Mentoring And Recruitment & Retention
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Bosher, S. (2003). Barriers to creating a more culturally diverse nursing profession: Linguistic bias in multiple choice nursing exams. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24:25–34.
Bosher, S., and Bowles, M. (2008). The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students’ comprehension of nursing course test items. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(3), 165-172.
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Branch, M. (2001). Recruitment of minorities into the nursing profession. Minority Nurse Newsletter, 8(2), 1-3.
Broome, B. and Fox, O. (2001). Mentoring: A Supporting Act for African American Students and Faculty. ABNF Journal, 12: 9-11.
Brown, J. (2008). Developing an English-as-a-Second-Language Program for Foreign-Born Nursing Students at an Historically Black University in the United States. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(2), 184-191.
Brown, V. (2005). Culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students education: A grounded theory study. PhD Thesis, Curtine University of Technology.
Brown, J., and Marshall, B. (2008). A Historically Black University’s Baccalaureate Enrollment and Success Tactics for Registered Nurses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24: 21-29.
Buchbinder, H. (2007). How to Increase Latino Participation in the Nursing Workforce: Best Practices at California Nursing Schools. Los Angeles. CA: The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California.
Buchwald, D., and Dick, R. (2011). Weaving the native web: Using social network analysis to demonstrate the value of a minority career development program. Acad Med, 86: 778–786.
Burnard, P. (2005). Issues in Helping Students From Other Cultures. Nurse Education Today, 25: 176-180.
Butler, P., Britt, D., Green, M., Longaker, M., Geis, W., Franklin Jr, M., Ruhalter, A., and Fullum, T. (2010). The diverse surgeons initiative: An effective method for increasing the number of under-represented minorities in academic surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 211(4), 561-566.
Cameron, L. (2010). Supporting Indigenous nursing students. Australian Nursing Journal, 18(6), 39.
Campbell, B. (2008). Enhancing communication skills in ESL students within a community college setting. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 3:100–104.
Campbell-Heider, N., Sackett, K., and Whistler, M. (2008). Connecting with Guidance Counselors to Enhance Recruitment into Nursing of Minority Teens. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20: 202-210.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). A Culturally Conscious Model of Mentoring. Nurse Educator, 35(3), 130-135.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring (IAPCC-M). Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates; OH (transculturalcare.net/iapcc-m/)
Candela, L., Kowalski, S., Cyrkiel, D., & Warner, D. (2004). Meeting the At-risk Challenge: Empowering Nursing Students Through Mentoring. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), Article.
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Cantu, A. and Rogers, N. (2007). Creating a Mentoring and Community Culture in Nursing. Hispanic Health Care International, 5(3), 124-127.
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The National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) – A unified force advocating for equity and justice in nursing and health care for ethnic minority populations. http://ncemna.org/
Association of American Colleges and University’s Diversity and Inclusive Excellence – This web site provides resources that bring together faculty and institutions of higher learning to provide national leadership that advances diversity and equity in higher education, and the best educational practices for an increasingly diverse population. http://www.aacu.org/resources/diversity/index.cfm
Association of American Medical College (AAMC) – Produced by the Association of American Medical College (AAMC), the following reports focus on diversity in medical education: Striving Toward Excellence: Faculty Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Tools for Assessing and Measuring Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Exploring Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Successfully Evaluating Diversity Efforts in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Getting to Institutional Excellence: Ensuring the Integration of Diversity in Academic Medicine (PDF); Physician Specialty Data: A Chart Book (Center for Workforce Studies) (PDF); The Role of the Chief Diversity Officer in Academic Health Centers (PDF); Roadmap to Diversity: Integrating Holistic Review Practices into Medical School Admission Processes (PDF); Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts & Figures 2010 (PDF).
Selected Minority Mentoring Programs In Nursing:
UND RAIN – The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The RAIN Program will incorporate a range of proven, culturally specific recruitment, retention, and mentoring strategies to assist the Next Steps project in meeting its goals. The RAIN Program is recognized as a premiere program for assisting American Indians to access and complete professional nursing education. The retention rate for RAIN nursing students at UND is above 90 percent. Eighty-three percent of RAIN graduates return to work in tribal communities. For more information contact: Becky Cournia, 701-777-4526; email@example.com.
Project DIVERSITY – Project DIVERSITY is a University of New Mexico Health Science Center IRB-approved research program aimed to recruit and prepare underserved ethnic minority students for a career in nursing. Project DIVERSITY stands for Develop/Increase the Voice of Ethnic, Racial Students and Interns Through Youth. It is a Partners Invested in Nursing (PIN) Project that used mentoring to help minority students complete high school and enter college with nursing as a major (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010). This project provides nurse mentoring, bi-monthly nursing workshops, tutoring, a six-week summer program, college preparation, and job shadowing opportunities. Because most of the students came from families who did not support them academically, students reported that the nurse mentoring and job shadowing helped them stay motivated in their studies, focus on a career, and finish school.
ACTS – A Chance to Succeed Minority Mentoring Program mission is to recruit and retain nursing students at the University of Michigan-Flint. Objectives include: assisting students with system barriers; providing counseling/advising specific to the nursing program; addressing minority student’s issues related to lack of trust/racism, fear and negative perceptions of the nursing program; and clarifying information. ACTS is based at University of Michigan-Flint Department of Nursing. http://www.umflint.edu/nursing/ACTS/history
RRANN – Recruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing is housed at the University of Alaska Anchorage School of Nursing. RRRAN began in 1998 with federal grant funds to recruit and mentor Alaska Native/American Indian students to pursue nursing degrees. RRANN offers tutoring services, group meetings to help you connect with your peers, and a staff of student success facilitators that offer career and personal advice to aid you on your road to successfully completing the nursing program. http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/schoolofnursing/RRANN
ASUN – American Indian Students United for Nursing was established at the Arizona State University College of Nursing & Health Innovation in the fall of 1990 through a section 112 grant from Indian Health Service (IHS). The grant provides scholarships for students in the Traditional Pre-Licensure Clinical Nursing program. The ASUN Project seeks to support and add to curriculum material and clinical opportunities which focus on American Indian health issues. The goals of this program are to recruit American Indians/Alaskan Natives into the various programs at ASU College of Nursing & Health Innovation, provide programming to empower American Indian/Alaskan Natives students to successfully complete their studies in nursing, increase the number of American Indian/Alaskan Natives nurses, and increase the number of nurses providing care to American Indians/Alaskan Natives. https://nursingandhealth.asu.edu/admissions/american-indian-students-united-for-nursing.
The Wokunze Project – This program provides scholarships for qualified American Indian individuals to pursue full-time study in a program leading toward a baccalaureate degree in nursing at SDSU. The Wokunze Project is funded by the Indian Health Service under Section 112 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, as amended.
CO-OP – Caring for Our Own Program is a Reservation/University Partnership. CO-OP works with a state-wide advisory board with members from each reservation who represent the education and health sectors. The advisory board acts as a liaison between the reservation communities and CO-OP. Board members identify perspective nursing students as well as effective outreach strategies to use in their respective communities. Contact: Roberta K. Olson, RN, PhD, Project Director, South Dakota State University College of Nursing, Box 2275, Brookings, SD 57007-0098, (888) 216-9806, Roberta_Olson@sdstate.edu. Or contact the National Alaska Native/American Indian Nurses Association at (888) 566-8773.
DREAMWork – Diversity Recruitment and Education to Advance Minorities in the Nursing Workforce is housed in the School of Nursing of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. This program started in 2007 with a grant from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and is designed to increase nursing opportunities for under-represented minority students. It includes the introduction of nursing as a career to students in middle and high school. Mentoring is one of the supports it offers along with individualized planning, coaching, tutoring, and intensive summer programs.
ALCANCE – Aid Latino Community to Attain Nursing Career Employment is based in the College of Nursing of the Washington State University. “Alcance” means “reach” in Spanish. The program was developed to increase the diversity among nurses in the rural, medically underserved Yakima Valley of Washington State. It is intended to provide nursing education opportunities for minority students (largely Native American and Latino/Hispanic) from “disadvantaged backgrounds.” Students enter the program through the Yakima School District Hispanic Academic Achievement Program (HAAP), the College of Nursing’s NARR for middle and high school students, and the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic (YVFWC) where employees or community members who have an interest in a nursing career are eligible to apply.
Gator-Cats Mentoring Program – Students complete their nursing degree at a small, liberal arts, historically African-American college with a strong religious affiliation and then go on to graduate studies at a large, mostly White public university with no religious affiliation. To encourage the recruitment and successful transition of students, the Gator-Cats mentoring program was started. The Gator-Cats mentoring program is a collaboration between the nursing programs at Bethune-Cookman College (B-CC) and the University of Florida (UF). The name derives from the mascots of both schools – the Wildcats of B-CC and the Gators of UF.
PRIDE – Partnerships for Recruitment, Involvement, Diversity and Excellence in Nursing is based at the UNC-Chapel Hill School of Nursing. The program includes support for recruitment, mentoring, academic tutoring and application assistance at participating middle and high schools, the General College, and historically black colleges and universities.
SCRUBS – SCRUBS Program, a workforce diversity project, is aimed at middle and high school students interested in pursuing nursing as a career, and to increase retention and graduation rates of the students enrolled in the program. This program works primarily with schools in Bulloch County and its surrounding counties in the state of Georgia. The program is based at Georgia Southern University School of Nursing.
Juntos Podemos” Program (Together We Can) – This program is housed at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Nursing (UTHSCSA SON). This is a Protégé-to-Mentor program in which students start as a protégé and take on the role as mentor in their second semester while continuing as a protégé. This dual role continues throughout their course of studies. The program is very successful with a high rate of students passing the NCLEX on their first attempt. This program also includes a Leadership Council, an advisory committee that partners with the local community on empowerment around health issues. This program contributes to the recruitment and retention of students.
N-NURSE – Facilitates workshops to improve mentoring skills using the culturally embedded Navajo Nursing Pathway of Mentorship developed by N-NURSE’s curriculum development team. The curriculum model uses the Navajo Philosophy of the Four Directions and Sacred Mountains that border Navajol to organize the content and educational resource materials. One major theme of the curriculum is to use the Navajo concept of Ke’, a word for relationships. Using Ke’, Nurses can foster positive working environments where ‘nurses nurture nurse — nursing leaders from your communities. The purpose of N-NURSE is to continue development of a network of trained mentors throughout the Navajo Nation that will provide community members interested in nursing a mentor while pursuing a nursing degree or advancing in their nursing career. http://n-nurse.org/mentorship.htm l #pathway
SMDEP – The Summer Medical and Dental Education Program is a six-week, summer academic enrichment program for freshman and sophomore college students interested in a career in medicine or dentistry. The program’s goal is to help increase the competitiveness of college students from disadvantaged backgrounds for application to medical and dental school. SMDEP is implemented at 12 program sites across the nation. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/programs/summer-medical-and-dental-education-summit
Mentorship Model for Retention of Minority Students – The Mentorship Model for the Retention of Minority Students was developed by the Medical College of Georgia School of Nursing in July 2001. This program, funded by a grant, is designed to recruit and retain African-American students. Having reviewed obstacles to the retention of minority students, staff developed a model that incorporates four supporting concepts: academic support, financial support, self-development, and professional/ leadership development. A prenursing alliance has been established with a historically Black university from which most of the students transfer. A summer enrichment program offers incoming students an introduction to the new learning environment, teaching methods, and learning expectations. There is a faculty-led student support group that meets monthly and provides personal and emotional support. In the model diagrammed below, mentorship is seen as a common theme for all of the supporting concepts. Mentoring guides the program’s strategies and activities. Mentors are faculty members, other students, and minority nurse leaders in the community.
Minority Mentoring Program – Developed in 2008 by Dr. Judith Lightsey of the Radiation Oncology department, the OMA Medical Student Mentoring Program is designed to provide support and guidance to minority medical students at the University of Florida College of Medicine. This program creates a connection between current medical students and health professionals within the University of Florida and Shands health care system. The goal is to develop the program into a more structured activity whereby mentors are available to meet with their student throughout the academic year. The program is aimed at entering first year medical students however interested upperclassmen may also apply. The program involves both UF faculty and community physicians in the mentoring process.
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Mentoring Program – The SNMA Chapter of the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine is devoted to increasing the level of minority student recruitment, admissions, and retention at the Carver College of Medicine. The program is devoted to encouraging the promotion and development of minority residents, fellows and faculty members in order to increase the presence of minority mentors at the Carver College of Medicine. The mentoring program for undergraduates focuses on three components: 1) success in college; 2) careers in healthcare; and 3) success in life. Undergraduate students are paired up with a minority medical student and a PhD student when possible. The pairing process respects similar backgrounds and interests. The primary objective of the program is to provide students with the network of support needed to succeed in the university and beyond. Casual one on one interaction is available, as well as opportunities for involvement in extracurricular activities.
MIM – Mentoring In Medicine is an organization that works with students in disadvantaged areas from 3rd grade through health professional schools. They ignite, cultivate, and prepare students to become health care professionals by allowing prospective students to interact with established expert health care professionals around the country. Among the programs that MIM sponsors is an annual health fair in New York; dinner with doctors and other healthcare professionals; MIM Web television; National Mentoring in Medicine Day; Morgan’s Big Biology Test (an interactive hip-hop stage play); an advanced biology, human disease, and health careers program (after school and in-class electives); a medical pathway program for college students; and the surviving and thriving in medical school empowerment series. http://medicalmentor.org/
PMI – Pipeline Mentoring Institute recognized that many of the barriers to greater diversity within the medical profession lie within the continuum of elementary through undergraduate education. Therefore, PMI seeks to close the gap in preparing under-represented minority students for a career in medicine and other health-related professions.
STARS– STARS stands for Stimulating interest in nursing; Tutoring and mentoring students; Assisting with career and financial resources; Recruiting and retaining pre-nursing and upper-division nursing students; and Strengthening the health care community with BSN-prepared nurses from diverse backgrounds. STARS goal is to increase nursing education opportunities for ethnically and racially diverse individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, including Hispanics, the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) School of Nursing designed a program that takes a comprehensive approach. The multifaceted STARS for Nursing project ranges from educating high school students about health care careers to providing academic, financial and personal support to help recruit, retain and graduate minority nursing students. The three-year HRSA grant that funded the STARS project has ended, but the initiative has been so successful that the school plans to continue.
Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program – This program provides four-year postdoctoral research awards to physicians and dentists from historically underrepresented groups. The longstanding program seeks to increase the number of senior-level physicians and dentists from historically disadvantaged backgrounds in academic medicine and dentistry. Up to nine research awards are given each year, and scholars devote four consecutive years to basic/biomedical, clinical, or health services/epidemiology research. The award facilitates the transition of newly-trained clinicians who wish to develop into independent investigators. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/sites/default/files/RWJF_AnniversaryBooklet.pdf
Project L/EARN – This is an intensive, 10-week summer internship for undergraduate college students who are from socioeconomic, ethnic, and cultural groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in graduate education. The program provides students with training, experience and mentoring to make them stronger candidates for admission to graduate programs. The internships provide students with a $4,000 stipend, tuition, and room and board for the duration of the 10-week program. Students also receive three academic credits for the program. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/programs/project-learn