Cultural Humility

Abdul-Raheem, J. (2018). Cultural humility in nursing education. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 25(2), 66-73.

Alms, R. (2014).  Religion in the Doctor-Patient Relationship: Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility. Masters of Art Thesis, Winston-Salem.

Alsharif, N. (2012). Cultural Humility and Interprofessional Education and Practice: A Winning Combination. Am J Pharm Educ., 76(7), 120.

Anderson, J., Marvel, K., Brezinski, K., Glazner, C., Towbin, M., and Lawton, S. (2006). Bridging the Gap: A Curriculum to Teach Residents Cultural Humility. Fam Med., 38(2), 97-102.

Ansari, A. (2017). Battling biases with the 5 Rs of cultural humility. The Hospitalist. April, 2017.;

Benner, P. (2016). Cultural Humility: Gaining First Person Experience and Empathy for the Health and Life Impact of Living in Poverty.  Educating Nurses. (Simulation exercises:

Biles, J. (2020). Cultural competence in healthcare.  Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 26(11), 22-27.

Borkan, J. M., Culhane-Pera, K. A., Goldman, R. E. (2008). Towards cultural humility in healthcare for culturally diverse Rhode Island. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island, 91: 361-364.

Butler, P., Swift, M., Kothari, S., Nazeeri-Simmons, I., Friel, C., Longaker, M., and Britt, D. (2011). Integrating cultural competency and humility training into clinical clerkships: Surgery as a model. Journal of Surgical Education, 68:222-230.

Cambron, S. and Conner, L. (2020). Using a Lens of Cultural Humility to Dissolve Racialized Inequities for Families. Reflections, 26(2), 1-7.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2020). The Process of Cultural Competemility in the Delivery Healthcare Services: Unremitting Encounters (6th Edition). Springboro, OH: Braughler Books LLC.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (December, 2018). Cultural Competemility: A Paradigm Shift in the Cultural Competence versus Cultural Humility Debate – Part I.  OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(1).

Chang, E. S., Dong, X., & Simon, M. (2011). Depression in the Chinese aging population: leveraging cultural humility to improve the quality of care of a vulnerable population. Aging Health, 7: 849-863.

Chang, E., Simon, M. and Dong, X. (2012). Integrating cultural humility into health care professional education and training. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract., 17(2):269-78.

Chávez, V. Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practices. This is a 30-minute documentary  that mixes poetry with music, interviews, archival footage, images of community, nature and dance to explain what is “Cultural Humility” and why we need it.  Available on You Tube.

Clark, L., Calvillo, E., Cruz, F. Fongwa, M., Kools, S., Lowe, J. and Master-Smith, B.  (2011). Cultural Competencies for Graduate Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(3), 133-9.

Cleaver, S., Carvajal, J., and  Sheppard, P. (2016). Cultural Humility: A Way of Thinking to Inform Practice Globally. Physiother Can., 68(1): 1–2.

Coulehan, J. (2010). On humility. Annals of Internal Medicine, 153: 200-201.

Coulehan, J. (2011). “A gentle and humane temper”: Humility in medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 54, 206-216.

Cruess, S., Cruess, R. and Steinert, Y. (2010). Linking the teaching of professionalism to the social contract: A call for cultural humility. Med Teach, 32(5): 357-359.

Danso, R. (2016). Cultural competence and cultural humility: A critical reflection on key cultural diversity concepts. Journal of Social Work.

Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Van Tongeren, D. R., Gartner, A. L., Jennings, D. J. II., & Emmons, R. A. (2011). Relational humility: Conceptualizing and measuring
humility as a personality judgment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 225-234.

Davis, D. E., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Hook, J. N., Emmons, R. A., Hill, P. C., Bollinger, R. A., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2013). Humility and the development and repair of social bonds: Two longitudinal studies. Self and Identity, 12:58-77.

Davis, D., Deblaere, C., Brubaker, K., Owen, J., Jordan, T., & Hook, J., and Van Tongeren, D. (2016). Microaggressions and Perceptions of Cultural Humility in Counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development. 94:483-493. 10.1002/jcad.12107.

Davis, D., Worthington, E. and Hook, J. (2010). Humility Review of measurement strategies and conceptualization as a personality judgement. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 243-252.

Derck, J., Yates, E., Kuo, M., Hwang, C., Sturdavant, W., Ross, P., Finks, J., Sandhu, G. (2018). Exploring the impact factor: Medical students mentoring high school students and cultivating cultural humility. Health Equity, 2(1), 15-21.

Dong, X., Chang, E. S., & Simon, M. (2011). Depression in the Chinese aging population: Leveraging cultural humility to improve the quality of care of a vulnerable
population. Aging Health, 7(6), 849-863.

Duntley-Matos, R. (2014).  Transformative complicity and cultural humility: De- and re-constructing higher education mentorship for under-represented groups. Qualitative Sociology, 37: 443466.

Fahlberg, B., Foronda, C. and Baptiste, D. (2017). Cultural humility: The key to patient/family partnerships for making difficult decisions. Nursing2016, 46(9), 14-16.

Fahey, J., Cohen, S., Holme, F., Buttrick, E., Dettinger, J., Kestler, E., and Walker, D. (2013). Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: Putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 27, 36-42.

Fernandez, K. (2020). Developing Cultural Humility During Short-Term Study Abroad Immersion International Journal of Studies in Nursing, 5(3), 48-53.

First Nations Health Authority. (2018). FNHA's policy statement on cultural safety and humility. Canada: Author. Retrieved from 

Fisher-Borne, M., Cain, J. and Martin, S. (2015).  From Mastery to Accountability: Cultural Humility as an Alternative to Cultural Competence. Social Work Education, 34(2), 165-181.

Fitzgerald, E., and Campinha-Bacote, J.  (2019).  Cultural Competemility Part II: An Intersectionality Approach to the Process of Competemility. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(2).

Foronda, C. (2020). A theory of cultural humility. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(1), 7-12.

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Reinholdt, M. and Ousman, K. (2016). Cultural Humility: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 210-217.

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D., Pfaff, T., Velez, R., Reinholdt, M., Sanchez, M. and Hudson, KJ. (2018). Cultural Competency and Cultural Humility in Simulation-Based Education: An Integrative Review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 15: 42-60.

Foster, J. (2009). Cultural Humility and the Importance of Long-Term Relationships in International Partnerships. JOGNN, 38(1), 100-107.

Franco, M., & McElroy-Heltzel, S. (2019). Let me choose: Primary caregiver cultural humility, racial identity, and mental health for multiracial people. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66(3), 269–279.

Gallardo, M. (2013). Developing Cultural Humility: Embracing Race, Privilege and Power. CA: Sage Publications.

Garcia, S. (2015). Review of developing cultural humility: Embracing race, privilege, and power. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(1), 130.

Garcia, J. (2006). Being impressed with ourselves: Receiving humility. Philosophia, 34(4), 417-435.

Graham-Dickerson, P. (2011). Teaching strategies to understanding cultural humility in nursing education. Communicating Nursing Research, 44: 363-363.

Greene-Moton, E. and Minkler, M. (2019). Cultural Competence or cultural humility? Moving beyond the debate. Health Promotion Practice, 21(1), 142–145.

Groll, L. (2014). Negotiating cultural humility: First-year engineering students’ development in a life-long journey. Available from ProQuest Information & Learning (UMI No. 3591226).

Gruppen, L. (2014). Humility and respect: Core values in medical education. Medical Education, 48: 53-58.

Hamilton, T. (2016). “The Influence of Transcultural Humility Simulation Development Activities on the Cultural Competence of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.” Theses and Dissertations. Paper 270.

Hammell, K. (2013). Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80: 224234.

Har-Gil, O. (2010). Cultural humility in art therapy: A heuristic arts-based inquiry (Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University).

Hernandez-Wolfe, P., Acevedo, V. E., Victoria, I., & Volkmann, T. (2015). Transnational family therapy training: A collaborative learning experience in cultural equity and
humility. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy: An International Forum, 27(3-4), 134-

Hilliard, M. J. (2011). Stories and cultural humility: Exploring power and privilege through physical therapist’ life histories (DePaul University, UMI Order AAI3458780). Retrieved from

Hockett, E., Samek, L. and Headley, S. (2014). Cultural Humility: A Framework for Local and Global Engagement. Faculty Publications - School of Education. 13.

Hook, J., Boan, D, Davis, D., Aten, J., Ruiz, K|J and Maryon, T. (2016). Cultural humility and hospital safety. J Clin Psychol Med. Setting 20Humility%20and%20Hospital%20Safety.pdf

Hook, J (2014). Engaging clients with cultural humility. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33(3), 277-280.

Hook, J., Owen, D., Worthington, E., Jr., and Utsey, S. (2013). Cultural humility of therapists is associated with stronger working alliance and better psychotherapy outcomes. Clinician’s Research Digest: Adult Populations, 31(9): 5.

Hook, J., Farrell, J., Davis, D., DeBlaere, C., Van Tongeren, D.., and Utsey, S. (2016). Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology63, 269–277.

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J., Worthington, E, Utsey, S. (2013). Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(3), 353-366.

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J. and DeBlaere. (2017). Cultural Humility: Engaging Diverse Identities in Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hook, J., Watkins, C., Davis, D., et al. (2016). Cultural humility in psychotherapy supervision. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 70:149–166.

Hughes, V., Delva, S., Nkimbeng, M., Spaulding, E., Turkson-Ocran, R., Cudjoe, J. et al. (2020). Not missing the opportunity: Strategies to promote cultural humility among future nursing faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(1), 28-33.

Hunt, L. M. (2001). Beyond Cultural Competence: Applying Humility to Clinical Settings. Social Factors and Inequality, 24: 3-4.

Isaacson, M. (2014). Clarifying Concepts: Cultural Humility or Competency. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(3), 251-258.

Juarez, J., Marvel, K., Brezinski, K., Glazner, C., Towbin, M. and Lawton S.  (2006). Bridging the gap: A curriculum to teach residents cultural humility. Fam Med., 38:97–102.

Kesebir, P. (2014). A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: Humility as an existential anxiety buffer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106:610-623.

Kelley Haynes-Mendez, K. and Engelsmeier, J.  (2020). Cultivating cultural humility in education. Childhood Education, 96(3), 22-29.

Kim, E. K. (2015). “A word can become a seed”: A lesson learned about cultural humility. Journal of Cancer Education, 1-3.

Kools, S., Chimwaza, A., and Macha, S. (2015). Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries. Global Health Promotion, 22(1), 5259.

Kutob, R., Bormanis, J., Crago, M., Harris, J. M., Senf, J. and Shisslak, C. M. (2013). Cultural Competence Education for Practicing Physicians: Lessons in Cultural Humility, Nonjudgmental Behaviors, and Health Beliefs Elicitation. J. Contin. Educ. Health Prof., 33: 164–173.

Lavelock, C. R., Worthington Jr, E. L., Davis, D. E., Griffin, B. J., Reid, C. A., Hook, J. N., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2014). The quiet virtue speaks: An intervention to promote humility. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42: 99-110.

Loue, S. (2012). Sandplay therapy: Identity, diversity, and cultural humility. Journal of Sandplay Therapy, 21: 105-112.

Lund, D., and Lee, L. (2015). Fostering cultural humility among pre-service teachers: Connecting with children and youth of immigrant families through service-learning. Canadian Journal of Education, 38: 13.

Martin, E. (2016). Cultural humility: Seeking to understand another’s perspective. Texas Nursing Magazine, Fall 2016, 6-23.

Mallon, G.P. (2011). From Mother Goose to Cultural Humility and Beyond! Child Welfare, 90(5), 7-10.

Mastel-Smith, B. and Yarbough, S. (2016). A reflexive exercise to promote cultural humility among doctoral nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 7(5), 68-75.

Maters, C., Robinson, D., Faulkner, S., Patterson, E., Mcllraith, T., Ansari, A. (2019). Addressing Biases in Patient Care with The 5Rs of Cultural Humility, a Clinician Coaching Tool.  J Gen Intern Med., 34(4):627-63.

Matthew, S., Hockett, E. and Samek, L. (2018). Learning Cultural Humility Through Stories and Global Service-Learning. Journal of Christian Nursing, 35(1), 33-37.

McElroy, S. E., Rice, K. G., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Hill, P. C., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2014). Intellectual humility: Scale development and theoretical elaborations in the context of religious leadership. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42:19-30.

Miller, S. (2009). Cultural humility is the first step to becoming global care providers. JOGNN, 38(1), 92 – 93.

Moore-Bembry, N. (2018).  Cultural humility: A qualitative study on the development of self-awareness in social work educators.  Theses and Dissertations. 2539.  Retrieved from

Morris, J., Brotheridge, C. and Urbanski, J. (2005). Bringing humility to leadership: Antecedents and consequences of leader humility. Human Relations, 58(10), 1323-1350.

Mosher, D., Hook, J., Captari, L., Davis, D., DeBlaere, C., and Owen, J. (2017). Cultural humility: A therapeutic framework for engaging diverse clients. Practice Innovations, 2(4), 221-233.

Murray-Garcia, J., and Tervalon, M. (2014). The concept of cultural humility. Health Affairs, 33: 1303.

Muise, C. (2018). Business implications for cultural humility in the healthcare setting [weblog post]. Retrieved from 

Ndiwane, A., Baker, N., Makosky, A., Reidy, P., and Guarino, A. (2017). Use of simulation to integrate cultural humility into advanced health assessment for nurse practitioner students. The Journal of Nursing Education, 56(9), 567-571.

Nomikoudis M., Starr M. (2016). Cultural Humility in Education and Work: A Valuable Approach for Teachers, Learners and Professionals. In: Arvanitakis J., Hornsby D.J. (eds) Universities, the Citizen Scholar and the Future of Higher Education. Palgrave Critical University Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Northern California Training Academy. (nd.). Cultural Humility. Author:  Coaching in the Field of Child Welfare.

Nkurunziza, A., Nyirazigama, A. and Soule, I. (2015). Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice. Rwanda Journal, 2(2), 89.

Ortega, R., and Faller, K. (2011). Training child welfare workers from an intersectional cultural humility perspective: a paradigm shift. Child Welfare, 90(5), 27-47.

Oswald, L., & Korsmo, J. (2015). Valuing mentorship towards cultural humility. Relational Child & Youth Care Practice, 28(2), 22-28.

Owen, J., Jordan, T. A., Turner, D., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., & Leach, M. (2014). Therapists’ multicultural orientation: Client perceptions of cultural humility, spiritual/religious commitment, and therapy outcomes. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42: 91-98.

Owen, J., Tao, K. W., Drinane, J. M., Hook, J., Davis, D. E., & Kune, N. F. (2016). Client perceptions of therapists’ multicultural orientation: Cultural (missed) opportunities and cultural humility. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47: 30-37.

Paparella-Pitzel, S., Eubanks, R. and Kaplan, S. (2016). Comparison of Teaching Strategies for Cultural Humility in Physical Therapy. Journal of Allied Health, 45(2), 139-146(8).

Prasad, S., Nair, P., Gadhvi, K., Barai, I., Danish, H. and Philip, A. (2016). Cultural Humility: Treating the Patient, not the Illness. Med Educ Online. 2016; 21: 10.3402/meo.v21.30908.

Quigley, D. D. (2016). Applying 'Place' to Research Ethics and Cultural Competence/Humility Training. Journal of Academic Ethics, 14(1), 19-33.

Reynoso-Vallejo, H. (2009). Support group for Latino caregivers of dementia elders: Cultural humility and cultural competence. Ageing International, 34: 67-78.

Ricon, A. (2009). Practicing cultural humility. In T. Berthold, A. Avila and J. Miller (Eds.), Foundations for Community Health Workers (pp. 135-154. San Francisco: CA: Jossey Bass.

Robinson, B. and Alfano, M. (2016). I know you are, but what am I? Anti-individualism in the development of intellectual humility and Wu-wei. Logos and Episteme, 7(4), 435-459.

Rosen, D., McCall, J., & Goodkind, S. (2017). Teaching critical self-reflection through the lens of cultural humility: An assignment in a social work diversity course. Social Work Education, 36(3), 289–298.

Ross, L. (2010). Notes from the field: Learning cultural humility through critical incidents and central challenges in community-based participatory research. Journal of Community Practice, 18: 315-335.

Ruiz-Millán. I. (September 26, 2018).  Churches Must Talk About Cultural Humility Instead of Cultural Competency.  Sojourners, Locate at

Russell, T., Augustin, F., and Jones, P. (2017). Perspectives on the importance of integrating diversity into the healthcare administration curriculum: The role of cultural humility. Journal of Health Administration Education, 34(3), 371-393.

Russell, E., Viggiani, P., Meath, M. and Faria, D. (2017).  Cultural Humility and Teaching Towards Justice and Equity: Addressing Oppression in the Classroom Providing Inclusive Educational Spaces.  The College at Brockport 17th Diversity Conference.

Schuessler, J., Wilder, B., and Byrd, W. (2012). Reflective journaling and development of cultural humility in students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33: 96-99.

Schuldberg, J., Fox, N., Jones, C., Hunter, P., Bechard, M., Dornon, L., Gotler, S., Shouse, H., Stratton, M. (2012). Same, same - but different: The development of cultural humility through an international volunteer experience. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(17), 17-30.

Sedgwick, A. and Atthill, S. (2020). Nursing student engagement in cultural humility through global health service learning: An interpretive phenomenological approach. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(3), 304-311.

Shaw, S. (2016). Practicing cultural humility. Counseling Today, Dec. 27, 2016.

Sheridan, M. J., Bennett, S., & Blome, W. W. (2013). Cultural humility and shared learning as hallmarks for international teaching: The SWEP experience. Social Work Education, 32:818-833.

Sloane, H., David, K., Davies, J., Stamper, D., and Woodward, S.  (2018) Cultural history analysis and professional humility: Historical context and social work practice. Social Work Education, 37(8), 1015-1027.

Society of Hospital Medicine The 5 Rs of Cultural Humility.; Pocket Guide.

Steefel, L. (2018). Cultural Humility: An Active Concept to Drive Correctional Nursing Practice.  Journal of Forensic Nursing, 14(1), 27-30.

Stubbe, D. (2020). Practicing cultural competence and cultural humility in the care of diverse patients. Focus, 18(1), 49-51.

Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Health Care For the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), 117-25.

Tinkler, A. and Tinkler, B. (2016). Enhancing cultural humility through critical service-learning in teacher preparation. Multicultural Perspectives, 18(4), 192-201.

Tormala, T. T., Patel, S. G., Soukup, E. E., & Clarke, A. V. (2018). Developing measurable cultural competence and cultural humility: An application of the cultural formulation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 12(1), 54-61.

Trinh, N., Tuchman, S., Chen, J., Chang, T., and Yeung. A. (2020). Cultural humility and the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatics, 61(4), 313-320.

Tai, J. (2020). “The Power of Words: Cultural Humility as a Framework for Anti-Oppressive Archival Description,” in “Radical Empathy in Archival Practice,” eds. Elvia Arroyo-Ramirez, Jasmine Jones, Shannon O’Neill, and Holly Smith. Special issue, Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies, 3.

Unite for Sight. Cultural Competency Online Course - Module 10: Trust and Cultural Humility. Unite for Sight: New Haven CT.

Vogt, H. (2011). Cultural humility in the practice of medicine. South Dakota Medicine, 64(7), 238-239.

Walters. T. (2015). Cultural Humility: A Hermeneutic Literature Review. Auckland University of Technology. Dissertation. 

Watkins, C., Hook, J., Owen, J., DeBlaere, C., Davis, D., and Van Tongeren, D. (2019). Multicultural Orientation in Psychotherapy Supervision: Cultural Humility, Cultural Comfort, and Cultural Opportunities. American Journal of Psychotherapy in Advance, 1-9.

Watkins, C. E., Jr., Hook, J. N., Ramaeker, J., & Ramos, M. (2016). Repairing the ruptured supervisory alliance: Humility as a foundational virtue in clinical supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 35(1), 22-41.

Wear, D. (2008). On outcomes and humility. Academic Medicine, 83(7): 625-626.

Willis, A. and Allen, B. (2011). The importance of cultural humility in cross cultural research. International Journal of Innovative Interdisciplinary Research, 1(1), 111-119.

Worthington, E., Davis, D. & Hook, J. (2017).  Handbook of cultural humility. NY: Routledge.

Yancu, C. and Farmer, D. (2017). Product or Process: Cultural Competence or Cultural Humility? Palliative Medicine and Hospice Care Open Journal, 3(1), e1-e4.

Yeager, K., and Bauer-Wu, S. (2013). Cultural humility: Essential foundation for clinical researchers. Applied Nursing Research, 26(4), 251-6. 

Yeung, A., Trinh, N., Chen, J., Chang, T., and Stern, T. (2018). Cultural humility for consultation-liaison psychiatrists. Psychosomatics, 59(6), 54-560.