Ethnic & Ethno Pharmacology
Ethnic Pharmacology

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (2005). Ethnic Disparities in the Burden and Treatment t of Asthma. Reston, VA: Author.

Bazaldua, O. and Sias, J. (2004). Cultural Competence: A Pharmacy Perspective. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 17(3), 160 – 166.

Belle, D., and Singh, H. (2008). Genetic Factors in Drug Metabolism. Am Fam Physician, 77(11), 1553-1560.

Bhandari V., Wang, F., Bindman, A., and Schillinger, D. (2008). Quality of Anticoagulation Control: Do Race and Language Matter? J Health Care Poor Underserved,19(1):41-55.

Bjornsson, T., et al. (2003). A review and assessment of potential sources of ethnic differences in drug responsiveness. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 43: 943–967.

Bjornsson, T., Wagner, J., Donahue, S., Harper, D., Karim, A., Khouri, M., Murphy, W., Roman, K., Schneck, D., Sonnichsen, D., Stalker, D., Wise, S., Dombey, S. Loew, C. ( 2003). A Review and Assessment of Potential Sources of Ethnic Differences in Drug Responsiveness. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 43: 943-967.

Bosch, F., and Banos, J. (2002). Religious beliefs of patients and caregivers as a barrier to the pharmacologic control of cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 72(2), 107-111.

Bradford, L. (2004). CYP2D6 allele frequency in European Caucasians, Asians, Africans and their descendants. Pharmacogenomics, 3:229-43.

Burchard, E., et al. (2003). The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(12, 1170-5.

Burroughs, V., Maxey, R., & Levy, R. (2002). Racial and ethnic differences in response to medicines: Towards individualized treatment. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94:1-26.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: The Journey Continues. Cincinnati, OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates (under chapter on “Cultural Knowledge,” includes section on ethnopharmacology).

Chen, M. (2006). Ethnic or racial differences revisited: Impact of dosage regimen and dosage form on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 45(10):957-64.

Cordell, G., and Colvard, M. (2005). Some Thoughts on the Future of Ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100(1-2), 5-14.

Espino, D., Palmer, R., Miles, T., Bayne, N., & Markides, K. (2000). Patterns of prescription drug utilization in elder Mexican Americans: Result from the Hispanic EPESE study, Ethnicity and Disease, 10: 218-223.

Garcia-Martin, E., Martinez, C., Ladero, J. & Gundez, J. (2006). Interethnic and intraethnic variability of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in healthy individuals. Mol. Diagn. Ther., 10: 29–40.

Giger, J. (2013). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment & Intervention.  St. Louis: Mosby Year Book (includes ethnic pharmacology for each ethnic group).

Gupta, A. (2009). Racial Differences in Response to Antihypertensive Therapy: Does One Size Fits All? Int J Prev. Med.,1(4), 217–219.

Haddad, A., Fink, J., Hayes, B., Matthews, H., Saenz, R. and Wolfe, J. (2000). Report of the ad hoc committee on affirmative action and diversity. Am J Pharm Educ., 64(Winter Suppl):53S–57S.

Halbur, K. and Halbur, D. (2008). Essentials of Cultural Competence in Pharmacy Practice. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association.

Han, H., Reis, I., Zhao, W., Kuroi, K., Toi, M., Suzuki, E., et al. (2011). Racial differences in acute toxicities of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 47:2537-2545.

Hardy, Y. (2016). Patient Assessment in Pharmacy: A Culturally Competent Approach. MA: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Hines, S. with consultants Frate, D., Kountz, D., Levy, R., Strickland, T., & Williams, R. (2000). Intelligent Prescribing in Diverse Populations. Patient Care, 34(9), 135-149.

Kim, K., Birmingham, C., Azumaya, C., Chen, Y., Schneck, D. and Zalikowski, J. (2008). Increased systemic exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects residing in the United States compared to Caucasian subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther, 83 (suppl. 1), S14.

Kim, S., Lee, K., Song, W., Kim, S., Jee, Y., Lee, S., et al. (2011). Adverse Drug Reaction Research Group in Korea; Carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions and HLA genotypes in Koreans. Epilepsy Research, 97:190-197.

Klein, K., et al. (2005). Genetic variability of CYP2B6 in populations of African and Asian origin: allele frequencies, novel functional variants, and possible implications for anti-HIV therapy with efavirenz. Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 15: 861–873.

Levy, R., and Polatsek, J. (2002). Genetic Variations in Response to Medications: Looking at the Implications for Minority Elders. Healthcare and Aging, 9(1).

Limdi, N., et al. (2008). Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in African-American and EuropeanAmerican patients on warfarin. Clin Pharmacol. Ther, 83:312–321.

Miskimen, T., Marin, H., and Escobar, J. (2003). Psychopharmacological Research Ethics: Special Issues Affecting US Ethnic Minorities. Psychopharmacology,171:98-104.

Morrison, A. and Levy, R. (2004). Toward Individualized Pharmaceutical Care of East Asians. Pharmacogenomics, 5(6), 673-689.

Morrison, R., Wallenstein, S., Natale, D., Senzel, R., and Huang, L. (2000). “We Don’t Carry That” – Failure of pharmacies in predominately nonwhite neighborhoods to stock opioid analgesics. New England Journal of Medicine, 343: 1023-1026.

Munoz, C. and Hilgenberg, C. (2005). Ethnopharmacology: Understanding how ethnicity can affect drug response is essential to providing culturally competent care. American Journal of Nursing, 105(8): 40-48.

Murphy, E., and McMahon, F. (2013). Pharmacogenetics of anti-depressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics  in diverse human populations. Discovery Medicine, 16, 113-122,

Murray R. (2003). Prescribing issues for Aboriginal people. Australian Prescriber, 26: 106-109.

Nakajima, M., et al. (2006). Comprehensive evaluation of variability in nicotine metabolism and CYP2A6 polymorphic alleles in four ethnic populations. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 80: 282–297.

Nebert D., and Menon, A. (2001). Pharmacogenomics, ethnicity, and susceptibility genes. Pharmacogenomics J., 1:19–22.

Ng, C., Lin, K. and Singh, B. (2008). Ethno-Pharmacology: Advances in current practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

O’Connell, M., Korner, E., Rickles, N., and Sias, J. (2007). Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy, 27(7):1062–1079.

O’Malley, P. (2006). Ethnic Pharmacology: Science, Research, Race, and Market Share. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 19(6), 291-293.

Opler, L., Ramirez, P., Dominguez, L., Fox, M., and Johnson, P. (2004). , Rethinking Medication Prescribing Practices in an Inner-City Hispanic Mental Health Clinic. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 10(2), 134-140.

Popa-Lisseanu, M., Greisinger, A., Richardson, M., O’Malley, K., Janssen, N., Marcus, D., Tagore, J. and Suarez-Almazor, M. (2005). Determinants of treatment adherence in ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatic disease. Journal of Rheumatology, 32(5), 913-919.

Purnell, L. and Paulanka, B. (2013). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach. PA: F.A. Davis Publishers (Chapters include ethnic groups with a section on the pharmacological variations for each group).

Quist, R. and Law, A. (2006). Cultural competency: Agenda for cultural competency using literature and evidence. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 2:420–38.

Reyes, C., Van de Putte, L., Falcon, A., and Levy, R. (2004). Genes, Culture and Medicine: Bridging Gaps in Treatment For Hispanic Americans. Washington, DC: National Alliance For Hispanic Health.

Rodriguez de Bittner, M. and Sias, J. (2004). Working with Hispanic populations. APhA Partners in Self Care. Volume 10. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association.

Rothstein, M., and Epps, P. (2001). Pharmacogenomics and the (ir)relevance of race.  Pharmacogenomics J., 1:104–108.

Roy, J., et al. (2005). CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in different ethnic populations. Drug Metab. Dispos., 33, 884–887.

Shah, M., King, S. and Patel, A. (2004). Intercultural Disposition and Communication Competence of Future Pharmacists. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(5):article 111.

Sias, J. (2004). “Cultural competency in pharmacy practice.” In: G. Schumock, D. Brundage, M. Richardson., et al, eds. Pharmacotherapy Self-Assessment Program. Kansas City: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, pp. 219-52.

Salerno, E. (2005). Drug news: Racial and ethnic drug differences. Pharmacology Update, Volume 40, August 2005, p. 4.

Satel, S. (2000). PC, MD: How Political Correctness is Corrupting Medicine. Washington, DC: AEI Press.

Schwartz, R. (2001). Racial profiling in medical research. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18), 1392-1393.

Shavers, V., Lynch, C. and Burmeister, L. (2000). Knowledge of the Tuskegee study and its impact on the willingness to participate in medical research studies. J Natl Med Assoc,92:563-72.

Smith, T., Roth, J., Okoro, O., Kimberlin, C. and Odedina, F. (2012). Disability in Cultural Competency Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(2), 26.

Solus, J., et al. (2004). Genetic Variation in Eleven Phase I Drug Metabolism Genes in an Ethnically Diverse Population. Pharmacogenomics, 5(7), 895-931.

Taylor, A. and Wright, J. (2006). Should ethnicity serve as the basis for clinical trial design? Importance of Race/Ethnicity in Clinical Trials. Circulation, 112: 3654-3666.

Vadivel, N., Garg, A., Holt, D., Chang, R. and MacPhee, I. (2007). Tacrolimus dose in black renal transplant recipients. Transplantation, 83, 997–999.

Vaidyanathan, S., Jermany, J., Yeh, C., Bizot, M., and Camisasca, R. (2006). Aliskiren, a novel orally effective renin inhibitor, exhibits similar pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 62(6), 690–698.

Watermeyer, J. and Penn, C. (2009). “Tell me so I know you understand”: Pharmacists’ verification of patients’ comprehension of antiretroviral dosage instructions in a cross-cultural context. Patient Education and Counseling, 75(2), 205-13.

Wendler, D., Kington, R., Madans, J., Van Wye, G., Christ-Schmidt, H., Pratt, L., Brawley, O., Gross, P. and Emanuel, E. (2006). Are racial and ethnic minorities less willing to participate in health research?, PLoS Med., 3:e19.

Westberg, S., and Sorensen, T. (2005). Pharmacy-related Health Disparities Experienced by Non-English-Speaking Patients: Impact of Pharmaceutical Care. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 45(1), 48-54.

Williams, J., et al. (2008). PhRMA White Paper on ADME Pharmacogenomics. J. Clin. Pharmacol, 48; 849–889.

Wood, A. (2001). Racial differences in response to drugs – pointers to genetic differences. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18), 1394-1396.

Woods, D., Mentes, J., Cadogan, M. and Phillips, L. (2016). Aging, Gentics Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural competence through awareness of drug responses in elderly miniory elders. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(1), 56-62.

Xie, H., Kim, R., Wood, A., and Stein, C. (2001). Molecular basis of ethnic differences in drug disposition and response. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 41:815–50.

Yang, C., Dao, R., Lee, T., Lu, C., Yang, C., Hung, S., & Chung, W. (2011). Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Asians. Neurology, 77: 2025-2033.

Yasudal, S., Zhang, L., and Huang, S. (2008). The Role of Ethnicity in Variability in Response to Drugs: Focus on Clinical Pharmacology Studies. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 84(3), 417-423.

Yuan, H., et al. (2005). A novel functional VKORC1 promoter polymorphism is associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in warfarin sensitivity. Human Hol. Genet, 14, 1745–1751 (2005).

Zweber, A. (2002). Cultural competence in pharmacy practice. Am J Pharm Educ., 66(2):172–176.

Zhou, H. and Liu, Z. (2000). Ethnic difference in drug metabolism. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 38:899-903.

Teaching Cultural Competence

Abel, C., Silva, M., Desilets, A. and Durand, C. (2010). Integration of Cultural Competence Training into an Accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 50(2), 282.

Assemi, M., Mutha, S., and Hudmon, K. (2007). Evaluation of a train-the-trainer program for cultural competence. Am J Pharm Educ., 71(6).

Assemi M, Cullander C., and Suchanek Hudmon K. (2004). Implementation and evaluation of cultural competency training for pharmacy students. Ann Pharmacother, 38:781–6.

Assemi, M., and Cullander. C. (2003). Cultural Competency in Pharmaceutical Care Delivery: A Training Template for a One-Day Pharmacy Student Elective Course. San Francisco, CA: Center For the Health Professions, University of California.

Berger, B. (2005). Communication Skills for Pharmacists: Building Relationships, Improving Patient Care (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association.

Brown, B., Warren, N., Brehm, B., Breen, P., Bierschbach, J., Smith, R., Wall, A. and Van Loon, R. (2008). The Design and Evaluation of an Interprofessional Elective Course with a Cultural Competence Component. Journal of Allied Health, 37(4), 316-337.

Brown, B., Heaton, P., and Wall, A. (2007). Service-Learning Elective to Promote Enhanced Understanding of Civic, Cultural, and Social Issues and Health Disparities in Pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(1): 09.,

Cailora, S., and Chen, A. (2015). Immediate and longitudinal effects of incorporating health literacy and cultural competency into a year long pharmacy curriculum. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 7:292–301.

Campinha-Bacote. (2013). Ethnopharmacology. What every nurse should know. Minority Nurse. March, 2013.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007). Becoming Culturally Competent in Ethnic Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 45(9).

Cooper, L., Vellurattil, R., & Quiñones-Boex, A. (2014). Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(2).

Cuellar, L. and Fitzsimmons, D. (2003). Raising pharmacists’ cultural awareness. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60, 285-6.

Dawson, L. (2010). Promoting Cultural Competence in Advanced Pharmacology for Nurse Practitioner Students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(3),198-190.

Davidhizar, R. (2002). Strategies for providing culturally appropriate pharmaceutical care to the Hispanic patient. Hospital Pharmacy, 37(5), 505-510.

Diggs, A., and Berger, B. (2004). Cultural Competence: Overcoming Bias U.S. Pharm., 2004, 29(6), 94-97.

Drab, S., Lamsam, G., Connor, S., DeYoung, M., Steinmetz, K. and Herbert, M. (2004). Incorporation of service-learning across four years of the PharmD curriculum. Am J Pharm Educ, 68(2) Article 44.

Durand, C., Abel, C., Silva, M. and Desilets, A. (2012). An elective course in cultural competence. Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 4(2): 102–108.

Evans, E. (2006). An Elective Course in Cultural Competence for Healthcare Professionals. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(3): 55.

Echeverri, M., Brookover, C., and Kennedy, K. (2010). Nine constructs of cultural competence for curriculum development. Am J Pharm Educ, 74(10): Article 181.

Haack, S. and Phillips, C. (2012). Teaching Cultural Competency Through a Pharmacy Skills and Applications Course Series. Am J Pharm Educ, 76(2):27.

Haack, S. (2008). Engaging Pharmacy Students with Diverse Patient Populations to Improve Cultural Competence. Am J Pharm Educ., 72(5): 124.

Hardy, Y., Johnson, C., Coleman, C. The Case for Culturally Competent Care in Patient Assessment.

Johnson, C., Crawford, S.,  Lin, S., Salmon, J. and Smith, M. (2009). Neighborhood Geographical Factors and the Presence of Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Sites in Greater Chicago. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(1) Article 8, pp. 1-6.

Lacey, E., McCann, A., Miller, B., Solomon, E., and Reuben, J. (2012). Achieving student diversity in dental schools: A model that works. Journal of Dental Education, 76:524–533.

McRae, M., Taylor, S., Swain, L. & Sheldrake, C. (2008). Evaluation of a pharmacist-led, medicines education program for Aboriginal health workers. Rural and Remote Health, 8:946.

McRae, M. and Taylor, S. (June, 2008). Medicines education for Aboriginal health workers: Is there a role for the pharmacist? Pharmacist, 27(6), 502-507.

Nyoni, E., and Ives, T. (2007). Assessing the implementation of cultural competence content in the curricula of colleges of pharmacy in the United States and Canada. Am J Pharm Educ, 71(2):Article 24.

Okoro, O., Odedina, F., Reams, R., and Smith, W. (2012) Clinical Cultural Competency and Knowledge of Health Disparities Among Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharm. Education, 76(3), 40.

Onyoni, E. and Ives, T. (2007). Assessing Implementation of Cultural Competence Content in the Curricular of Colleges of Pharmacy in the United Stated and Canada. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 7(2), Article 24.

Poirier, T., Butler, L., Devraj, R., Gupchup, G., Santanello, C., and Lynch, C. (2009). A Cultural Competency Course for Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(5).

Sales, I., Jonkman, L., Connor, S., and Hall, D. (2013). A Comparison of Educational Interventions to Enhance Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ., 77(4), 76.

Shah, B. and Lonie, J. (2012). Assessing the cultural competency of practicing community pharmacists: A pilot study. Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 4(4):240–246.

Shaya, F. and Gbarayor, C. (2006). The Case for Cultural Competence in Health Professions Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(06), Article 124.

Smith, W., Roth, J., Okoro, O., Kimberlin, C., and Odedina, F. (2011). Disability in cultural competency pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ., 75(2), 26.

Swain, L., and Taylor, S. (2006). Pharmacy student education helping to improve Indigenous medication management and health. Australian Pharmacist, 6: 490-494.

VanTyle, W., Kennedy, G., Vance, M., and Hancock, B. (2011). A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Am J Pharm Educ., 1;75(1) :Article 4.

Vyas, D., and Caligiuri, J. (2010). Reinforcing cultural competence concepts during introductory pharmacy practice experiences. Am J Pharm Educ., 74(7) Article 129.

Werremeyer, A., and Skoy, E. (2012). A medical mission to Guatemala as an advanced pharmacy practice experience. Am J Pharm Educ., 76(8):Article 156.

Westberg, S. , Bumgardner, M. and Lind, P. (2005). Enhancing Cultural Competence in a College of Pharmacy Curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 69(5), Article 82, 1-9.

White-Means, S., Dong, Z., Hufstader, M., and Brown, L. (2009). Cultural competency, race, and skin tone bias among pharmacy, nursing, and medical students. Med Care Res Rev, 66(4):436–455.

Zweber, A., Roche, V., Assemi, M., Conry, J., Shane-McWhorter, L., and Sorensen, T. (2008). Curriculum recommendations of the AACP-PSSC task force on caring for the underserved. Am J Pharm Educ., 72(3), Article 53.

Ethnic Psychopharmacology

Bailey, R. (2003). Atypical Psychotropic Medications and Their Adverse Effects: A Review for the African-American Primary Care Physician. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95(2),137-44.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Ethnic Psychopharmacology: An Overlooked Area of Cultural Competence in Mental Health Care. Synergy, Edition No. 1 (Publication of the Multicultural Mental Health Australia -MCMHA).

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007). Becoming Culturally Competent in Ethnic Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 45(9).

Campinha-Bacote J. (2013). “African Americans.” In L. Purnell & B. Paulanka (Eds). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach. PA: F.A. Davis Publishers.

Chen, C., Chen, C. and Lin, K. (2008). Ethnopsychopharmacology. Int Rev Psych , 20(5), 452-459.

Chen, J., Barron, C., Lin, K. and Chung, H. (2002). Prescribing medication for Asians with mental disorders. Western Journal of Medicine, 176(4), 271-274.

de Leon, J., Susce, M., Pan, R., Fairchild, M., Koch, W. and Wedlund, P. (2005). The CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype may be associated with risperidone adverse drug reactions and discontinuation. J Clin Psychiatry, 66:15-27.

Diaz, E., Woods, S. and Rosenheck, R. (2005). Effects of ethnicity on psychotropic medication adherence. Community Ment Health J , 41:521-537.

Gaw, A. (2001). “Cross-Cultural Psychopharmacology.” In: Albert Gaw (Ed.). Concise Guide to Cross-Cultural Psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishers, Inc.

Hamilton, L., Aliyu, M., Lyons, P., May, R., Swanson, C., Savage, R. and Go, R. (2006). African-American community attitudes and perceptions toward schizophrenia and medical research: An exploratory study. J Natl Med Assoc., 98:18-27.

Herbeck, D., West, J., Ruditis, I., Duffy, F., Fitek, D., Bell, C., Snowden, L. (2004). Variations in use of second-generation antipsychotic medication by race among adult psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Service, 55 (6), 667-684.

Knudsen, H., Ducharme, L., & Roman, P. (2007). Racial and ethnic disparities in SSRI availability in substance abuse treatment. Psychiatric Services, 58 (1), 55-62

Kilbourne, A., and Pincus, H. (2006). Brief Reports: Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Use by Race Among Veterans With Bipolar Disorder. Psychiatry Service, 57 (1),123-126.

Kuno, E. and Rothbard, A. (2004). Racial disparities in antipsychotic patterns for patients with
schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159 (4), 567-572.

Lanouette, N., Folsom, D., Sciolla, A. and Jeste, D. (2009). Psychotropic medication nonadherence among United States Latinos: A comprehensive literature review. Psych Serv, 60(2):157-174.

Lin, K., Smith, M. and Ortiz, V. (2001). Culture and psychopharmacology. Psychiatric Clin N Am, 24(3).

Lin, K. and Poland, R. (2000). “Ethnicity, culture and psychopharmacology.” In F. Bloom & D. Kupfer, (Eds). Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. American College of  Neuropsychopharmacology, NY, NY: Raven Press. pp. 1907-1917.

Marin, H., and Escobar, J. (2001). Special issues in psychopharmacological management of Hispanic Americans. Psychopharmacol Bull, 35 (4): 197-212.

Melfi, C., Croghan, T., Hanna, P., et al. (2000). Racial variation in antidepressant treatment in a Medicaid population. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61:16–21.

McMahon F., Buervenich, S., Charney, D., Lipsky, R., Rush, A., Wilson, A., Sorant, A., Papanicolaou, G., Laje, G., Fava, M., Trivedi, M., Wisniewski, S. and Manji, H. (2006). Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. Am J Hum Genet, 78(5):804-814.

Miskimen, T., Marin, H. and Escobar, J. (2003). Psychopharmacological Research Ethics: Special Issues Affecting US Ethnic Minorities. Psychopharmacology, 171(1), 98-104.

Pi, E., and Simpson, G. (2006). Cross-cultural psychopharmacology: A current clinical perspective. American Psychiatry Association, 56 (1), 31-33.

Rey, J. (2006). The Interface of Multiculturalism and Psychopharmacology. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 19(6), 379-385.

Ruiz, P. (2000). Ethnicity and Psychopharmacology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Schillevoort, I., van der Weide, J., Steijns, L., Roos, R., Jansen, P. and Leufkens, H. ( 2002). Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype: a case-control study. Pharmacogenetics, 12 (3), 235-240.

Taylor, A., Ziesch, S., Yancy, C., Carson, P., et al. (2004). Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine in Blacks with heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351 (20): 2049-57.

Ethnic Pharmacology and Cardiovascular Medication

Angus, D., Linde-Zwirble, W., Tam, S., Ghali, J., Sabolinski, M., Villagra,V., Winkelmayer, W., and Worcel, M. (2005). Cost-Effectiveness of Fixed-Dose Combination of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydralazine Therapy for Blacks with Heart Failure. Circulation, 112: 3745-3753.

Brody, H. and Hunt, L. (2006). BiDil: Assessing a Race-Based Pharmaceutical. Annals of Family Medicine, 4:556-560.

Exner, D., et al. (2001). Lesser response to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor therapy in blacks as compared to white patients with ventricular dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18); 1351-7.

Ferdinand, K. (2006). The isosorbide-hydralazine story: Is there a case for race-based cardiovascular medicine? The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 8(3), 156-158.

Flack, J., et al.  (2003). Efficacy and tolerability of eplerenone and losartan in hypertensive black and whiter patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 41(7); 1148-55.

Kudzma, E. (2001). Cultural competence: Cardiovascular medications. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(4), 152-160, 169.

Jafar, T., et al. (2003). Ethnic subgroup differences in hypertension in Pakistan. Journal of Hypertension, 21(5), 905-12.

McDowell, S., Coleman, J. and Ferner, R. (2006). Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine. BMJ, 332(7551):1177-81

Richardson, A., and Piepho, R. (2000). Effect of race on hypertension and antihypertensive therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther., 38:75-79.

Sankar, P. and Kahn, J. (2005). “BiDil: Race Medicine or Race Marketing?” Health Affairs, 11.

Schaefer, B., et al. (2003). Gender, ethnicity, and genes in cardiovascular disease. Part 2: Implications for pharmacotherapy. Heart Disease, 5(3): 202-14.

Taylor, A. et al. (2004). Combination of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydralazine in Blacks with Heart Failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 2049–2057.

Xie, H.., Kim, R.., Wood, A., and Stein, C. (2001). Molecular basis of ethnic differences in drug metabolism. The Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology,  41:815-85.

Ethno Pharmacology

Ethnopharmacology: Combining the approaches of medical anthropology, phytotherapy, and pharmaceutical science, this discipline examines medicinal plants in indigenous cultures, their bioactive compounds, and the sustainable development and production of nature-derived therapeutics.

Aburjai, T., Hudaib, M., Tayyem, R., Yousef, M., and Qishawi, M. (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Ajloun heights region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(2), 294-304.

Bourbonnais-Spear, N., Awad, R., Merali, Z., Maquin, P., Cal, V., & Arnason, J. T. (2007). Ethno- pharmacological investigation of plants used to treat susto, a folk illness. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109: 380-387.

De Natale, A., and Pollio, A. (2007). Plants species in the folk medicine of Montecorvino Rovella (inland Campania, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(2), 295-303.

Fitzgerald, M. (2007). Herbal Facts, Herbal Fallacies. American Nurse Today,  2(12), 27-32.

Institute of Medicine. (2005). Use of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine by the American Public. Washington, DC: Author.

Kamatenesi-Mugisha, M. and Oryem-Origa, H. (2007). Medicinal plants used to induce labour during cildbirth in western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(1), 1-9.

Karousou, R., Balta, M., Hanlidou, E. and Kokkini, S. (2007). “Mints”, smells and traditional uses in Thessaloniki (Greece) and other Mediterranean countries. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(2), 248-257.

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Herbs Research Foundation

Research Guide for Herbs

Sloan-Kettering – About Herbs, Botanicals and Other Products

Herb Med

University of Washington Medical Herb Garden

Herbal Medicine

American Association of Naturopathic Physicians

American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM)

American Holistic Medical Association

National Center for CAM