315.

Hagqvist, P., et al., (2020). Clinical mentors' experiences of their intercultural communication competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students: A qualitative study, Nurse Education Today, 87.

Hamilton, N. and Haszous, A. (2017). Retention of Faculty of Color in Academic Nursing. Nursing Outlook, 65(2), 121-221.

Hanks, M. (2022). Cultivating a Culture of Success in an Undergraduate Nursing Program: Meeting Students Where They Are. Minority Nurse(Link)

Hansen, E., and Beaver, S. (2012). Faculty Support for ESL Nursing Students: Action Plan for Success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33: 246-250.

Hill, S., and Albert, N. (2021). Understanding the Experiences of African American Students.  Journal of Nursing Education, 60(30), 150-154.

Hodges, E.,  Rowsey, P., Gray, T., Kneipp, S., Giscombe, C., Foster, B. , Alexander, G. and Kowlowitz, V. (2017). Bridging the Gender Divide: Facilitating the Educational Path for Men in Nursing.  Journal of Nursing Education, 56(5), 295-299.

Hutchings, K., Bainbridge, R., Bodle, K., & Miller, A.  (2019).  Determinants of attraction, retention and completion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander higher degree research students: A systematic review to inform future research directions. Research in Higher Education, 60(2), 245–272.

Igbo, I. & Sule, E. (2019). Peer mentoring in a successful retention stategy for a baccalaureate nursing program in a historically back college and university. Nursing Education Perspectives, 40(3), 192-193.

Iheduru-Anderson, K. C. (2020). The White/Black hierarchy institutionalizes white supremacy in nursing and nursing leadership in the United States. Journal of Professional Nursing,  37(20,), 411-422.

Jaimes, C., & Jaramillo, D. (2022). Mentoring for diversity and inclusion in pediatric radiology: Nurturing the next generation of physicians from underrepresented minorities. Pediatric Radiology, 1-7.

Jeffreys, D.T., Hodges, S. & Trueman, M.S. (2017). A strategy for success on the national council licensure examination for at-risk nursing students in historically black colleges and universities: A pilot study. International Journal of Caring Sciences10, 1705–1709.

Julion, W., Reed, M., Bounds, D., Cothran, F., Gamboa, C. and Sumo, J. (2019). A Group Think Tank as a Discourse Coalition to Promote Minority Nursing Faculty Retention. Nursing Outlook, 67((5), 586-595.

Kalet, A., Libby, A. M., Jagsi, R., Brady, K., Chavis-Keeling, D., Pillinger, M. H., ... & Ravenell, J. E. (2022). Mentoring underrepresented minority physician-scientists to success. Academic Medicine97(4), 497-502.

Ko, C. L., Abdul-Mutakabbir, J. C., Astle, K. N., Bandali, A., Brown, J. E., Childs-Kean, L. M., ... & Brown, B. R. (2022). Brighter horizons: The necessity of concentrated sponsorship targeted toward minoritized student pharmacists. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Kowlowitz, V., Johnson Rowsey, P., Woods-Giscombe, C., Kneipp, S.M., Page, J. & Fowler Gray, T. (2018). Careers Beyond the Bedside: An effective program to increase diversity in nursing. Journal of Cultural Diversity25(2), 41–48.

Lewis, L. S., & Bell, L. M. (2020). Academic Success for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 59(10), 551–556.

Loftus, J. and Duty, S. (2010). Educating Ethnic Minority Students for the Nursing Workforce: Facilitators and Barriers to Success. The Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 21(1), 7-16.

Marx, D., Torres, T., & Maher, M. (2022). Laying the Groundwork, Transforming the University: An Origin Story of a Latinx Mentoring Program at a Predominantly White Institution. Urban Education, 00420859221086522.

Matthews, A. K., Abboud, S., Smith, A. U., Smith, C., Jeremiah, R., Hart, A., & Weaver, T. (2022). Strategies to address structural and institutional barriers to success among students of color in nursing programs. Journal of Professional Nursing40, 96-104.

McCalman, J., Jongen, C., & Bainbridge, R. (2017). Organisational systems' approaches to improving cultural competence in healthcare: A systematic scoping review of the literature. International Journal for Equity in Health, 16(1), 78.

McNally, K., Metcalfe, S. and Whichello, R. (2019). Interventions to Support Diversity in Nursing Education. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(11), 641-646.

Mickey-Pabello, D., & Garces, L. M. (2018). Addressing racial health inequities: Understanding the impact of affirmative action bans on applications and admissions in medical schools.  American Journal of Education, 125(1), 79-108.

Mikkonen, K., Tomietto, M., Cicolini, G., Kaucic, B. M., Filej, B., Riklikiene, O., ... & Kääriäinen, M. (2020). Development and testing of an evidence-based model of mentoring nursing students in clinical practice. Nurse Education Today85, 104272.

Mims, L. (2022). Improving Minority Nursing Student Retention through the Addition of Diverse Peer Mentoring (Doctoral dissertation, Regis College).

Minority Fellowship Program.  Mentoring Manual: A Guide to Mentors and Mentees. (ca 2019).  Washington, DC: American Nurses Association (ANA), Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and Minority Fellowship Program (MFP). (Link)

Mitchell, C., Del Fabbro, L., Shaw, J. (2017). The acculturation, 328 language, and learning experiences of international nursing students: Implications for nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 56:16-22.

Mokel, M. J., Behnke, L. M., Gatewood, E., Mihaly, L. K., Newberry, E. B., Lovence, K., ... & Kuster, A. (2022). Mentoring and Support for Underrepresented Nursing Faculty: An Integrative Research Review. Nurse Educator47(2), 81-85.

Moore, B. (2022). Diversity in Nursing Education: Middle Eastern Students. Journal of Nursing Education61(10), 570-578.

Murry, A. T., Barnabe, C., Foster, S., Taylor, A. S., Atay, E. J., Henderson, R., & Crowshoe, L. (2022). Indigenous mentorship in the health sciences: Actions and approaches of mentors. Teaching and Learning in Medicine34(3), 266-276.

Oikarainen, A., Kaarlela, V., Heiskanen, M., Taam-Ukkonen, M., Lehtimaja, I., Kärsämänoja, T., ... & Mikkonen, K. (2022). Educational intervention to support development of mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today, 105424.

Oikarainen, A., Mikkonen, K., Tuomikoski, A. M., Elo, S., Pitkänen, S., Ruotsalainen, H., & Kääriäinen, M. (2018). Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement. Journal of Advanced Nursing74(1), 148-159.

Oller, L, and Teeling, S. (2021). "Cross-Cultural Mentoring in Counselor Education: A Call to Action," Teaching and Supervision in Counseling, 3(1), Article 5.

Onovo, G. (2019). Fundamentals of Nursing Practice and the Culturally Diverse ESL Nursing Students: The Students’ Perspectives for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 14(4), 238-245.

Ortega, J., Gonzalez, J., Crenshaw, N., Snowden, K., and Tantillio, L. (2020). Supporting graduate nursing education for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Journal of Nursing Education, 59(5), 287-290.

Osakwe, Z. T., Obioha, C. U., Minuti, A., Atairu, M., & Osborne, J. C. (2022). Barriers and facilitators to success in undergraduate nursing education among minority students: a systematic review. Nurse Educator47(2), E18-E23.

Pagan, M. S., Salas-Ramirez, K. Y., & Perez Hazel, Y. (2022). Finding an academic home, but still searching for our place: A call for mentoring from the voices of Latina junior faculty. Policy Futures in Education, 14782103211038187.

Punti, G., & Dingel, M. (2021). Rethinking race, ethnicity, and the assessment of intercultural competence in higher education.  Education Sciences11(3), 110.

Roberts, S. E., Nehemiah, A., Butler, P. D., Terhune, K., & Aarons, C. B. (2021). Mentoring residents underrepresented in medicine: strategies to ensure success. Journal of Surgical Education78(2), 361-365.

Sanczyk, A., Merriweather, L.R., Howell, C.D. and Douglas, N.C. (2021). "STEM doctoral mentoring: a call for a conscious, culturally responsive journey", International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 10(3), 284-297.

Santa-Ramirez, S. (2022). Sink or swim: The mentoring experiences of Latinx PhD students with faculty of color. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education15(1), 124.

Seranini, K. et al. (2020). Racism as experienced by physicians of color in the  health care settings. Family Medicine, 52(4), 282-287.

Silverstein, M. W., Miller, M., Rivet, J., & Nuhu, N. (2022). Program evaluation of a virtual mentoring program for BIPOC undergraduates in psychology. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology.

Snowden, K., Foronda, C., Gonzalez, J., Ortega, J., Salani, D., de Tantillo, L., Hooshmand, M., and Montano, N. (2018). Developing Minority Nursing Students: Evaluation of an Innovative Mentorship Leadership Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(9), 526-534.

Snyder, C. et al. (2019). Experiences of workforce discrimination among people of color in health care professions. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 23(3), 96-107.

Stewart, K. A., Brown, S. L., Wrensford, G., & Hurley, M. M. (2020). Creating a comprehensive approach to exposing underrepresented pre-health professions students to clinical medicine and health research. Journal of the National Medical Association112(1), 36-43.

Taylor, J. and Gillespie, G. (2017). Diversity: A key aspect of 21st century faculty role. Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 289.

Thomas-Hawkins, C. et al. (2022). The effect of race nd workplace racism on nurses' intent to leave the job: The mediating roles of job dissatisfaction and emotional distress. Nursing Outlook, 70(4), 590-600.

Tram, J. M., Dhaliwal, R. K., Kiyokawa, J. M., & Caceres-Licos, C. E. (2022). Impact of staff mentoring on ethnic and racial minority student program satisfaction. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology.

Tranter, S., Gaul, C., McKenzie, S, & Graham, K. (2018). Initiatives aimed at retaining ethnically diverse student nurses in undergraduate programmes: An integrative review. J Clin Nurs., 27(21-22), 3846-3857.

Tuomikoski, A. M., Ruotsalainen, H., Mikkonen, K., Miettunen, J., & Kääriäinen, M. (2018). Development and psychometric testing of the nursing student mentors' competence instrument (MCI): A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today68, 93-99.

Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Gharaei, N. (2019). Discrimination and academic (dis)engagement of ethnic-racial minority students: A social identity threat perspective. Social Psychology of Education, 22(2), 267–290.

Vernam, J., Paulson, B., Falkenstien, B., Bohecker, L. & Edwards, N. (2022). "Determining Cross-Cultural Mentorship Readiness in Counselor Education and Supervision Programs," Teaching and Supervision in Counseling, 4(1), Article 6.

Verschelden, C. (2017). Bandwidth recovery: Helping students reclaim cognitive resources lost to poverty, racism, and social marginalization [eBook edition]. Stylus Publishing.

Vernam, Jody; Paulson, Brian; Falkenstien, Bridger D.; Bohecker, Lynn; and Edwards, Nivischi (2022).
"Determining Cross-Cultural Mentorship Readiness in Counselor Education and Supervision Programs," Teaching and Supervision in Counseling, 4(1),  Article 6.

White, R. (2022). Empty Seats: Attracting Black and Latinx Male Students to the Medical Pipeline (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).

Williams, L. Bourgault, A. Valenti, M., Howie, M. and Mathur, S. (2018). Predictors of Underrepresented Nursing Students' School Satisfaction, Success, and Future Education Intent. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(3):142-149.

Wilbur, K., Snyder, C., Essary, A., Reddy, S., Will, K. & Saxon., M. (2021). Developing workforce diversity in the health professions: A social justice perspective, Health Professions Education, 6(2), 222-229.

Williams, S. (2018). Developing the capacity of culturally competent leaders to redress inequitable outcomes: Increasing opportunities for historically marginalized students. Administrative Issues Journal8(1), 5.

Woods-Giscombe, C. et al. (2020. Student perspectives on recruiting underrepresented ethnic minority students to nursing: Enhancing outreach, engaging family, and correcting misconceptions. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(2), 43-49.

Wyatt, E., Chin, D., Milburn, N., Hamilton, A., Lopez, S., Kim,
A., Stone, D., & Belcher, E. (2019). Mentoring the mentors of students from diverse backgrounds for research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(3), 321–328.

Young-Brice, A., Dreifuerst, K.T. & Buseh, A. (2018). Being invisible: Stereotype threat in an undergraduate nursing program. Journal of Nursing Education57, 159–162.

Young-Brice, A. & Thomas Dreifuerst, K. (2018). Exploration of mindfulness among ethnic minority undergraduate nursing students.  Nurse Educator. Advance online publication.

Zhou, S. Y., Balakrishna, A., Nyhof-Young, J., Javeed, I., & Robinson, L. A. (2021). What do participants value in a diversity mentorship program? Perspectives from a Canadian medical school. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal40(8), 947-959.

Zimnicki, K., et al (2022). When Holistic Admissions Review Is Not Enough: Barriers to Diversity? Journal of Nursing Education, 61(7), 375-382.

Resources

RWJF-NCIN - Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). New careers in nursing.

US DHHS-Diversity programs 2009 - US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS). Pipeline programs to improve racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions: An inventory of federal programs, assessment of evaluation approaches, and critical review of the research literature; 2009.

SMYSP - Stanford School of Medicine. Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP). The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program is a five-week online enrichment program focused on science and medicine that is open to low-income, underrepresented high school juniors who live in Northern and Central California

RWJF-Brown 2013 - Summer Health Professions Education Program (SHPEP) is a free six-week academic enrichment summer program to help qualified undergraduate students from minority and disadvantaged backgrounds compete successfully for medical and dental school admission.

The National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) - A unified force advocating for equity and justice in nursing and health care for ethnic minority populations.  (Link)

Association of American Colleges and University’s Diversity and Inclusive Excellence -  This web site provides resources that bring together faculty and institutions of higher learning to provide national leadership that advances diversity and equity in higher education, and the best educational practices for an increasingly diverse population. (Link)

Association of American Medical College (AAMC) - The Summer Health Professions Education Program (SHPEP) is a free summer enrichment program focused on improving access to information and resources for college students interested in the health professions. SHPEP’s goal is to strengthen the academic proficiency and career development of students underrepresented in the health professions and prepare them for a successful application and matriculation to health professions schools. These students include, but are not limited to, individuals who identify as African American/Black, American Indian and Alaska Native and Hispanic/Latino, and who are from communities of socioeconomic and educational disadvantage. SHPEP, formerly known as the Summer Medical and Dental Education Program (SMDEP), expanded in 2016 to include a broader array of health professions. (Link)

Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates - Scholarship for Promoting an Ethnically Diverse Nursing Workforce is a scholarship that is  available to ethnically diverse nurses who are obtaining additional education to promote equity, diversity, inclusivity, and social justice into all aspects of  healthcare delivery.  Contact Dr. Campinha-Bacote at meddir@aol.com  for additional information about this academic scholarship.

Selected Minority Mentoring Programs in Nursing

Minority Ethnic Program (MFP) of the American Nurses Association -   The Program's broad mission is to increase the number of rigorously educated nurses from under-represented ethnic minority groups to:

  • Conduct research about psychiatric/mental health issues and problems with minority populations across the life span;
  • Assume leadership roles in the initiation of scientific investigations about phenomena that occur among ethnic/minority populations;
  • Expand psychiatric/mental health literature about minority populations across the life span, and
  • Function as members of interdisciplinary research and treatment teams with the intent of improving the mental health status of ethnic/minority populations

MFP developed the manual, Mentoring Guidelines:  A Guide for Mentors and Mentees(Link)

UND RAIN The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The RAIN Program will incorporate a range of proven, culturally specific recruitment, retention, and mentoring strategies to assist the Next Steps project in meeting its goals. The RAIN Program is recognized as a premiere program for assisting American Indians to access and complete professional nursing education. The retention rate for RAIN nursing students at UND is above 90 percent. Eighty-three percent of RAIN graduates return to work in tribal communities. (Link).

RRANNRecruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing is housed at the University of Alaska Anchorage School of Nursing. RRRAN began in 1998 with federal grant funds to recruit and mentor Alaska Native/American Indian students to pursue nursing degrees.  RRANN offers tutoring services, group meetings to help you connect with your peers, and a staff of student success facilitators that offer career and personal advice to aid you on your road to successfully completing the nursing program. (Link)

CO-OP - Caring for Our Own Program is a Reservation/ University Partnership. CO-OP works with a state-wide advisory board with members from each reservation who represent the education and health sectors. The advisory board acts as a liaison between the reservation communities and CO-OP. Board members identify perspective nursing students as well as effective outreach strategies to use in their respective communities. (Link)

N-NURSE - Facilitates workshops to improve mentoring skills using the culturally embedded Navajo Nursing Pathway of Mentorship  developed by N-NURSE's curriculum development team. The curriculum model uses the Navajo Philosophy of the Four Directions and Sacred Mountains that border Navajol to organize the content and educational resource materials. The purpose of N-NURSE is to continue development of a network of trained mentors throughout the Navajo Nation that will provide community members interested in nursing a mentor while pursuing a nursing degree or advancing in their nursing career. (Link)

Minority Mentoring Program – Developed in 2008 by Dr. Judith Lightsey of the Radiation Oncology department, the OMA Medical Student Mentoring Program is designed to provide support and guidance to minority medical students at the University of Florida College of Medicine.  (Link)

MIM - Mentoring In Medicine is an organization that works with students in disadvantaged areas from 3rd grade through health professional schools. They ignite, cultivate, and prepare students to become health care professionals by allowing prospective students to interact with established expert health care professionals around the country.  (Link)

PMI - Pipeline Mentoring Institute recognized that many of the barriers to greater diversity within the medical profession lie within the continuum of elementary through undergraduate education.  Therefore,  PMI seeks to close the gap in preparing under-represented minority students for a career in medicine and other health-related professions.(Link)

Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program – This program provides four-year postdoctoral research awards to physicians and dentists from historically underrepresented groups. The longstanding program seeks to increase the number of senior-level physicians and dentists from historically disadvantaged backgrounds in academic medicine and dentistry.(Link)

Project L/EARN – Project L/EARN is an intensive summer research training internship for undergraduate students from groups that have been under-represented in graduate schools in the fields of health, mental health, and health policy research and those from disadvantaged communities, thereby expanding the breadth of health research to include a broader range of ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues, concerns and perspectives. (Link)