Minority Healthcare Professionals: Mentoring, Recruitment & Retention  

Articles

Ackerman-Barger P. (2010). Embracing multiculturalism in nursing learning environments. Journal of Nursing Education, 49, 677-682.

Adams, L., Campbell, J. and Deming, K. (2017). Diversity: A key aspect of 21st century faculty roles as implemented in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program. Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 267-277.

Addams, A., Bletzinger, R., Sondheimer, H.., White, S., and Johnson, L. (2010). Roadmap to Diversity: Integrating Holistic Review Practices into Medical School Admission Processes. Washington, DC: American Association of Medical Colleges.

Alameida, M., Prive, A., Davis, H., Landry, L., Renwanz-Boyle, A. and Dunham, M. (2011). Predicting NCLEX-RN Success in a Diverse Student Population. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 261-267. 

Alicea-Planas, J. (2017). Shifting Our Focus to Support the Educational Journey of Underrepresented Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(3), 159-163.

Alpert, P., Yucha, C. & Atienza, M. (2013). An advanced practice nursing program for foreign medical doctors: A practical approach. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(4), 254-259.

Allan, H. (2011). Mentoring overseas nurses: Barriers to effective and non-discriminatory mentoring practices. Nursing Ethics, 17(5), 603–613.

Allen, J. M., Abdul-Mutakabbir, J. C., Campbell, H. E., & Butler, L. M. (2021). Ten recommendations to increase Black representation within pharmacy organization leadership.  American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy78(10), 896-902.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017).  The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. (Link)

American Association of Collegse of Nursing.  (2015). Lessons Learned from the Evaluation of a National Scholarship Program for Traditionally Underrepresented Students in an Accelerated Baccalaureate Nursing Program. (Link)

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2019). Enhancing Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. (Link)

 Arieli, D., and Hirschfeld, M. (2012). Supporting Minority Nursing Students: Opportunity for Success'for Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel. International Nursing Review, 60(2), 213-220.

Baber, L., Pifer, M., Colbeck, C., and Furman, T. (2010), Increasing diversity in the geosciences: Recruitment programs and student self-efficacy. Journal of Geoscience Education, 58:32–42.

Baker, B. (2010). Faculty Ratings of  Retention Strategies for Minority Nursing Students. Nursing Education Perspective, 31(4), 216-220.

Barbe, T., Kimble, L.P., Bellury, L.M., & Rubenstein, C. (2018). Predicting student attrition using social determinants: Implications for a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(5), 352-356.

Banister, G., Bowen-Brady, H. & Winfrey, M. (2014). Using career nurse mentors to support minority nursing students and facilitate their transition to practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30: 317–325. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2013.11.00.

Banister, G. and Winfrey, M. (2012). Enhancing diversity in nursing: A partner­ship approach. J Nurs Admin, 42:176-81.

Bankston, K. (2013). How Mentoring Programs Influence Workforce Diversity. Minority Nurse. (Link)

Barbatis, P. (2010). Underprepared, ethnically diverse community college students: Factors contributing to persistence. Journal of Developmental Education, 33(3), 14-24.

Barfield, J., Cobler, D., Lam, E., Zhang, J. & Chitiyo, G. (2012). Differences Between African-American and Caucasian Students on Enrollment Influences and Barriers in Kinesiology-based Allied Health Education Programs. Advances in Physiology Education, 36: 164–169.

Batykefer, D. (2013). Examining the Influence of Noncognitive Variables on the Retention of Minority Baccalaureate Nursing Students to Complete Their Program of Study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(3), 148-154.

Beard, V. and Volcy, K. (2013). Increasing minority representation in nursing: A more diverse faulty is crucial. American Journal of Nursing, 113(2), 11.

Beard,K, and Julion, A. (2016). Does race still matter in nursing? The narratives of African American Nursing faculty members.  Nursing Outlook, 64(6), 583-596.

Beard, K, (2014). Strengthening Diverse in Nursing: The Practices and Preparedness of Nursing Faculty. Journal of of Nursing Educaion and Practice, 4(11), 59-64.

Bednarz, H., Schim, S., & Doorenbos, A. (2010). Cultural Pitfalls in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls. Journal of Nursing Education, 49, 253-260.

Beech, B., Calles-Escandon, J., Hairston, K., Langdon, S., Latham-Sadler, B., and Bell, R. (2013). Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medical Centers: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Acad Med, 88(4).

Benavides-Vaello, S., Katz, J., Peterson, C., Allen, C., Paul, R., Charette-Bluff, A., and Morris, P. (2014). Nursing and Health Sciences Workforce Diversity Research Using PhotoVoice: A College and High School Student Participatory Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(4), 217-222.

Bennett, M. P., Lovan, S., Smith, M., & Elllis-Griffith, C. (2021). Nursing’s leaky pipeline: Barriers to a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 37(2), 441– 450.

Blake-Beard, S., Bayne, L., Crosby, F., and Muller, C. (2011). Matching by Race and Gender in Mentoring Relationships: Keeping Our Eyes on the Prize. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3): 622–643.

Bland, C., Taylor, A., and Schollenberg, S. (2010). Mentoring Systems: Benefits and Challenges of Diverse Mentoring Partnerships. Association of American College of Medicine (ACCM). (Link)

Bond, M., Carson, C. and Baxley, S. (2015). Institutional Support for Diverse Populations: Perceptions of Hispanic and African American Students and Program Faculty. Nursing Outlook, 62: 259-267.

Boruff, S. (2012). Experiences of Success by Minority Students Attending a Predominantly Caucasian Nursing Program. Dissertation: East Tennessee State University. (Link)

Bosch, P., Doshier, S., & Gess-Newsom, J. (2012). Bilingual nurse education program: Applicant characteristics that predict success. Nursing Education Research, 33(2), 90-95.

Boughton, M., Halliday, L. and Brown, L. (2010). A Tailored Program of Support for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Nursing Students in a Graduate Entry Masters Course: A Qualitative Evaluation of Outcomes. Nurse Education Practice, 10: 355-360.

Boutte, G. and Jackson, T. (2014). Advice to white allies: Insights from faculty of color. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 17(5), 623-642.

Bouye, K. E., McCleary, K. J., & Williams, K. B. (2016). Increasing diversity in the health professions: reflections on student pipeline programs. Journal of healthcare, science and the humanities6(1), 67–79.

Brody, A., Farley, J., Gillespie, G., Hickman, R., Hodges, E., Lyder, C., Palazzo, S., Ruppar, T. Schiavenato, M and Pesut, D. (2017). Diversity dynamics: The experience of male Robert Wood Johnson Foundation nurse faculty scholars . Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 278-288.

Brooks, L., Medina, R., Pitts, C. J., Dahlem, C. H. G., Downes, L., & Beard, K. V. (2022). Building a Culturally Responsive Workforce: Faculty of Color in Nursing Education. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners.

Buchwald, D., and Dick, R. (2011). Weaving the native web: Using social network analysis to demonstrate the value of a minority career development program. Acad Med, 86: 778–786.

Butler, P., Britt, D., Green, M., Longaker, M., Geis, W., Franklin Jr, M., Ruhalter, A., and Fullum, T. (2010). The diverse surgeons initiative: An effective method for increasing the number of under-represented minorities in academic surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 211(4), 561-566.

Cameron, L. (2010). Supporting Indigenous nursing students.  Australian Nursing Journal, 18(6), 39.

Campbell, K., & Rodriguez, J. (2018). Mentoring Underrepresented Minority in Medicine (URMM) Students Across Racial, Ethnic, and Institutional Differences. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(5), 421-423.

Campbell, J., McBride, A., Etcher, L, and Deming, K. (2017). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program leadership training.  Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 290-302.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). A Culturally Conscious Model of Mentoring. Nurse Educator, 35(3), 130-135.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (n.d.) Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring (IAPCC-M). OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates; OH (Link)

Carnevale, T. and Priode, K. (2018). “The good ole' girls' nursing club”: The male student perspective.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing29, 285–29.

Carter, B., Powell, D., Derouin, A., and Custais, J. (2015). Beginning With the End in Mind: Cultivating Minority Leaders. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 95-103.

Cavazos, J., Johnson, M., Fielding, C., Cavazos, A., Castro, V., & Vela, L. (2010). A qualitative study of resilient Latina/o college students. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(3), 172-188. doi: 10.1080/15348431003761166

Cech, E., Metz, A., Babcock, T. and Smith, J., (2011). Caring for Our Own: The Role of Institutionalized Support Structures in Native American Nursing Student Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(9),: 524-531.

Chan, Z., Liu, C., Cheung, K., Hung, K., Yu, K., & Kei, S. (2013). Voices from a monority: Experiences of Chinese male nursing students in clinical practice. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7(4), 295-305.

Chandler, G., and Swanston, W. (2013). Motivating Underrepresented Students to Pursue Faculty Roles. Nurse Educator, 37(6), 233-234.

College and Universities (2015). Enhancing diversity in the workforce. (Link)

Colville, J., Cottom, S., Robinette, T, Wald, H. and Waters, H. (2015). A Communiuty College Model to Support Nursing Force Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(2), 65-71.

Condon, V., Morgan, C., Miller, E., Mamier, I., Zimmerman, G. & Mazhar, W. (2013). A Program to Enhance Recruitment and Retention of Disadvantaged and Ethnically Diverse Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 24(4), 397-416.

Cottingham, M. (2014). Recruiting men, constructing manhood: How health care organizations mobilize masculinities as nursing recruitment strategy. Gender and Society, 28(1), 133-156.

Cowan, P., Weeks, Y., and Wicks, M. (2015). Promoting Success of Ethnic Minority and Male Students in an Accelerated, Entry-Level Master of Nursing Program: The SUSTAIN Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), S112-S115.

Craft-Blacksheare, M. (2018). New Careers in Nursing: An Effective Model for Increasing Nursing Workforce Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(3):178-183.

Crawford, T., and Candlin, S. (2013). Investigating the Language Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students to Assist Their Completion of the Bachelor of Nursing Programme to Become Safe and Effective Practitioners. Nurse Education Today, 33: 796–801. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.03.005

Crooks, N. (2013). Mentoring as the Key to Minority Success in Nursing Education. ABNF Journal, 24(2), 47.

Crow, K., Conger, M., and Knoki-Wilson, U. (2011). Mentorship for nursing in a rural area: A program for success for working with diverse populations. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 11(2), 43-50.

Daley, S., Broyles, S., Rivera, L., Brennan, J., Lu, E., and Reznik, V. (2011). A conceptual model for faculty development in academic medicine: The underrepresented minority faculty experience. J Natl Med Assoc, 103:816–821.

Dancy, T and Jean-Marie, G. (2014). Faculty of color in higher education: Exploring the intersection of identity,  impostorship, and internal racism. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(4), 354-372.

Dapremont, J. (2011). Success in Nursing School: Black Nursing Students’ Perception of Peers, Family, and Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 254-260.

Dapremont, J. (2013). A review of minority recruitment and retention models implemented in undergraduate nursing programs. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(2), 112-119.

Dapremont, J. (2014). Black nursing students: Strategies for academic success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35: 157–161. doi:10.5480/11-563.1.

Davis, P., Davis, D., and Williams, D. (2010). Challenges and Issues Facing the Future of Nursing Education: Implications for Ethnic Minority Faculty and Students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(4), 122-126.

Deas, D., Pisano, E., Mainous, A, Johnson, N., Singleton, M., Gordon, L., ..., Reves, J. (2012).  Improving Diversity Through Strategic Planning: A 10 Year (2002-2012) Experience at the Medical University of South Carolina. Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1548-1555.

Degazon, C. and Mancha, C. (2012). Changing the Face of Nursing: Reducing Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Health. Family & Community Health, 35: 5–14 doi:10.1097/FCH.0b013e3182385cf6

Del Prato, D. (2013). Students’ voices: The lived experience of faculty incivility as a barrier to professional formation in associate degree nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 33: 286-290. doi: 10.1016/k.nedt.2012.05.030

DeWitty, V. (2019). Leading across differences. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(4), 191-192.

DeWitty, V., Huerta, C. and Downing, C. (2016). New careers in nursing: Optimizing diversity and student success for the future of nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing32(5, Suppl.), S4–S13.

Dickerson, C. (2013). The Nature of Learning to Nurse Through Clinical Practice Experience for International Culturally and Linguistically Different Students in Sydney, Australia: An Interpretive Description. Doctoral Degree, University of Technology, Sydney.

Diefenbeck, C., Michalec, B., & Alexander, R. (2016). Lived experiences of racially and ethnically underrepresented minority BSN students: A case study specifically exploring issues related to recruitment and retention. Nursing Education Perspectives (National League for Nursing), 37 (1), 41-44. (Link)

Dudas, K.  (2011). Strategies to improve NCLEX® style testing in students who speak English as an additional language. The Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1:14–23.

Duerksen, J. (2013). Retention and success of culturally diverse nursing students. The Oklahoma Nurse, 4-5.

Dumas, J. (2017). Adventures in Minority Recruiting: A Closer Look at Recruiting Minorities at Southern College of Optometry. Optometric Education, 43(1), 17-19.

Easley, N., Bianco, M., & Leech, N. (2012). Ganas: A qualitative study examining Mexican heritage students’ motivation to succeed in higher education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(2), 164-178. doi: 10.1177/1538192712440175

Effland, K. (2017). Mentoring: Equity in Midwifery Education. (Link)

Egues, A., and Leinung, E. (2014). Antibullying Workshops: Shaping Minority Nursing Leaders Through Curriculum Innovation. Nursing Forum, 49(4), 240-246.

Elliott, B., Dorscher, J., Wirta, A., & Hill, D. (2010). Staying Connected: Native American Women Faculty Members on Experiencing Success. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 85(4), 675-9.

Endinjok, F., & Augustin, F. (2022). Supporting Undergraduate Hispanic Students in Nutrition and Dietetics. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences114(1), 13-19.

Englund, H. (2018). Relationship Between Marginality and Minority Status in Undergraduate Nursing Studenys. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(6), 339-346.

Evans, B. (2013). Examining the influence of noncognitive variables on the intention of minority baccalaureate nursing students to complete their program of study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29: 148-154.

Everett, M. (2022).  Factors That Affect the Success of Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students: An Integrative Review of the Literature. Nurs Educ Perspect., 43(2), 91-95.

Fabbra, L., Mitchell, C. and Shaw, J. (2015). Learning Among Nursing Faculty: Insights From a Participatory action Research Project About Teaching International Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(3), 153-158.

Felton-Busch, C., Maza, K., Ghee, M., Mills, F., Mills, J., Hitchins, M., Park, T. and Chamberlain-Salaun, J. (2013). Using mentoring circles to support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students: Guidelines for sharing and learning. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profess, 46(1), 135.

Ferrell, D., DeCrane, S., Edwards, N., Foli, K. and Tennant, K. (2016). Minority undergraduate nursing student success. Journal of Cultural Diversity23, 3–11.

Foley, D. (2018). Culturally Diverse Pedagogy: A Prelude to a More Culturally Diverse Workforce. Ohio Nurses Review, 93(3), 22-25.

Fuller, B., and Mott-Smith, J. (2017). Issues Influencing Success: Comparing the Perspectives of Nurses Educators and Diverse Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(7), 389-396.

Fuller, B. (2013). Evidenced-Based Instructional Strategies: Facilitating Linguistically Diverse Nursing Student Learning. Nurse Educator, 38: 118-121.

Gates, S. (2018). What Works in Promoting and Maintaining Diversity in Nursing Programs? Nursing Forum, 53, 190-196.

Georges, C. (2012). Project to Expand Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. Nursing Management (Harrow), 19(20), 22-26.

Ghaddar, S., Ronnau, J., Saladin, S., & Martínez, G. (2013). Innovative approaches to promote a culturally competent, diverse health care workforce in an institution serving Hispanic students. Academic Medicine, 88(12), 1870-1876.

Gilligan, C., and Outram, S. (2012) Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Health Professional Programs: An Exploration of Concerns Needs. Education for Health, 25: 40-47.

Gillis, C., Powell, D., & Carter, B. (2011). Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse Workforce in Nursing: From Evidence to Best Practices to Policy. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(4), 294-301. DOI: 101177/1527154411398491

Glew, P. (2013). Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: Challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia. Collegian, 20: 101–108. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2012.04.002

Gonzalez, K. and Ballysingh, T. (2012). Increasing Latina/o college completion: Mistakes and opportunities. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(3), 279-290. doi: 10.1177/1538192712437994

Gordon, F. and Copes, M. (2010). The Coppin Academy for Pre-Nursing Success: A Model for the Recruitment and Retention of Minority Students. ABNF J, 21(1):11-3.

Gorski, P. (2013).  Beyond “recruitment and retention:” Principles of Effective and Sustainable Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education.  (Link)

Graham, C., Phillips, S., Newman, S. and Atz, T. (2016). Baccalaureate minority nursing students perceived barriers and facilitators to clinical education practices: An integrative review. Nursing Education Perspectives37, 130–137.

Greenberg, N. (2013). A Project to Increase Faculty’s Cultural Competence in Mentoring English as a Second Language Nursing Students. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 8(4), 128-135.

Groggins, A., and Ryan, A. (2013). Embracing Uniqueness: The Underpinning of a Positive Climate for Diversity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(2), 264.

Guyll, M., Madon, S., Prieto, L., & Scherr, K. (2012). The Potential Roles of Self-Fulfilling Prophesies, Stigma Consciousness, and Stereotype Threat in Linking Latino/a Ethnicity and Educational Outcomes. Journal of Social Issues, 66(1), 113-130.

Habley, W., Valiga, M., McClanahan, R., and Burkum, K. (2010). What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey; Four-Year Colleges & Universities with Twenty percent or More Hispanic Students Enrolled. ACT, 1-7.

Hagqvist, P., et al., (2020). Clinical mentors' experiences of their intercultural communication competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students: A qualitative study, Nurse Education Today, 87.

Hall, J. and Fields, B. (2012). Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development. Advances in Nursing Science35, 25–38.

Hamilton, N. and Haszous, A. (2017). Retention of Faculty of Color in Academic Nursing. Nursing Outlook, 65(2), 121-221.

Hanks, M. (2022). Cultivating a Culture of Success in an Undergraduate Nursing Program: Meeting Students Where They Are. Minority Nurse(Link)

Harris, M. et al. (2013). Moving toward cultural competency: DREAMWork online summer program. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 20(3),134-8.

Hassouneh, D., & Lutz, K. F. (2013). Having influence: Faculty of color having influence in schools of nursing. Nursing Outlook61(3), 153-163.

Hannay, J., Dudley, R., Milan, S. & Leibovitz, P. (2013). Combining PhotoVoice and focus groups: Engaging Latina teens in community assessment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44: S215–S224.

Hansen, E., and Beaver, S. (2012). Faculty Support for ESL Nursing Students: Action Plan for Success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33: 246-250.

Hassouneh, D., Akeroyd, J., Lutz, K., and Beckett, A. (2012). Exclusion and Control: Patterns Aimed at Limiting the Influence of Faculty of Color. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(6), 314-325.

Hassouneh, D. (2013). Unconscious Racist Bias: Barrier to a Diverse Nursing Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 183-184.

Heinrich, J. (2014). Nursing in 3D: Diversity, disparities, and social determinants. Introductory statement. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 2), 1-2.

Henry, A. (2015). 'We especially welcome applications from members of visible minority groups:' Reflections on race gender, and life at three universities. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 18(5), 589-610.

Herrera, A. (2012). Educational journeys of Hispanic women in nursing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA.

Hill, S., and Albert, N. (2021). Understanding the Experiences of African American Students.  Journal of Nursing Education, 60(30), 150-154.

Hodges, E.,  Rowsey, P., Gray, T., Kneipp, S., Giscombe, C., Foster, B. , Alexander, G. and Kowlowitz, V. (2017). Bridging the Gender Divide: Facilitating the Educational Path for Men in Nursing.  Journal of Nursing Education, 56(5), 295-299.

Hurtado, S., & Alvarado, A. R. (2013). Diversity in teaching and learning: Affirming students as empowered learners. Diversity and Democracy16(3), 127-155.

Igbo, N., Straker,  C., Landson, J.,  Symes,L., Bernard, F., Hughes, A., and Carroll, L, (2011). An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Strategy to Improve Retention of Nursing Students From Disadvantaged backgrounds. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(6), 375-379.

Igbo, I. & Sule, E. (2019). Peer mentoring in a successful retention stategy for a baccalaureate nursing program in a historically back college and university. Nursing Education Perspectives, 40(3), 192-193.

Iheduru-Anderson, K. C. (2020). The White/Black hierarchy institutionalizes white supremacy in nursing and nursing leadership in the United States. Journal of Professional Nursing,  37(20,), 411-422.

Jackson, C. and Gracia, J. (2014). Addressing health and health-care disparities: The role of a diverse workforce and the social determinants of health. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl. 2), 57–61.

Jacob, S., and Sanchez, Z. (2011). The challenge of closing the diversity gap: development of Hispanic nursing faculty through a Health Resources and Services Administration Minority Faculty Fellowship Program grant. J Prof Nurs., 27:108-13.

Jain, D. (2010). Critical race theory and community colleges: Through the eyes of women student leaders of color. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34: 78- 91.

James, R., Starks, H., Segrest, V., and Burke, W. (2012). From leaky pipeline to irrigation system: Minority education through the lens of community-based participatory research. Progressive Community Health Partnerships, 6:471–479.

Jauregui, A., and Xu, Y. (2010). Transition into practice: Experiences of Filipino physician-turned nurse practitioners. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21: 257-264.

Jeffreys, D.T., Hodges, S. & Trueman, M.S. (2017). A strategy for success on the national council licensure examination for at-risk nursing students in historically black colleges and universities: A pilot study. International Journal of Caring Sciences10, 1705–1709.

Jeong, S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. and Ohr, S. (2011). Understanding and Enhancing the Learning Experiences of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students in an Australian Bachelor of Nursing Program. Nurse Education Today, 31(3), 238-244.

Jimenez, R. (2012). Perceptions of nurse faculty and practicing Hispanic nurses on nursing education and mentorship (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.

Johnson, J. and Bozeman, B. (2012). Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundles Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline. Acad Med., 87(11), 1488-95.

Johnson, P., Kneipp, S. & Woods-Giscombe, C. (2013). Careers beyond the bedside: One approach to developing the ethnic minority nursing faculty pool. Journal of Nursing Education, 52: 593–596.

Johnson-Bailey, J. (2012). The Effects of Race and Racial Dynamics on Mentoring." In Sarah Fletcher and Carol Mullen (Eds.) SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education. Sage Publications.

Jones, M., Barlow, A., and Villarejo, M. (2010). Importance of undergraduate research for minority persistence and achievement in biology. The Journal of Higher Education, 81(1), 82-115.

Julion, W., Reed, M., Bounds, D., Cothran, F., Gamboa, C. and Sumo, J. (2019). A Group Think Tank as a Discourse Coalition to Promote Minority Nursing Faculty Retention. Nursing Outlook, 67((5), 586-595.

Junious, D., Malecha, A., Tart, K., & Young, A. (2010). Stress and perceived faculty support among foreign-born baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(5), 261-270.

Katz, J., Barbosa-Leiker, C. and Benavides-Vaello, S. (2015). Measuring the Success of a Pipeline Program to Increase Nursing Workforce Diversity. Journal of Professional Nursing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2015.05.003

Katz, J., O’Neal, G., Strickland, J. & Doutrich, D. (2010). Retention of Native American Nurses Working in Their Communities. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21: 393–401.

Katz, J., Oneal, G., & Paul, R. (2011). “I don’t know if I can make it”: Native American Students Considering College and Career. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(4), 11-26.

Katz, J., Smart, D. & Paul, R. (2010). Creating a Path: Four Years of Data on Native American High School Students Perceptions of College and a Career in Nursing. International Journal of Nursing Education and Scholarship, 7(1).

Kendricks, K., Nedunuri, K., and Arment, A. (2013). Minority Student Perceptions of the Impact of Mentoring to Enhance Academic Performance in STEM Disciplines. Journal of STEM Education, 14(2), 38-46.

Keshet, Y., Popper-Giveon, A. & Liberman, I. (2015). Intersectionality and underrepresentation within the health care workforce: The case of Arab physicians in Israel. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 4:1-13.

Kneipp, S., Rowsey, P., Giscombe, C., Hodges, E., Fowler, T. & Alexander, R. (2014). Countering the influence of cultural hegemony on choosing a nursing career: A group-mentoring approach for student recruitment. Journal of Nursing Education, 53: 296–299.

Ko, C. L., Abdul-Mutakabbir, J. C., Astle, K. N., Bandali, A., Brown, J. E., Childs-Kean, L. M., ... & Brown, B. R. (2022). Brighter horizons: The necessity of concentrated sponsorship targeted toward minoritized student pharmacists. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.

Koch, J., Salamonson, Y., Du, H., Andrew, S., Frost, S., Dunncliff, K., and Davidson, P. (2011). Value of Web-Based Learning Activities for Nursing Students Who Speak English as a Second Language. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(7), 373-380.

Kochan, F., Searby, L., George, M. and Edge, J.  (2015). Cultural influences in mentoring endeavors: Applying the cultural framework analysis process. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 4(2), 86 – 106.

Kolade, F. M. (2016). The lived experience of minority nursing faculty: A phenomenological study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 32(2), 107–114.

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Resources

RWJF-NCIN - Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). New careers in nursing.

US DHHS-Diversity programs 2009 - US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS). Pipeline programs to improve racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions: An inventory of federal programs, assessment of evaluation approaches, and critical review of the research literature; 2009.

SMYSP - Stanford School of Medicine. Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP). The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program is a five-week online enrichment program focused on science and medicine that is open to low-income, underrepresented high school juniors who live in Northern and Central California

RWJF-Brown 2013 - Summer Health Professions Education Program (SHPEP) is a free six-week academic enrichment summer program to help qualified undergraduate students from minority and disadvantaged backgrounds compete successfully for medical and dental school admission.

The National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) - A unified force advocating for equity and justice in nursing and health care for ethnic minority populations.  (Link)

Association of American Colleges and University’s Diversity and Inclusive Excellence -  This web site provides resources that bring together faculty and institutions of higher learning to provide national leadership that advances diversity and equity in higher education, and the best educational practices for an increasingly diverse population. (Link)

Association of American Medical College (AAMC) - The Summer Health Professions Education Program (SHPEP) is a free summer enrichment program focused on improving access to information and resources for college students interested in the health professions. SHPEP’s goal is to strengthen the academic proficiency and career development of students underrepresented in the health professions and prepare them for a successful application and matriculation to health professions schools. These students include, but are not limited to, individuals who identify as African American/Black, American Indian and Alaska Native and Hispanic/Latino, and who are from communities of socioeconomic and educational disadvantage. SHPEP, formerly known as the Summer Medical and Dental Education Program (SMDEP), expanded in 2016 to include a broader array of health professions. (Link)

Selected Minority Mentoring Programs in Nursing

Minority Ethnic Program (MFP) of the American Nurses Association -   The Program's broad mission is to increase the number of rigorously educated nurses from under-represented ethnic minority groups to:

  • Conduct research about psychiatric/mental health issues and problems with minority populations across the life span;
  • Assume leadership roles in the initiation of scientific investigations about phenomena that occur among ethnic/minority populations;
  • Expand psychiatric/mental health literature about minority populations across the life span, and
  • Function as members of interdisciplinary research and treatment teams with the intent of improving the mental health status of ethnic/minority populations

MFP developed the manual, Mentoring Guidelines:  A Guide for Mentors and Mentees(Link)

UND RAIN The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The RAIN Program will incorporate a range of proven, culturally specific recruitment, retention, and mentoring strategies to assist the Next Steps project in meeting its goals. The RAIN Program is recognized as a premiere program for assisting American Indians to access and complete professional nursing education. The retention rate for RAIN nursing students at UND is above 90 percent. Eighty-three percent of RAIN graduates return to work in tribal communities. (Link).

RRANNRecruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing is housed at the University of Alaska Anchorage School of Nursing. RRRAN began in 1998 with federal grant funds to recruit and mentor Alaska Native/American Indian students to pursue nursing degrees.  RRANN offers tutoring services, group meetings to help you connect with your peers, and a staff of student success facilitators that offer career and personal advice to aid you on your road to successfully completing the nursing program. (Link)

CO-OP - Caring for Our Own Program is a Reservation/ University Partnership. CO-OP works with a state-wide advisory board with members from each reservation who represent the education and health sectors. The advisory board acts as a liaison between the reservation communities and CO-OP. Board members identify perspective nursing students as well as effective outreach strategies to use in their respective communities. (Link)

N-NURSE - Facilitates workshops to improve mentoring skills using the culturally embedded Navajo Nursing Pathway of Mentorship  developed by N-NURSE's curriculum development team. The curriculum model uses the Navajo Philosophy of the Four Directions and Sacred Mountains that border Navajol to organize the content and educational resource materials. The purpose of N-NURSE is to continue development of a network of trained mentors throughout the Navajo Nation that will provide community members interested in nursing a mentor while pursuing a nursing degree or advancing in their nursing career. (Link)

Minority Mentoring Program – Developed in 2008 by Dr. Judith Lightsey of the Radiation Oncology department, the OMA Medical Student Mentoring Program is designed to provide support and guidance to minority medical students at the University of Florida College of Medicine.  (Link)

MIM - Mentoring In Medicine is an organization that works with students in disadvantaged areas from 3rd grade through health professional schools. They ignite, cultivate, and prepare students to become health care professionals by allowing prospective students to interact with established expert health care professionals around the country.  (Link)

PMI - Pipeline Mentoring Institute recognized that many of the barriers to greater diversity within the medical profession lie within the continuum of elementary through undergraduate education.  Therefore,  PMI seeks to close the gap in preparing under-represented minority students for a career in medicine and other health-related professions.(Link)

Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program – This program provides four-year postdoctoral research awards to physicians and dentists from historically underrepresented groups. The longstanding program seeks to increase the number of senior-level physicians and dentists from historically disadvantaged backgrounds in academic medicine and dentistry.(Link)

Project L/EARN – Project L/EARN is an intensive summer research training internship for undergraduate students from groups that have been under-represented in graduate schools in the fields of health, mental health, and health policy research and those from disadvantaged communities, thereby expanding the breadth of health research to include a broader range of ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues, concerns and perspectives. (Link)