Abbato, S. and Durham, J. (2011). Ageing Your Way, My Way - Working Together: Spiritus research into the emerging ageing CALD communities in Brisbane. Spiritus HACC Multicultural Program: Brisbane.;jsessionid=C9E947192E0D49DEF45FA7F32767D895?doi=

Adler, R. (2004). "Introduction to Cross-Cultural Health Care for Older Adults." In R. Adler and H. Kamel (Eds.) Doorway Thoughts: Cross-cultural Health Care for Older Adults (pp. 2-15). Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Adams, V., and Jackson, J. (2000). The contribution of hope to the quality of life among aging African Americans: 1980-1992. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 50(4), 279-295.

Aged and Community Services Australia. (2006). Strength through diverse aged and community care: National Policy Position. Canberra: Author.

Aguila, E., Fonseca, R., and Vega, A. (2015). “Self-employment, Health Insurance, and Return Migration of Middle-Aged and Elderly Mexican Males.” In W. Vega, K. Markides, J. Angel, and F. Torres-Gil (Eds.), Challenges of Latino Aging in the Americas (pp. 103-120). New York: Springer Science.

Administration on Aging. (2000). Achieving cultural competence: A guidebook for providers of services to older Americans and their families. U.S. Department of Health and Human services.

Ahmed, S., and Lemkau, J. (2000). Cultural Issues in the Primary Care of South Asians. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2(2), 89-96.

American Geriatrics Society. (2015).  Chinese American Older Adults: A Guide to Managing Your Health. NY: Author.

Andrews, M., and Applegate-Krouse, S. (2005). Health and well-being of urban Indian elders. Journal of Native American Research, 29(1), 65-77.

Aranda, M., Ray, L., Snih, S., Ottenbacher, K., & Markides, K. (2014). The protective effect of neighborhood composition on increasing frailty among older Mexican Americans: A barrio advantage? Journal of Aging and Health, 23:1189-1217.

Areán, P., and Unützer, J. (2003). Inequities in depression management in low-income, minority, and old-old adults: A matter of access to preferred treatments? J Am Geriatr Soc, 51(12), 1808-1809.

Areán,  P., Ayalon, L., Hunkeler, E., Lin, E., Tang, L., Harpole, L., Hendrie, H., Williams, J., and Unützer, J. (2005). IMPACT Investigators: Improving depression care for older, minority patients in primary care. Med Care, 43(4), 381-390.

Astin, J., Pelletier, K., Marie, A.., & Haskell, W., (2000). Complementary and alternative medicine use among elderly persons: One year analysis of blue shield medicare supplement. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, M-4-M9.

Bermudez, O., Falcon, L. and Tucker, K. (2000). Intake and Food Sources of Macronutrients Among Older Hispanic Adults: Association With Ethnicity Acculturation, and Length of Residence in The United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100(6), 665-673.  

Brangman, S., and Periyakoil, V. (2014). Doorway Thoughts: Cross Cultural Health Care for Older. NY: American Geriatrics Society.

Browne, C., and Mokuau, N. (2008). Preparing students for culturally competent practice with ethnic minority elders. Journal of Educational Gerontology, 34, 306-326.

Browne, C., Mokuau, N., Braun, K., & McLaughlin, L. (2002). Developing a multi-site project in geriatric/gerontological education with emphases in interdisciplinary practice and cultural competence.  The Gerontologist 42, 698-704.

Bulatao, R. and Anderson, N. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding racial and ethnic differences in health in late life: A research agenda. Washignton, DC: National Academies Press.

Cagney, K., Browning, C., & Wen, M. (2005). Racial disparities in self-rated health at older ages: What difference does the neighborhood make? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 60B, S181-S190

Carrasquillo, O., Lantigua, R., & Shea, S. (2000). Differences in functional status of Hispanic versus non-Hispanic white elders. Journal of Aging Health, 12: 342-361.

Chang, Y., Schneider, J., and Sessanna, L. (2011). Decisional conflict among Chinese family caregivers regarding nursing home placement of older adults with dementia. J Aging Stud., 25(4):436444.

Cooper, L., Gonzales, J., Gallo, J., Rost, K., Meredith, L., Rubenstein, L., Wang, N., and Ford, D. (2003). The acceptability of treatment for depression among African-American, Hispanic, and white primary care patients. Med Care, 41(4),479-489.

Crist, J., Garcia-Smith, D., and Phillips, L. (2006). Accommodating the Stranger En Casa: How Mexican American Elders and Caregivers Decide to Use Formal Care. Research and Theory For Nursing Practice, 20:109-126.

Curry, L., and Jackson, J. (2003). The Science of Inclusion: Recruiting and Retaining Racial and Ethnic Elders in Health Research. Washington, DC: Gerontological Society of America.

Dilworth-Anderson, P. and Boswell, G. (2007). "Cultural diversity and aging: Ethnicity, minorities, and subcultures." In G. Ritzer (Ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. (Vol. II, pp. 898-902). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, I., & Gibson, B. (2002). Issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in caregiving research: A 20-year review (1980 – 2000). Gerontologist, 42, 237 – 272.

Dupree, L., Watson, M., and Schneider, M. (2005). Preferences for mental health care: A comparison of older African Americans and older Caucasians. J Applied Geron, 24(3), 196-210.

Dupre, M., Gu, D., and Vaupel, J. (2012). Survival Differences Among Native-born and Foreignborn Older Adults in the United States. PLOS ONE, 7 (5): e37177.

Elo, I., Turra, C., Kestenbaum, B. and Ferguson, B. (2004). Mortality among elderly hispanics in the United States: past evidence and new results. Demography, 41: 109–28.

Espino, D., Palmer, R., Miles, T., Bayne, N., & Markides, K. (2000). Patterns of prescription drug utilization in elder Mexican Americans: Result from the Hispanic EPESE study, Ethnicity and Disease, 10: 218-223.

Espino, D., Palmer, R., Miles, T., Mouton, C., Wood, R., Bayne, N., & Markides, K. (2000). Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors associated with hip fractures in community-dwelling older Mexican Americans: Results of the Hispanic EPESE study, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 48,1252-1260.

Falcon, L. (2000). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among Hispanic elders in Massachusetts. Journal of Gerontological Social Science, 55(2): D108-S116.

Figueredo-Borda, N. (2015). Caring for Elderly Immigrants: Is it Possible to have Equal Opportunities? J Gerontol Geriatr Res, 4:231. doi:10.4172/2167-7182.1000231

Fitten, L., Ortiz, F., & Pontón, M. (2001). Frequency of alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in a community outreach sample of Hispanics. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49,10.

Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2000). "Development and Implementation of Intervention Strategies for Culturally Diverse Caregiving Populations." In R. Schulz (Ed). Handbook on Dementia Caregiving (pp 151-183). New York. Springer .

Gerdner, L., Xiong, S., and Cha, D. (2006). Chronic confusion and memory impairment in Hmong elders: Honoring differing cultural beliefs in America. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 32(3), 23-31.

Geron, S. (2002). Cultural competency: How is it Measured? Does it Make a Difference? Generations, 26:39-45.

Gerst, K., Miranda, P., Eschbach, K., Sheffield, K., Peek, M., & Markides, K. (2011). Protective neighborhoods: Neighborhood proportion of Mexican Americans and depressive symptoms in very old Mexican Americans. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 59: 353-358.

Gitlin, L., Harris, L. et al. (2012). A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: Description of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs. BMC Geriatrics, 12(4).

González, H., Haan, M. & Hinton, L. (2001). Acculturation and the prevalence of depression in older Mexican Americans: Baseline results of the Sacramento area Latino study on aging. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 49: 948-953.

Graves, K., and Smith, S. (2004). National Resource Center for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Elders Qualitative Report Conferences of Alaska Native Elders: Our View of Dignified. Alaska: University of Alaska Ankorage.

Gunaratnam, Y. (2008). From competence to vulnerability: Care, ethics, and elders from racialized minorities. Mortality, 13(1), 24-41.

Haas, S., Krueger, P., & Rohlfsen, L. (2012). Race/ethnic and nativity disparities in later life physical performance: The role of health and socioeconomic status over the life course. Journal of Gerontology: Series B. Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 67, 238-48.

Hahn, K. (2003). Older Ethnic Women in Faith Communities. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 29(7), 5-10.

Hall, K. and Hardill, I. (2014). Retirement migration, the ‘other’story: Caring for frail elderly British citizens in Spain. Ageing and Society, 1-24.

Hardin, S. (2014). Ethnogeriatrics in critical care. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 26(1):21-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccell.2013.10.009

Harwood, D., Barker, W., Ownby, R., Bravo, M., Aguero, H., & Duara, R. (2000). Predictors of positive and negative appraisal among Cuban American caregivers of alzheimer's disease patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15: 481-487.

Hayes-Bautista, D., Hsu, P., Perez, A., and Gamboa, C. (2002). The ‘Browning’ of the Graying of America: Diversity in the Elderly Population and Policy Implications. Generations, 26:15-24.

Hazuda, H., and Espino, D. (2011). “Sociocultural status and burden of disability in aging Mexican Americans. In J. Angel, F. Torres-Gil, & K. Markides (Eds.), Aging, health, and longevity in the Mexican-origin population (pp. 125-157). New York, NY: Springer.

He, W. (2002). The older foreign-born population in the United States: 2000. Current Population Reports. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, pp. 23-211.

Heikkila, K. and Ekman, S. (2003). Elderly care for ethnic minorities: Wishes and expectations among elderly Finns in Sweden. Ethnicity and Health, 8(2), 135-146.

Ihenechw, E. (2010). Cultural Diversity and Cultural Competency: New Issues for Elderly Care and Services. Dissertation: Arcada University of Applied Science Human, Helsinki.

Johnson, J., and Smith, N. (2002). Health and Social Issues Associated With Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Disparities. Generations, 26:25-32.

Jones, A. (2012). Disability, health and generation status: How Hispanics in the US fare in late life. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 14: 467-474.

Kane, M. (2002). Ethnoculturally-sensitive practice and Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 15(2):80-84.

Kim, S. and Xu, Y. (2010). The mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between health literacy and health status in Korean older adults: A short report. Aging and Mental Health, 14: 870-873.

Kobylarz, F., and Yeo, G. (2009). “Racial, Ethnic and Cultural Aspects of Health Care for Older Adults.” In C. Arenson et al, eds. Reichel’s Care of the Elderly 6th edition. Cambridge University Press.

Kobylarz, F. (2005). A Spanish Language Version of the ETHNICS Mnemonic: A Clinical Tool for Health Care Professionals. Caring for Hispanic Patients, 2:21-24.

Kobylarz, F., Heath, J. and Spike, J.(2005).  Cross-Cultural Aspects of Geriatric Decision-Making Capacity. Ethics, Law, and Aging,  (11) 105-110.

Kobylarz, F., Heath, J., and Like, R.  (2002). The ETHINC(S) Mnemonic: A Clinical Tool for Ethnogeriatric Education. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(9), 1582-1589.

Krisberg, K. (2005). Cultural Competencies Needed to Serve All Older Americans: Cultural Skills Will Help Bridge Health Gaps. Nations Health, 2005;35(5).

Kurlowicz, L., Outlaw, F., Ratcliffe, S., and Evans, L. (2005). An exploratory study of depression among older African American users of an academic outpatient rehabilitation program. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 19(1), 3-9.

Lange, J., Mager, D. and Andrews, D. (2012). The ELDER expansion project: Building cultural competence among long term home care workers. Applied Nursing Research, 26(2), 58–62.

Lauderdale, D. and Kestenbaum, B. (2002). Mortality rates of elderly Asian American populations based on Medicare and Social Security data. Demography, 39: 529–540.

Lawrence, V., Murray, J., Banerjee, S., Turner, S., Sangha, K., Byng, R., Bhugra, D., Huxley, P., Tylee, A., and Macdonald, A. (2006). Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults. Gerontologist, 46(1), 23-32.

Lee, Y., et al., (2009). In-Depth Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Korean American Elderly. Geriatric Nursing, 30(5), 304-311.

Levy, B., Ryall, A., Pilver, C., Sheridan, P., Wei, J., & Hausdorff, J. (2010). Influence of African American elders’ age stereotypes on the cardiovascular response to stress. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 21(1), 85-93.

Levy, R., and Polatsek, J. (2002). Genetic Variations in Response to Medications: Looking at the Implications for Minority Elders. Healthcare and Aging, 9(1).

Liang, J., Xu, X., Bennett, J., Ye, W., & Quiñones, A. (2009). Ethnicity and changing functional health in middle and late life: A person-centered approach. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 65: 470-481.

Lincoln, K. (2014). “Social relationships and health among minority older adults.” In K. Whitfield & T. Baker (Eds.), Handbook of minority aging (pp. 25-46). New York, NY: Springer.

Mager, D., and Grossman, S. (2013). Promoting nursing students' understanding and reflection on cultural awareness with older adults in home care. Home Healthcare Nurse, 31, 582-588; quiz 588-590.

Markides, K., et al. (2007). “Census Disability Rates Among Older People by Race/Ethnic City and Type of Hispanic Origin.” In J. Angel and K. Whitfield (Eds.), The Health of Aging Hispanics: The Mexican-Origin Population. New York: Springer.

Mason-Baughman, M., and Kisiday, C. (2013). Rural Older Americans: A Unique Cultural Cohort. SIG 15 Perspectives on Gerontology, Vol. 18, 60-68. doi:10.1044/gero18.2.60

McBride, M. (2014). Ethnogeriatrics: Development and Application of the Cohort Analysis Tool. SIG 14 Perspectives on Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Populations. Vol. 21, 37-52. doi:10.1044/cds21.2.37

McBride, M., and Lewis, I. (2004). African American and Asian American Elders: An Ethnogeriatric Perspective. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 22, 161-214.

McBride, M. and Lewis, I. (2004).  Anticipatory Grief, Healing, and Ethnic Elderly Patients, Geriatric Nursing, 25(1), 44- 47.

McConatha, T., Stoller, P., & Oboudiat, F. (2001). Reflections of older Iranian women adapting to life in the United States. Journal of Ageing Studies, 15: 369-381.

McKenna, M. (2011). “Transcultural perspectives in the nursing care of older adults.” In M. Andrews and J. Boyle (Eds.), Transcultural concepts in nursing care (6th ed., pp. 182-207). Philadelphia, PA; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mehta, N., Sudharsanan, N., and Elo, I. (2014). “Race/Ethnicity and Disability Among Older Americans.” In K. Whitfield and T. Baker (Eds.), Handbook of Minority Aging. New York: Springer.

Merkelz, K. (2001). “Hispanic and Latino elders.” In B. Berkman, C.  Callahan, T. Fulmer, E. Mitty, G. Paveza, E. Siegler, & N. Strumpf (Eds.); M. Bottrell (Managing Ed.). The Encyclopedia of Elder Care (pp. 348-350). New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Miles, T. (2001). Ethnogeriatrics comes of age. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49(7), 005.

Millichamp, A. and Gallegos, D. (2012). Meeting the food needs of Queensland's Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Aged: A review of the literature. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane and Diversicare: Brisbane.

Millichamp, A. and  Gallegos, D. (2011). Meeting the Food Needs of Queensland’s Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) aged: What do service providers say? Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.

Mold, F., Fitzpatrick, J. & Roberts, J. (2005). Minority ethnic elders in care homes: A review of the literature. Age and Ageing, 34(2), 107–11.

Mouton, C. and Esparza, Y. (2001). “Ethnicity and Geriatric Assessment.” In J. Gallo, T. Fulmer, G. Paveza, & W. Reichel (Eds.) Handbook of Geriatric Assessment (pp. 13-28). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.

Mullings, D. and Gien, L,. (2013). Culturally Competent (Appropriate) Health and Long-Term Care Services for Older Immigrants in a Small Urban Center Of Newfoundland. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(9), 81-89.

Mutchler, J., Prakash, A., and Burr, J. (2007). The Demography of Disability and the Effects of Immigrant History: Older Asians in the United States.  Demography, 44(2), 251–63.

Nakasone, R. (2008). Journeying into Elderhood: Reflections on Growing Old in Asian Cultures.  Generations, Summer, 2008.

O'Donoghue, C., Botha, A. and Van Rensburg, G. (2014). Culturally diverse care for older persons: What do we expect of caregivers?  Professional Nursing Today, 18(1), 3.

Pandav, R., Fillenbaum, G., Ratcliff, G., Dodge, H., & Ganguli, M. (2002). Ethnogeriatrics and special populations. Sensitivity and specificity of cognitive and functional screening instruments for dementia: The Indo-U.S. Dementia Epidemiology Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50: 554-561.

Phillips, L., Salem, B., Jeffers, K., Kim, H., Ruiz, M., Salem, N., and Woods, D. (2014). Developing and Proposing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing Model. J Transcult Nurs, 26(2),118-128.

Radermacher, H., Feldman, S. and Browning, C. (2008). Review of the literature concerning the delivery of community aged care services to ethnic groups: Mainstream versus ethnospecific services: It's not an 'either or'. Monash University (Healthy Ageing Research Unit): Melbourne.

Rao, D., Warburton, J. and Bartlett, H. (2006). Health and social needs of older Australians from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Issues and implications. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 25(4), 174-179.

Rawlings-Anderson, K. (2004). Continuing Professional Development. Assessing the Cultural and Religious Needs of Older People. Nursing Older People, 16, 29-33.

Rosich, R., McBride, M. & Murphy-Southwick, C. (2008).  Ethnogeriatrics and culturally competent care: Building techniques across regions. AHGExchange Newsletter, (Spring) 31 (3).

Salman, A., McCabe, D., Easter, T., Callahan, B., Goldstein, D., Smith, T., White, M., and Fitzpatrick, J (2007). Cultural Competence Among Staff Nurses Who Participated in a Family-Centered Geriatric Care Program. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 23(3),103-111.

Severance, J. and Yeo, G. (2006). Ethnogeriatric Education: A Collaborative Project of Geriatric Education Centers. Gerontology Geriatric Education, 26; 87-99.

Shah, A., Dalvi, M., and Thompson, T. (2005). Behavioural and Psychological Signs and Symptoms of Dementia Across Cultures: Current Status and the Future. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(12): 1187-1195

Shellman, J. (2006). Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Eldercare Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 3(1), Article 9.

Shadi, S. (2009). Illness of the mind or illness of the spirit? Mental health-related conceptualization and practices of older Iranian immigrants. Health and Social Work, 34(2).

Stahl, S. and Vasquez, L. (2004). Approaches to Improving Recruitment and Retention of Minority Elders Participating in Research. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(5), No. 5 supply, 9S-17S.

Swenson, C., Baxter, J., Shetterly, S., Scarbro, S., & Hamman, R. (2000). Depressive symptoms in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white rural elderly: The San Luis Valley health and aging study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152: 1048-1055.

Takamura J. (2002). Social Policy Issues and Concerns in a Diverse Aging Society: Implications of Increasing Diversity. Generations, 26:33-38.

Takeshita, J. and Ahmed, I. (2004). "Culture and Geriatric Psychiatry." In W. Tseng, J. Streltzer, (Eds.). Cultural Competence in Clinical Psychiatry (pp. 147-161). Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Talamantes, M., Gomez, G., & Braun, K. (2000). “Advance directives and end-of-life care: The Hispanic perspective.” In K.L Braun, J.H. Pietsch, & P.L. Blanchette, (Eds.) Cultural Issues in End of Life Decision Making, (p.p. 83-100). Sage Publication.

Talamantes, M., Lindeman, R. and Mouton, C. (2000). Ethnogeriatrics Curriculum Module: Health and Health Care of Hispanic/Latino American Elders.

Tayab, A. and Narushima, M. (2015). "Here for the residents": A case study of cultural competence of personal support workers in a long-term care home. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(2):146-56.

Taylor, J., Hernandez, E., Nicklett, E., Taylor, H., & Chatters, L. (2014). “Informal social support networks of African American, Latino, Asian American, and native American older adults.” In Whitfield and T. Baker (Eds.), Handbook of minority aging (pp. 417-434). New York, NY: Springer.

The Ethnogeriatrics Committee of the American Geriatrics Society. (2004). Doorway thoughts: Cross-cultural health care for older adults, Volume 1. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Torres, S. (2003). A Preliminary Empirical Test of a Culturally-relevant Theoretical Framework for the Study of Successful Aging. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 18(1),79-100.

Valle, R. (2005). Culturally Attuned Recruitment, Retention, and Adherence in Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders: A Best Practices Working Model.  Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders. 19(4):261-266.

Verhagen, I., Ros, W., Steunenberg, B. and de Wi, N. (2013).  Culturally sensitive care for elderly immigrants through ethnic community health workers: Design and development of a community-based intervention programme in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health, 13(1): 227. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-227

Werkmeister-Rozas, L., and Klein, W.  (2009). Cultural responsiveness in long-term-care case management: Moving beyond competence. Care Management Journals, 10(1), 2-7.

Whitfield, K. and Baker, T. (2014). Handbook of Minority Aging. NY: Springer Publishers.

Woods, D., Mentes, J., Cadogan, M. and Phillips, L. (2016). Aging, Gentics Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural competence through awareness of drug responses in elderly miniory elders. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(1), 56-62.

Wu, A., Tang, C., and Kwok, T. (2004). Self-efficacy, health focus of control, and psychological distress in elderly Chinese women with chronic illnesses. Aging & Mental Health, 8(1), 21-28.

Xakellis, G., et al. (2004). Curricular Framework: Core Competencies in Multicultural Geriatric Care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(1), 137-142

Yee, D., and Tursi, C. (2000). Recognizing Diversity and Moving Toward Cultural Competence: One Organization’s Effort. Generations, 26:54-58.

Yeo, G. (2010). Culture Med Ethnogeriatric Overview. Stanford University School off Medicine.

Yeo, G. (2009). How Will the U.S. Healthcare System Meet the Challenge of the Ethnogeriatric Imperative? The American Geriatrics Society, 57(7), 1278-1285.

Yeo, G. (2001). Ethnic Specific Modules of the Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics: A Project of the Collaborative on Ethnogeriatrics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Geriatric Education Center.

Yeo, G. and Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2006). Ethnicity and the Dementias, 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Yeo, G., Tran, J., Hikoyeda, N., et al. (2001). Conceptions of dementia among Vietnamese American caregivers. J Gerontol Soc Wk, 36:131–152.

National Asian Pacific Center on Aging

The Centre for Cultural Diversity in Ageing

Cultural Context of Aging
Dr. Jay Sokolovsky's Webpage

National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc.

National Hispanic Council on Aging, Inc.

National Indian Council on Aging

Pioneer Network (Advocates for culture change in aging)

Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics
Stanford University has developed ethnic Specific Modules (African Americans, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Hispanic/Latino, Asian Indian, Chinese, Pakistani, Southeast Asian, Korean, Filipino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander)

A Curriculum Module on Aging and Ethnicity
Prepared by Scharlach, Fuller-Thomson, and Kramer from the University of California at Berkeley School of Social Welfare, these curriculum materials provide a basic introduction to existing knowledge regarding minority elderly in the United States. They are designed to provide instructors with accurate information that can easily be integrated into existing undergraduate and graduate-level courses, including courses in social welfare, public health, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and minority studies.

A Tool Kit For Serving Diverse Communities

Reaching Diverse Older Adult Populations and Engaging Them in Prevention Services andEearly Interventions

Resources For Diversity: Administration On Aging  gingthnic Elders Care

Alzheimer’s Association’s Diversity Toolbox
Selected information for African Americans, Chinese, Hispanics/Latinos, and Koreans. Many documents available in a variety of languages (e.g., Polish, Russian, &Vietnamese)

Ethnic Elders Care

Alzheimer’s Association
This webpage of the Alzheimer’s Association website includes educational materials about issues related to dementia care in diverse communities and challenges to organizations that would like to expand their services to diverse audiences.

Pain, Death, and Grief  Accross Cultures
The focus of these two PowerPoint presentations is to develop advanced interpersonal skills to enhance cross-cultural understanding with those patients experiencing physical and emotional pain as they face end of life. Specifically, participants will be able to: 1) Identify barriers to pain management and discussion of end of life issues related to the patient's cultural background; 2) list and illustrate interview techniques with patients/families to assess cultural interpretations of physical and emotional pain; 3) understand the basic tasks of grieving and how to screen for complicated grief; 4) understand how cultural beliefs influence the bereavement process; and 5) learn ways to communicate appropriate interventions. View Power Point Presentation (PDF) by Randi Diamond, MD New York-Presbyterian Hospital; View Power Point Presentation (PDF) by Dory Hottensen, LCSW New York-Presbyterian Hospital

The Diverse Community Questionnaire                                                                                                                                                                                                                             This questionnaire, developed by the U.S. Administration on Aging, is a tool that allows agencies, its partners, and stakeholders to have a conversation about what respectful, inclusive, and sensitive services are to a particular community. An agency can use this tool with flexibility, and tailor this questionnaire to meet the particular needs of the communities it serves.

Cultural Competence For Health Professionals in Geriatric Care
Free learning module from Case Western Reserve University.

Achieving Cultural Competence: A Guidebook For Providers of Services to Older Americans and Their Families

Audiovisual Resources

Family Counseling with an Older Black Family (15 minutes/video) Produced by the School of Social Work at San Jose State University, this video demonstrates family counseling skills appropriate to work with older African American families and to serve as a trigger for discussion. The major issue presented is the conflict between a daughter and her recently disabled mother. The theme is the importance of understanding the value of the Black church and extended kin networks to the life of many Black elderly people. Contact: Andrew Scharlach  School of Social Welfare;  329 Haviland Hall;  University of California;  Berkeley, CA 94720; (510) 642-0126.

Old, Black, and Alive!  (28 minutes/ film -1974) Filmed in the rural south, depicts seven elderly African American women who share their insight, faith and strength in a documentary on aging.  Contact: University of California at Berkeley Extension Media Center; 2176 Shattuck Avenue; Berkeley, CA 94704; (510) 642-0618 or 642-0460

Older, Stronger, Wiser (28 minutes/ video or film - 1990) Profiles 5 African American women who have struggled to rise above the indignities of racism that have characterized the Black experience for years. Contact: Indiana University Audio Visual Center; Bloomington, IN 47405; (812) 335-2103