Rehabilitation and Disabilities


Curriculum Guides
This curriculum guide has been prepared by the Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange (CIRRIE) under a grant from the National Institute for Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Its purpose is to provide a resource that will assist faculty in speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and rehabilitation counseling programs to integrate cultural competency education throughout their curriculum. (link)

Education for Parents of Indian Children with Special Needs
The EPICS Project provides training and information directly to Indian parents as well as to organizations and professionals on effectively meeting the educational needs of Indian children with disabilities, including the “transition to adult living.” EPICS also offers training and technical assistance on effective cross cultural communication.

The National Center for Latinos with Disabilities
The National Center for Latinos with Disabilities is an Advocacy and Training agency which serves Latinos with disabilities, their families, and professionals serving this population through training programs, leadership development and information and referral.

Culture and Disability
A 50 minute video presentation by CIRRIE director John Stone (2013).

The Rehabilitation Provider’s Guide to Cultures of the Foreign-Born
An eleven-volume monograph series that provides specific information on cultural perspectives of foreign–born persons in the United States.

Successful Outreach to Foreign–Born Consumers through Culture Brokering
A computer based tutorial in CD–Rom format. The tutorial is an adaptation of the monograph Culture Brokering: Providing Culturally Competent Rehabilitation Services to Foreign-Born Persons by Mary Ann Jezewski and Paula Sotnik. It has incorporated terminology, examples and case studies in a context relevant to independent living services for people with disabilities.  (link)

Culture in the Curriculum
The Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange (CIRRIE) project focuses on the provision of pre-service training and education for students in university rehabilitation programs, by developing teaching materials specific to speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and rehabilitation counseling. As students prepare to enter the fieldwork practicum and internships, the cultural competence portion of the curriculum reflects discipline specific analysis and application.

Interprofessional Simulation Cases for Cultural Competenceful
Simulation provides opportunities to create clinical events that are infrequent occurrences in clinical field work and bring to life paper cases. Simulation bridges the gap between academic preparation and the work environment of rehabilitation. This project creates simulated clinical encounters with manikins and standardized patients for cultural competence training of rehabilitation students or providers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Institute on Disability Culture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Disability Studies Quarterly                                                                                                                                     

Disability World Ezine                                                                                                                                 

Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy                                                                               

Articles & Books

Ali, Z., Fazil, Q., Bywaters, P., Wallace, L., and Singh, G. (2001). Disability, ethnicity, and childhood: A critical review of research. Disability and Society, 16(7), 949-968.

Alston, R. (2003). Racial Identity and Cultural Mistrust Among African American Recipients Rehabilitation Services; An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 26(4), 289-295.

American Physical Therapy Association. (2014). Blueprint For Teaching Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Education.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.  (2014a).  Minority student recruitment and retention: Preface.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.  (2014b).  Exemplary practices in recruitment, retention and career transition of racial/ethnic minorities to communication science disorders (CSD).

Arango-Lasprilla, J., and Kreutzer, J. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25 (2), 128-136.

Arango-Lasprilla J., Ketchum, J., Gary, K. et al. (2009). The influence of minority status on job stability after traumatic brain injury. PM&R, 1:41-9.

Arango-Lasprilla, J., Ketchum, J., Lewis, A., et al. (2011). Racial and ethnic disparities in employment outcomes for persons with traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal investigation 1-5 years after injury. PM&R, 3:1083-91.

Arango-Lasprilla, J., Ketchum, J., Gary, K., et al. (2009). Race/ethnicity differences in satisfaction with life among persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabil, 24:5-14.

Arango-Lasprilla, J., Ketchum, J. and Drew, A. (2012). Neurobehavioural symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury: A preliminary study of  the relationship between race/ethnicity and symptoms. Brain Inj, 26:814-24.

Areheart, B. (2008). When disability isn’t “just right”: The entrenchment of the medical model of disability and the Goldilocks dilemma. IN Law J., 83(181),181–232.

Ashcroft, T., Chernomas, W., Davis, P., Dean, R., Seguire, M., Shapiro, C., and Swiderski, L. (2008).  Nursing students with disabilities: One faculty’s journey. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 5(1), 1-15.

Attenello, F., Wang, K., Wen, T., Cen, S., Kim-Tenser, M., Amar, A., and Mack, W. (2014). Health Disparities in Time to Aneurysm Clipping/Coiling among Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients: A National Study. World Neurosurgery, 82(6):1071-6.

Awaad, T. (2003). Culture, cultural competency, and occupational therapy: A review of the literature. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(8), 356-362.

Balcazar, F., Taylor-Ritzler, T., Dimpfl, S., Portillo, N., Guzman, A., Schiff, R., & Murvay, M. (2012). Improving the transition outcomes of low-income minority youth with disabilities. Exceptionality, 20: 114-132.

Balcazar, F., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Taylor-Ritzler, T., and Keys, C. (2010). Race, culture and disability: Rehabilitation science and practice. MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.

Banks, M. (2015). Women with Disabilities: Cultural competence in rehabilitation psychology. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(3), 184-190.

Barnes, C., and Mercer, G. (2001). “Disability culture: Assimilation or inclusion?” In G. L. Albrecht, K. D. Seelman, & M. Bury (Eds.), Handbook of disability studies (pp. 515-534). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Basnett, I. (2001). “Healthcare professionals and their attitudes towards, and decisions affecting disabled people.” In G. Albrecht, K. Seelman,  and  M. Bury (Eds.) Handbook of Disability Studies. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. pp. 450–467.

Bateman, C. (2012). One size fits all: Health policies crippling rural rehab – therapists. The South African Medical Journal (SAMJ), 102(4).

Beagan, B. (2015). Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. doi:10.1177/0008417414567530

Bhandari, V., Kushel, M., Price. L. and Schillinger, D. (2005). Racial disparities in outcomes of inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil., 86(11), 2081-6.

Brick, J., Glass, B., and Oliver, R. (2007). Disability and spirituality: A reciprocal relationship with implications for the rehabilitation  process. Disability and Rehabilitation, 29(15), 1153-1163.

Brown, S. (2002). What is disability culture? Disabil Stud Q., 22:34–50.

Brown, S. (2001). Disability Culture. Independent Living Institute Newsletter, Issue 12:1.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2001). A Model of Practice to Address Cultural Competence in Rehabilitation Nursing. Rehabilitation Nursing, 26(1), 8-11.

Carlson, G., and Prasad, M. (2001). Services for people with intellectual disability of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. International Journal of Practical Approaches to Disability, 25 (1), 3 – 14.

Chipps, J., Simpson, B. and Brysiewicz, P. (2008). The Effectiveness of Cultural-Competence Training for Health Professionals in Community-Based Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of Literature.  Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 5(2),85-94.

Crotty, M., Finucane, P. and Ahern, M. (2000). Teaching medical students about disability and rehabilitation: methods and student feedback. Med Educ., 34(8), 659–664.

Crutchfield, S, Epstein, M. (2000). Points of Contact: Disability, Art, and Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Davidson, P., Gholizadeh, L., Haghshenas, A., Rotem, A., DiGiacomo, M., Eisenbruch, M., and Salamonson, Y. (2010). A review of the cultural competence view of cardiac rehabilitation. J Clin Nurs. 19(9-10):1335-42.

Department of Health. (2001). Responding to Diversity: A Study of the Commissioning of Services for People of Black and Minority Ethnic Origin with Physical Disabilities and/or Sensory Impairments, Aged 18-64 Year. UK Department of Health.

Doody, O. and Doody, C. (20121). Intellectual disability nursing and transcultural care. British Journal of Nursing, 21(3):174-6, 178-80.

Drum, C., McClain, M., Horner-Johnson, M., and Taitano, G.(2011). Health Disparities Chart Book on Disability and Racial and Ethnic Status in the United States. Institute on Disability, University of New Hampshire.

Drum, C., Krahn, G., Culley, C. and Hammond, L. (2005). Recognizing and responding to the health disparities of people with disabilities. Californian J Health Promot, 3(3):29–42.

Dupre, A., and Goodgold, S. (2007). Development of physical therapy student cultural competency through international community service. J Cult Divers., 14:126–134.

Eddey, G., and Kenneth, L. (2005). Considering the culture of disability in cultural competence education. Acad Med, 80(7),706–712.

Egede, L., Dismuke, C. and Echols, C. (2011). Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality risk among US veterans with traumatic brain injury. Am J Public Health, 102:S266-71.

Elo, I., Mehta, N., and Huang, C. (2011). Disability Among Native-born and Foreign-born Blacks in the United States. Demography, 48(1), 241–65.

Evans, T. and Garwick, A. (2002). Children with special health care needs: a health care model for families from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 1 (2), 7 – 23.

Fazil, Q., Bywaters, P., Ali, Z., Wallace, L., and Singh, G. (2002). Disadvantage and discrimination compounded: The experience of Pakistani and Bangladeshi parents of disabled children in the UK. Disability and Society, 17 (3), 237- 253.

Fenton, S., Hood, H., Holder, M., May, P.,  and Mouradian, W. (2003). The American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry: Eliminating health disparities for individuals with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. J Dent Educ., 67:1337–1343.

Fisher, L. (2013). Use of Culturally Adapted Practices Among Occupational Therapy Practitioners in Work Rehabilitation Settings. Thesis: University of Puget Sound. text=ms_occ_therapy

Francisco, I., and Carlson, G. (2001). Occupational therapy and people with intellectual disability from culturally diverse backgrounds. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 49, 200 – 211.

Galanti, G. (2005). Culturally competent rehabilitation nursing. Rehabilitation Nursing 30(4), 123-126.

Gary, K., Arango-Lasprilla, J. and Stevens, L. (2009). Do racial/ethnic differences exist in post-injury outcomes after TBI?: A comprehensive review of the literature. Brain Injury, 23(10),775-789.

Gitlow, L. and Flecky, K. (2005). Integrating disability studies concepts into occupational therapy education using service learning. Am J Occup Ther., 59(5),546–553.

Goering, S. (2002). Beyond the medical model? Disability, formal justice, and the exception for the “profoundly impaired.” Kennedy Inst Ethic J., 12(4):373–388.

Gregory, P., LaVeist, T. and Simpson, C. (2006). Racial disparities in access to cardiac rehabilitation. American Journal of Medical Rehabilitation, 85(9), 705-19.

Hasnain, R., Sotnik, P., and Ghiloni, C. (2003). Person centred planning: A gateway to improving vocational rehabilitation services for culturally diverse individuals with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 69 (3), 10 – 17.

Hasnain, R., Kondratowicz, D., Borokhovski, E., Nye, C., Balcazar, F., Portillo, N., Hanz, K., Johnson, T., and Gould, G. (2011). Do Cultural Competency Interventions Work? A Systematic Review on Improving Rehabilitation Outcomes for Ethnically and Linguistically Diverse Individuals with Disabilities. SEDL | National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

Hasnain, R., Kondratowicz, D., Portillo, N., Balcazar, F.., Johnson, T., Gould, R., Borokhovski,
Bernard, B., & C., Hanz, K. (2009). The use of culturally adapted competency interventions to improve rehabilitation service outcomes for culturally diverse individuals with disabilities. A Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review. Oslo, Norway: Campbell Collaboration, Education Review Group, Disability Subgroup.

Hayward, L. and Li, L. (2014). Promoting and Assessing Cultural Competence, Professional Identity, and Advocacy in Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) Degree Students Within a Community of Practice. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 28(1), 23-36.

Hayward, M., et. al. (2014). Does the Hispanic Paradox in U.S. Adult Mortality Extend to Disability? Population Research and Policy Review, 33: 81–96.

Hazuda, H., and Espino, D. (2011). “Sociocultural status and burden of disability in aging Mexican Americans. In J. Angel, F. Torres-Gil, & K. Markides (Eds.), Aging, health, and longevity in the Mexican-origin population (pp. 125-157). New York, NY: Springer.

Heer, K., Rose, J. and Larkin. M. (2016). Then challenges of providing culturally competent care within a disability focused team: A phenomenological exploration of staff experience. Journal of Transcultural Nursing,27(2), 109-116.

Hilliard, M., Rathsack, C., Brannigan, P., & Sander, A. (2008). Exploring the cultural adaptability of doctoral entry-level physical therapist students during clinical education experiences. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), e199-220.

Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M. Safren, S., Otto, M. and Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese Refugees with Treatment-Resistant PSTD and Panic Attacks: A Pilot Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(5), 429-433.

Horton-Ikard, R. and Muñoz, M. (2010).  Addressing multicultural issues in communication sciences and disorders.  Contemporary Issues in Communication Sciences and Disorders, 37, 167-173.

Iwana, M. (2003). Toward culturally relevant epistemologies in occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(5), 582–588.

Jamison, L., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S., and Wright, J. (2012). Preliminary investigation of longitudinal sociodemographic, injury and psychosocial characteristics in a group of non-English speaking Latinos with brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 26(6), 805-813.

Johnson, J. (2014). Validation and Affirmation of Disability and Deaf Culture: A Content Analysis of Introductory Textbooks to Special Education and Exceptionality. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 2(1), 14-15.

Johnson, J., Guinan, M., Brown, S. and Shearer, V. (2005). Disability, culture, and health disparities.

Johnstone, B., Nossaman, L., Schopp, L., Holmquist, L., and Rupright, S. (2002). Distribution of services and supports for people with traumatic brain injury in rural and urban Missouri. The Journal of Rural Health, 18,109-117.

Jones, A. (2012). Disability, health and generation status: How Hispanics in the US fare in late life. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 14: 467-474.

Jones, L., Atkin, K., & Ahmad, W. (2001). Supporting Asian deaf young people and their families: The role of professionals and services. Disability and Society, 16 (1), 51 – 70.

Kids as Self-Advocates (KASA). What is Disability Culture?  NM: KASA.

Kohnert, K. (2013). Language disorders in bilingual children and adults (2nd ed). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.

Kraemer, T. and Beckstead, J. (2003). Establishing the reliability of using the cross-cultural adaptability inventory with physical therapist students. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 17: 27-32.

Kurlowicz, L., Outlaw, F., Ratcliffe, S., and Evans, L. (2005). An exploratory study of depression among older African American users of an academic outpatient rehabilitation program. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 19(1), 3-9.

Leavitt, L. (2010): Cultural competence: A lifelong journey to cultural proficiency. Slack Books.

Lee, A., Litwin, B., Cheng, S., and Harada, N. (2012). Social Responsibility and Cultural Competence Among Physical Therapists With International Experience. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 26(3), 67-73.

Legg, C., and Penn, C. (2013). A stroke of misfortune: Cultural interpretations of aphasia in South Africa. Aphasiology, 27(2), 126–144.

Lequerica, A., and Krch, D. (2014). Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation, 34(4), 645-53.

Lewis, A., Shamburger, A., Head, C., Armstrong, A. and West, S. (2007). Section 21 of the 1992 Rehabitation Act Amendments and Diversity Articles. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 26(2), 98-96.

Lindsay, S., Tétrault, S., Desmaris, C., King, G., & Piérart, G. (2014). The cultural brokerage work of occupational therapists in providing culturally sensitive care. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 81(2), 114-123.

Lipson, J. and Rogers, J.(2000). Cultural aspects of disability. J Transcult Nurs., 11:212–219.

Maart, S., Eide, A., Jelsma, J., Loeb, M., & Toni, K. (2007). Environmental barriers experienced by urban and rural disabled people in South Africa. Disability & Society, 22(4), 357–369.

Magaña, S. Parish, S., Rose, R., Timberlake, M., and Swaine, J. (2012). Racial and ethnic disparities in quality of health care among children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, 50: 287-299.

Marks, B. (2007). Cultural competence revisited: Nursing students with disabilities. J Nurs Edu., 46:70–74.

Marquez, C., Hewlitt, M., de Oliveira, A., Hudak, A., Harper, C., Shafi, S., and Diaz-Arrastia, R. (2007). Ethnic differences in rehabilitation placement and outcome after TBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22,113–121.

Matarazzo, B., Hoffberg, A., Clemans, T., Signoracci, G., Simpson, G. & Brenner, L. (2014). Cross-cultural adaptation of the Window to Hope: A psychological intervention to reduce hopelessness among US Veterans with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 28 (10), 1238-1247.

Matt, S. (2008). Nurses with disabilities: Self-reported experiences as hospital employees. Qualitative Health Research, 18: 1524-1535.

Matteliano, M., and Stone, A. (2014). Cultural Competence Education in University Rehabilitation Programs. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 21(3), 112-118.

Matzious, V., Galanis, P., Tsoumakas, C., Gymnopoulou, E., Perdikaris, P., and Brolalaki,  H. (2009). Attitudes of nurse professionals and nursing students towards children with disabilities: Do nurses really overcome children’s physical and mental handicaps? International Nursing Research, 56: 456-460.

Mehta, N., Sudharsanan, N., and Elo, I. (2014). “Race/Ethnicity and Disability Among Older Americans.” In K. Whitfield and T. Baker (Eds.), Handbook of Minority Aging. New York: Springer.

Melville, C. (2005). Discrimination and health inequalities experienced by disabled people. Med Educ., 39(2), 124–126.

Menendez, M., and Ring, D. (2014). Racial and insurance disparities in the utilization of supportive care after inpatient admission for proximal humerus fracture. Shoulder & Elbow, 1758573214536702.

Mir, G., A. Nocon, W. Ahmad and L. Jones (2001). Learning difficulties and ethnicity. Report to the Department of Health by the Centre for Research in Primary Care, University of Leeds, Department of Health, UK.

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW (2000). Ethnicity and Disability Factbook. Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW (2004). Factsheet No. 1: Number of People from a Non-English Speaking Background with Disability in NSW. Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW (2004). Factsheet No. 5: Cultural Competence Checklist for Workers. Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW (2004). Factsheet No.10: The Good Translation Guide. Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW (2004). How Many People From a NESB with Disability in NSW Are There? Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.  

Multicultural Disability Advocacy Association of NSW. (2000). Less Talk, More Action: Advancing Cultural Diversity and Disability in 21st Century NSW. Multicultural Disability and Advocacy Association of NSW Inc.: Parramatta, NSW, Australia.

Murden, R., Norman, A., Ross, J., Sturdivant, E., Kedia, M., & Shah, S. (2008). Occupational therapy students’ perceptions of their cultural awareness and competency. Occupational Therapy International, 15(3), 191-203.

Mutchler, J., Prakash, A., and Burr, J. (2007). The Demography of Disability and the Effects of Immigrant History: Older Asians in the United States.  Demography, 44(2), 251–63.

Myaskovsky, L., Burkitt, K., Lichy, A., et al. (2011). The association of race, cultural factors, and health-related quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 92:441-8.

Nathenson, P. (2009). Culturally competent care complements interactions with people with disabilities. Rehabil Nurs., 34(3), 91–95. 109.

National Council on Disability (2003). Outreach and People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures: A Review of the Literature.

Nehring, W. (2007). Cultural considerations for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Pediatr Nurs., 22:93–102.

Niemeier, J., Burnett, D., and Whitaker DA. (2003). Cultural competence in the multidisciplinary rehabilitation setting: Are we falling short of meeting needs? Arch Phys Med Rehabil.  84(8):1240-5.

Odawara, E. (2005). Cultural competency in occupational therapy: Beyond a cross-cultural view of practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59: 325–334.

O’Hara, J. (2003). Learning disabilities and ethnicity: Achieving cultural competence. Adv Psychiatr Treat, 9:166–76.

Omu, O. and Reynolds, F. (2012). Health professionals’ perceptions of cultural influences on stroke experiences and rehabilitation in Kuwait. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(2), 119–127.

Palombaro, K., Dole, R. and Black, J. (2015). Curricular Integration and Measurement of Cultural Competence Development in a Group of Physical Therapy Students. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(5), 82-96.

Palombaro, K. and Lattanzi, J. (2012). Calculating the minimal detectable change for a cultural competency tool. PTJ-PAL, 12(1), J1-J7.

Panzarella, K. (2009). Beginning with the end in mind: Evaluating outcomes of cultural competence instruction in a doctor of physical therapy programme. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(14), 1144-1152.

Panzarella, K. and Matteliano, M. (2008). In J. Stone and M.  Matteliano (Eds.), A guide to cultural competence in the curriculum: Physical therapy. Buffalo, NY: Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange (CIRRIE).

Pappadis, M., Sander, A., Struchen, M., Leung, P., & Smith, D. (2011). Common misconceptions about traumatic brain injury among ethnic minorities with TBI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26 (4), 301-311.

Penn, C. (2014). Asking new questions and seeking new answers: The reality of aphasia practice in South Africa. Top Language Disorders, 34(2), 168–181.

Perrin, P., Krch, D., Sutter, M., Snipes, D., Arango-Lasprilla, J., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S., and Lequerica, A. (2014). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Over the First 2 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Model Systems Study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95: 2288–2295.

Peterson-Besse, J., Walsh, E., Horner-Johnson, W., Goode, T., & Wheeler, B. (2014). Barriers to Health Care Among People With Disabilities Who are Members of Underserved Racial/Ethnic Groups: A Scoping Review of the Literature. Medical Care, 52, S51-S63.

Prince, D., Sobolev, M., Gao, J. and Taub., C. (2014). Racial disparities in cardiac rehabilitation initiation and the effect on survival. PM R, 6(6), 486-92.

Putman, K., Horn, S., Smout, R., Dejong, G., Deutscher, D., Tian, W. and  Hsieh, C. (2010). Racial disparities in stroke functional outcomes upon discharge from inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Disabil Rehabil., 32(19), 1604-11.

Quality Interaction. (2015). Cultural Competency Feature: Disability and Health Equity. Quality Interactions Newsletter, #48. WtydOTYSXNz3RsC4zLhTNyM_YEuT68?w=3

Rasmussen, T., Lloyd, C., & Wielandt, T. (2005). Cultural awareness among Queensland undergraduate occupational therapy students. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 52(4), 302-310.

Robey, K., Minihan, P., Long-Bellil, L., Hahn, J., Reiss, J. and Eddey, G. (2013). Teaching health care students about disability within a cultural competency context. Disability and Health Journal, 6(4), 271-279.

Romanello, M. (2007). Integration of cultural competence in physical therapist education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 21(1), 33-39.

Sander, A., Pappadis, M., Davis, L., et al. (2009). Relationship of race/ethnicity and income to community integration following traumatic brain injury: Investigation in a non-rehabilitation trauma sample. NeuroRehabil, 24:15-27.

Schenker, M. (2008). Work-related injuries among immigrants: A growing global health disparity. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 65: 717-718.

Scott, H.  and Havercamp, S.  (2014). Race and health disparities in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities living in the United States. Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, 52: 409-418.

Shpigelman, C., Zlotnick, C. and Brand, R. (2016). Attitudes toward nursing students with disabilities: Promoting social inclusion. Journal of Nursing Education, 55(8), 441-449,

Smith, R. (2001). “View from the ivory tower: Academics constructing disability.” In L. Rogers and B. Swadener, Semiotics & dis/ability (pp. 55-74). NY: State University of New York.

Smith, T., Polloway, E., Patton, J., & Dowdy, C. (2004). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Smith, T., Roth, J., Okoro, O., Kimberlin, C. and Odedina, F. (2012). Disability in Cultural Competency Pharmacy Education.  American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(2), 26.

Smith-Wexler, L. (2015). Cultural competency in TBI rehabilitation: Working together with the ethnic minority population with TBI. Office on Disability Issues in Psychology: Spotlight of Disability Newsletter (July), 7(2).

Sood, D., Cepa, D., Dsouza, A., Saha, S., Aikat, R., and Tuuk, A. (2014). Impact of International Collaborative Project on Cultural Competence among Occupational Therapy Students. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2(3) Article 7.

Staudenmayer, K., Diaz-Arrastia, R., de Oliveria, A., Gentilello, L. & Shafi, S. (2007). Ethnic disparities in long-term functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma, 63:1364-9.

Steed, R. (2010). Attitudes and beliefs of occupational therapists participating in a cultural competency workshop. Occupational Therapy International, 17(3), 142-151.

Stone, J. (2005). Culture and disability: Providing culturally competent services. Sage Publications, Inc.

Suarez-Balcazar, Y., and Rodakowski, J. (2007). Becoming a culturally competent occupational therapy practitioner: Practical ways to increase cultural competence. OT Practice, 12(17), 14-17.

Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Rodawoski, J., Balcazar, F., Taylor-Ritzler, T., Portillo, N., Barwacz, D., & Willis, C. (2009). Perceived levels of cultural competence among occupational therapists. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(4), 498-505.

Taylor, E., and Jones, F. (2014). Lost in translation: Exploring therapists’ experiences of providing stroke rehabilitation across a language barrier. Disability & Rehabilitation (0), 1-9.

Taylor-Ritzler, T., Balcazar, F., Dimpfl, S., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Willis. C., and Schiff, R. (2008). Cultural competence training with organizations serving people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 29(2), 77-91.

Thomas, J. (2013). Cultural competency in OT: Building bridges through international service learning. Advance for Occupational Therapy Practitioners, 29(14), 15-27.

Truong, M., Paradies, Y., & Priest, N. (2014). Interventions to improve cultural competency in healthcare: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Health Services Research, 14 (1), 99.

Walker, K. (2001). Caregivers’ views on the cultural appropriateness of services for children with emotional or behavioural disorders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10 (3), 315 – 331.

Wegner, L. and Rhoda, A. (2015). The influence of cultural beliefs on the utilisation of rehabilitation services in a rural South African context: Therapists’ perspective. African Journal of Disability, 4(1), Art. #128, 8 pages.

Wells, S. (2011). The American Occupational Therapy Association Advisory Opinion for the Ethics Commission Cultural Competency and Ethical Practice orat e/Files/Practice/Ethics/Ad iso  ry/Cultural-Competency.pdf 

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Wells, S. and Black, R. (2000). Cultural competency for health professionals. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

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