Mentoring And Recruitment & Retention

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Adams, L., Campbell, J. and Deming, K. (2017). Diversity: A key aspect of 21st century faculty roles as implemented in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program. Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 267-277.

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Allan, H. (2011). Mentoring overseas nurses: Barriers to effective and non-discriminatory mentoring practices. Nursing Ethics, 17(5), 603–613.

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Andersen, R., Friedman, J., Carreon, D., Bai, J., Nakazono, T., Afifi, A., Gutierrez, J. (2009). Recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority and low-income dental students: Effects of the pipeline program. J Dent Educ, 73(Suppl 2), S238-S258.

Anonson, J., June, M., Desjarlais, J., Nixon, J., Whiteman, L., & Bird, A. (2008). Strategies to Support Recruitment and Retention of First Nations Youth in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs in Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 274-283.

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Baik, C., and Greig, J. (2009). Improving the Academic Outcomes of Undergraduate ESL Students: The Case for Discipline-Based Academic Skills Programs. Higher Education Research and Development, 28(4), 410-416.

Baker, B. (2010). Faculty Ratings of  Retention Strategies for Minority Nursing Students. Nursing Education Perspective, 31(4), 216-220.

Barbe, T., Kimble, L.P., Bellury, L.M., & Rubenstein, C. (2018). Predicting student attrition using social determinants: Implications for a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(5), 352-356.

Barker, M. (2007). Cross-cultural mentoring in institutional contexts. The Negro Educational review, 58(1/2), 85-103.

Balogun, J., Sloan, P. and Hardney, K. (2005). Health professions career awareness program for seventh and eight grade African American students: A pilot study. Journal of Allied Health, 34(4).

Banister, G., Bowen-Brady, H. & Winfrey, M. (2014). Using career nurse mentors to support minority nursing students and facilitate their transition to practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30: 317–325. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2013.11.00.

Banister, G. and Winfrey, M. (2012). Enhancing diversity in nursing: A partner­ship approach. J Nurs Admin, 42:176-81.

Bankston, K. (2013). How Mentoring Programs Influence Workforce Diversity. Minority Nurse.

Barbatis, P. (2010). Underprepared, ethnically diverse community college students: Factors contributing to persistence. Journal of Developmental Education, 33(3), 14-24.

Barfield, J., Cobler, D., Lam, E., Zhang, J. & Chitiyo, G. (2012). Differences Between African-American and Caucasian Students on Enrollment Influences and Barriers in Kinesiology-based Allied Health Education Programs. Advances in Physiology Education, 36: 164–169.

Barton, A., and Swider, S. (2009). Creating Diversity in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program: A Case Study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6(1), 1-15.

Batykefer, D. (2013). Examining the Influence of Noncognitive Variables on the Retention of Minority Baccalaureate Nursing Students to Complete Their Program of Study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(3), 148-154.

Beacham, T., Askew, R., and Williams, R. (2009). Strategies to Increase Racial/Ethnic Student participation in the Nursing Profession. ABNF Journal, 20(3), 69-72.

Beard, V. and Volcy, K. (2013). Increasing minority representation in nursing: A more diverse faulty is crucial. American Journal of Nursing, 113(2), 11.

Beard,K, and Julion, A. (2016). Does race still matter in nursing? The narratives of African American Nursing faculty members.  Nursing Outlook, 64(6), 583-596.

Beard, K, (2014). Strengthening Diverse in Nursing: The Practices and Preparedness of Nursing Faculty. Journal of of Nursing Educaion and Practice, 4(11), 59-64.

Bednarz, H., Schim, S., & Doorenbos, A. (2010). Cultural Pitfalls in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls. Journal of Nursing Education, 49, 253-260.

Beech, B., Calles-Escandon, J., Hairston, K., Langdon, S., Latham-Sadler, B., and Bell, R. (2013). Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medical Centers: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Acad Med, 88(4).

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Bellefleur, C., Bennett-Murray J., Gulino M., Liebert, D. & Mirabito, M. (2009). Minority nursing students: Strategies for retention. Journal of National Black Nurses Association, 20(1), 42-51.

Benavides-Vaello, S., Katz, J., Peterson, C., Allen, C., Paul, R., Charette-Bluff, A., and Morris, P. (2014). Nursing and Health Sciences Workforce Diversity Research Using PhotoVoice: A College and High School Student Participatory Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(4), 217-222.

Bennett, M. P., Lovan, S., Smith, M., & Elllis-Griffith, C. (2021). Nursing’s leaky pipeline: Barriers to a diverse nursing workforce. Journal of Professional Nursing, 37(2), 441– 450.

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Bessent, H. (2002). Minority nurses in the new century. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association.

Bindler, R., Allen, C., & Paul, R. (2004). Native American Learning: An Integrative Model. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(5), 237-240.

Blake-Beard, S., Bayne, L., Crosby, F., and Muller, C. (2011). Matching by Race and Gender in Mentoring Relationships: Keeping Our Eyes on the Prize. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3): 622–643.

Bland, C., Taylor, A., and Schollenberg, S. Mentoring Systems: Benefits and Challenges of Diverse Mentoring Partnerships. Association of American College of Medicine (ACCM).

Blythe, J., Baumann, A., Rheaume, A. and McIntosh, K. (2008). Nurse Migration to Canada: Pathways and Pitfalls of Workforce Integration. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20(2), 202-210.

Bolstad, A., Xu, Y., Shen, J., Covelli, M., & Torpey, M. (2012). Use of standardized patients and inter-rater reliability in a study on communication competence of international nurses. Nursing & Health Sciences, 14: 67-73.

Bond, M., Carson, C. and Baxley, S. (2015). Institutional Support for Diverse Populations: Perceptions of Hispanic and African American Students and Program Faculty. Nursing Outlook, 62: 259-267.

Bond, M., Gray, J., Baxley, S., Cason, and Denke, L. (2008). Voices of Hispanic Students in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: Are We Listening? Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(3), 136-142.

Boruff, S. (2012). Experiences of Success by Minority Students Attending a Predominantly Caucasian Nursing Program. Dissertation: East Tennessee State University.

Bosch, P., Doshier, S., & Gess-Newsom, J. (2012). Bilingual nurse education program: Applicant characteristics that predict success. Nursing Education Research, 33(2), 90-95.

Bosher, S. (2003). Barriers to creating a more culturally diverse nursing profession: Linguistic bias in multiple choice nursing exams. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24:25–34.

Bosher, S., and Bowles, M. (2008). The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students’ comprehension of nursing course test items. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(3), 165-172.

Boughton, M., Halliday, L. and Brown, L. (2010). A Tailored Program of Support for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Nursing Students in a Graduate Entry Masters Course: A Qualitative Evaluation of Outcomes. Nurse Education Practice, 10: 355-360.

Boutte, G. and Jackson, T. (2014). Advice to white allies: Insights from faculty of color. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 17(5), 623-642.

Brathwaithe-Gardner, A. (2006).  Transcending historical relationships: A qualitative study of the experiences of White men who mentor Black men. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3254489)

Branch, M. (2001). Recruitment of minorities into the nursing profession. Minority Nurse Newsletter, 8(2), 1-3.

Brody, A., Farley, J., Gillespie, G., Hickman, R., Hodges, E., Lyder, C., Palazzo, S., Ruppar, T. Schiavenato, M and Pesut, D. (2017). Diversity dynamics: The experience of male Robert Wood Johnson Foundation nurse faculty scholars . Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 278-288.

Broome, B. and Fox, O. (2001). Mentoring: A Supporting Act for African American Students and Faculty. ABNF Journal, 12: 9-11.

Brown, J. (2008). Developing an English-as-a-Second-Language Program for Foreign-Born Nursing Students at an Historically Black University in the United States. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(2), 184-191.

Brown, V. (2005). Culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students education: A grounded theory study. PhD Thesis, Curtine University of Technology.

Brown, J., and Marshall, B. (2008). A Historically Black University’s Baccalaureate Enrollment and Success Tactics for Registered Nurses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24: 21-29.

Buchbinder, H. (2007). How to Increase Latino Participation in the Nursing Workforce: Best Practices at California Nursing Schools. Los Angeles. CA: The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California.

Buchwald, D., and Dick, R. (2011). Weaving the native web: Using social network analysis to demonstrate the value of a minority career development program. Acad Med, 86: 778–786.

Burnard, P. (2005). Issues in Helping Students From Other Cultures. Nurse Education Today, 25: 176-180.

Butler, P., Britt, D., Green, M., Longaker, M., Geis, W., Franklin Jr, M., Ruhalter, A., and Fullum, T. (2010). The diverse surgeons initiative: An effective method for increasing the number of under-represented minorities in academic surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 211(4), 561-566.

Cameron, L. (2010). Supporting Indigenous nursing students. Australian Nursing Journal, 18(6), 39.

Campbell, K., Rodriguez, J. (2018). Mentoring Underrepresented Minority in Medicine (URMM) Students Across Racial, Ethnic, and Institutional Differences. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(5), 421-423.

Campbell, B. (2008).  Enhancing communication skills in ESL students within a community college setting. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 3:100–104.

Campbell-Heider, N., Sackett, K., and Whistler, M. (2008). Connecting with Guidance Counselors to Enhance Recruitment into Nursing of Minority Teens. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20: 202-210.

Campbell, J., McBride, A., Etcher, L, and Deming, K. (2017). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program leadership training.  Nursing Outlook, 65(3), 290-302.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). A Culturally Conscious Model of Mentoring. Nurse Educator, 35(3), 130-135.

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring (IAPCC-M). Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates; OH (

Candela, L., Kowalski, S., Cyrkiel, D., & Warner, D. (2004). Meeting the At-risk Challenge: Empowering Nursing Students Through Mentoring. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), Article.

Canales, M., Torres, S., & Villarruel, A. (2001). Bridges and Barriers: Educational Mobility of Hispanic Nurses. Journal Of Nursing Education, 40: 245-251.

Cantu, A. and Rogers, N. (2007). Creating a Mentoring and Community Culture in Nursing. Hispanic Health Care International, 5(3), 124-127.

Caputi, L., Engelmann, L., and Stasinopoulos, J. (2006).  An interdisciplinary approach to the needs of non- native speaking nursing students. Nurse Educator, 31:107–111.

Carnevale, T. and Priode, K. (2018). “The good ole' girls' nursing club”: The male student perspective.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing29, 285–29.

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Cason, C., Bond, M., Gleason-Wynn, P., Coggin, C., Trevino, E., & Lopez, M. (2008). Perceived Barriers and Needed Supports for Today’s Hispanic Students in the Health Professions: Voices of Seasoned Hispanic Health Professionals. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(1), 41-49.

Castro, A., and Ruiz, E. (2009). The Effects of Nurse Practitioner Cultural Competence Latina Patient Satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21: 278-286.

Cavazos, J., Johnson, M., Fielding, C., Cavazos, A., Castro, V., & Vela, L. (2010). A qualitative study of resilient Latina/o college students. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(3), 172-188. doi: 10.1080/15348431003761166

Cech, E., Metz, A., Babcock, T. and Smith, J., (2011). Caring for Our Own: The Role of Institutionalized Support Structures in Native American Nursing Student Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(9),: 524-531.

Cerna, O., Pérez, P. & Sáenz, V. (2009). Examining the precollege attributes and values of Latina/o bachelor’s degree attainers. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8: 130–157.

Chan, Z., Liu, C., Cheung, K., Hung, K., Yu, K., & Kei, S. (2013). Voices from a monitory Experiences of Chinese male nursing students in clinical practice. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7(4), 295-305.

Chandler, G., and Swanston, W. (2013). Motivating Underrepresented Students to Pursue Faculty Roles. Nurse Educator, 37(6), 233-234.

Chavous, T., Harris, A., Rivas, D., Helaire, L., & Green, L. (2004). Racial stereotypes and gender in context: African Americans at predominantly black and predominantly white colleges. Sex Roles, 51(1/2), 1-16.

Chavous, T., Rivas, D., Green, L., & Helaire, L. (2002). Role of student background, perceptions of ethnic fit, and racial identification in the academic adjustment of African American students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Black Psychology, 28: 234-260.

Childs, G., Jones, R., Nugent, K. and Cook, P. (2004). Retention of African-American Students in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: Are We Doing Enough? Journal of Professional Nursing, 20(2), 129-133.

Choi, L. (2005). Literature Review: Issues Surrounding Education of English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 16(3), 263-268.

Chwedyk, P. (Fall, 2002). Degrees of success: Academic update. Leveling the playing field for tribal colleges. Minority Nurse, 72.

Colalillo, G. 2007. Mentoring as a retention strategy in a diverse, multicultural, urban associate degree nursing program. Teaching and Learning in Nursing,  2(2), 28–33.

Coleman, L. (2008). Experiences of African American students in a predominantly white, two-year nursing program. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 19: 8-13.

Colville, J., Cottom, S., Robinette, T, Wald, H. and Waters, H. (2015). A Communiuty College Model to Support Nursing Force Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(2), 65-71.

Condon, V., Morgan, C., Miller, E., Mamier, I., Zimmerman, G. & Mazhar, W. (2013). A Program to Enhance Recruitment and Retention of Disadvantaged and Ethnically Diverse Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 24(4), 397-416.

Cora-Bramble, D. (2006). Minority faculty recruitment, retention and advancement: Applications of a resilience-based theoretical framework. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17: 251-255.

Cottingham, M. (2014). Recruiting men, constructing manhood: How health care organizations mobilize masculinities as nursing recruitment strategy. Gender and Society, 28(1), 133-156.

Cowan, P., Weeks, Y., and Wicks, M. (2015). Promoting Success of Ethnic Minority and Male Students in an Accelerated, Entry-Level Master of Nursing Program: The SUSTAIN Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), S112-S115.

Craft-Blacksheare, M. (2018). New Careers in Nursing: An Effective Model for Increasing Nursing Workforce Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(3):178-183.

Crawford, T., and Candlin, S. (2013). Investigating the Language Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students to Assist Their Completion of the Bachelor of Nursing Programme to Become Safe and Effective Practitioners. Nurse Education Today, 33: 796–801. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.03.005

Crooks, N. (2013). Mentoring as the Key to Minority Success in Nursing Education. ABNF Journal, 24(2), 47.

Crow, K., Conger, M., and Knoki-Wilson, U. (2011). Mentorship for nursing in a rural area: A program for success for working with diverse populations. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 11(2), 43-50.

Crutcher, B. (2006). Cross-cultural Mentoring: An Examination of the Perspectives of Mentors. Dissertation. Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

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Cunningham, H., Stacciarini, J. and Towle, S. (2004). Strategies to promote success on the NCLEX-RN for students with English as a second language. Nurse Educator, 29:15–19.

Curran, V., Solbers, S., LeFort, S., Fleet, L., & Hollett, A. (2008). A responsive evaluation of an Aboriginal nursing education success program. Nurse Educator, 33:13-17.

Daley, S., Palermo, A., Nivet, M., et al. (2008). Diversity in academic medicine no. 6 successful programs in minority faculty development: Ingredients of success. Mt Sinai J Med, 75:533–551.

Daley, S., Broyles, S., Rivera, L., Brennan, J., Lu, E., and Reznik, V. (2011). A conceptual model for faculty development in academic medicine: The underrepresented minority faculty experience. J Natl Med Assoc, 103:816–821.

Daley, S., Wingard, D., and Reznik, V. (2006). Improving the Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(9), 1435-1440.

Dancy, T and Jean-Marie, G. (2014). Faculty of color in higher education: Exploring the intersection of identity,  impostorship, and internal racism. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(4), 354-372.

Dapremont, J. (2011). Success in Nursing School: Black Nursing Students’ Perception of Peers, Family, and Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 254-260.

Dapremont, J. (2013). A review of minority recruitment and retention models implemented in undergraduate nursing programs. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(2), 112-119.

Dapremont, J. (2014). Black nursing students: Strategies for academic success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35: 157–161. doi:10.5480/11-563.1.

Davis, P., Davis, D., and Williams, D. (2010). Challenges and Issues Facing the Future of Nursing Education: Implications for Ethnic Minority Faculty and Students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(4), 122-126.

Davis, D. (2007). Access to Academe: The importance of mentoring to black students. The Negro Educational Review, 58: 217-231.

Davis, C. and Nichols, B. (2002). Foreign-educated nurses and the changing U.S. nursing workforce. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 26(2), 43-51.

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Deas, D., Pisano, E., Mainous, A, Johnson, N., Singleton, M., Gordon, L., ..., Reves, J. (2012).  Improving Diversity Through Strategic  Planning: A 10 Year (2002-2012) Experience at the Medical University of South Carolina. Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1548-1555.

De Los Santos, G., Hume, E., and Cortes, A. (2002). Improving the faculty’s effectiveness in increasing the success of Hispanic students in higher education-Pronto! Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1: 225-237.

Degazon, C. and Mancha, C. (2012). Changing the Face of Nursing: Reducing Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Health. Family & Community Health, 35: 5–14 doi:10.1097/FCH.0b013e3182385cf6

Delapp, T., Hautman, M., and Anderson, M. (2008). Recruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing (RRANN). Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 293-304.

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Diefenbeck, C., Michalec, B., & Alexander, R. (2016). Lived experiences of racially and ethnically underrepresented minority BSN students: A case study specifically exploring issues related to recruitment and retention. Nursing Education Perspectives (National League for Nursing), 37 (1), 41-44.

Diggs, G., Garrison-Wade, D., Estrada, D., and Galindo, R. (2009). Smiling faces and colored spaces: The experiences of faculty of color pursuing tenure in the academy. Urban Rev, 41:312–333.

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Doutrich, D., Wros, P., Valdez, M., & Ruiz, M. (2005). Professional Values of Hispanic Nurses: The Experience of Nursing Education. Hispanic Health Care International, 3(3), 161-170.

Dudas, K.  (2011). Strategies to improve NCLEX® style testing in students who speak English as an additional language. The Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1:14–23.

Duerksen, J. (2013). Retention and success of culturally diverse nursing students. The Oklahoma Nurse, 4-5.

Dumas, J. (2017). Adventures in Minority Recruiting: A Closer Look at Recruiting Minorities at Southern College of Optometry. Optometric Education, 43(1), 17-19.

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Egues, A., and Leinung, E. (2014). Antibullying Workshops: Shaping Minority Nursing Leaders Through Curriculum Innovation. Nursing Forum, 49(4), 240-246.

Elliott, B., Dorscher, J., Wirta, A., & Hill, D. (2010). Staying Connected: Native American Women Faculty Members on Experiencing Success. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 85(4), 675-9.

Englund, H. (2018). Relationship Between Marginality and Minority Status in Undergraduate Nursing Studenys. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(6), 339-346.

Escallier, L. and Fullerton, J. (2009). Process and Outcomes Evaluation of Retention Strategies Within a Nursing Workforce Diversity Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 488-494.

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Evans, B. (2008). The Importance of Educational and Social Backgrounds of Diverse Students to Nursing Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 305-313.

Evans, B. (2008). “Attached at the umbilicus:” Barriers to Educational Success for Hispanic/Latino and American Indian Nursing Students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(4), 205-217.

Evans, B. (2007). Student Perceptions: The Influence of a Nursing Diversity Workforce Grant on Retention. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 354-359.

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Walters, K. and Simoni, J. (2009). Decolonizing Strategies for Mentoring American Indians and Alaska Natives in HIV and Mental Health research. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S1), S71-6.

Wang, C., Singh, C., Bird, B. & Ives, G. (2008). The learning experiences of Taiwanese nursing students studying in Australia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19: 140–150.

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Washington, D., Erickson, J., and Ditomassi, M. (2004). Mentoring the Minority Nurse Leader of Tomorrow. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28 (3), 165-169.

Weaver, H. (2001). Indigenous nurses and professional education: riends or foes? Journal of Nursing Education, 40(6), 252-258.

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Wells, R. (2009). Social and cultural capital, race and ethnicity, and college student retention. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10(2), 103-128.

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Westa, R., Westa, L, West, K., and Ushera, K. (2011). Tjirtamai – ‘To care for’: A nursing education model designed to increase the number of Aboriginal nurses in a rural and remote Queensland community. Contemporary Nurse, 37(1), 39-48.

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Whittaker, J., Montgomery, B., Acosta, V. (2015). Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives From a Range of Academic Institutions. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 13(3), A136.

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Wilson, V., Andrews, M. & Leners, D. (2006). Mentoring as a strategy for retaining racial and ethnically diverse students in nursing programs. Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 12(3), 17–23.

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Wilson, V., Andrews, M. and Leners, D. (2006). Mentoring as a Strategy for Retaining Racial and Ethnically Diverse Students in Nursing Programs. Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health. 12(3), 17-23.

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The National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) - A unified force advocating for equity and justice in nursing and health care for ethnic minority populations.

Association of American Colleges and University’s Diversity and Inclusive Excellence -  This web site provides resources that bring together faculty and institutions of higher learning to provide national leadership that advances diversity and equity in higher education, and the best educational practices for an increasingly diverse population.

Association of American Medical College (AAMC) - Produced by the Association of American Medical College (AAMC), the following reports focus on diversity in medical education: Striving Toward Excellence: Faculty Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Tools for Assessing and Measuring Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Exploring Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Successfully Evaluating Diversity Efforts in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Getting to Institutional Excellence: Ensuring the Integration of Diversity in Academic Medicine (PDF); Physician Specialty Data: A Chart Book (Center for Workforce Studies) (PDF); The Role of the Chief Diversity Officer in Academic Health Centers (PDF); Roadmap to Diversity: Integrating Holistic Review Practices into Medical School Admission Processes (PDF); Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts & Figures 2010 (PDF).

Selected Minority Mentoring Programs
In Nursing

UND RAIN The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The RAIN Program will incorporate a range of proven, culturally specific recruitment, retention, and mentoring strategies to assist the Next Steps project in meeting its goals. The RAIN Program is recognized as a premiere program for assisting American Indians to access and complete professional nursing education. The retention rate for RAIN nursing students at UND is above 90 percent. Eighty-three percent of RAIN graduates return to work in tribal communities. For more information contact: Becky Cournia, 701-777-4526;

Project DIVERSITY – Project DIVERSITY is a University of New Mexico Health Science Center IRB-approved research program aimed to recruit and prepare underserved ethnic minority students for a career in nursing. Project DIVERSITY stands for Develop/Increase the Voice of Ethnic, Racial Students and Interns Through Youth. It is a Partners Invested in Nursing (PIN) Project that used mentoring to help minority students complete high school and enter college with nursing as a major (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010). This project provides nurse mentoring, bi-monthly nursing workshops, tutoring, a six-week summer program, college preparation, and job shadowing opportunities. Because most of the students came from families who did not support them academically, students reported that the nurse mentoring and job shadowing helped them stay motivated in their studies, focus on a career, and finish school.

ACTSA Chance to Succeed  Minority Mentoring Program mission is to recruit and retain nursing students at the University of Michigan-Flint. Objectives include: assisting students with system barriers; providing counseling/advising specific to the nursing program; addressing minority student’s issues related to lack of trust/racism, fear and negative perceptions of the nursing program; and clarifying information. ACTS is based at University of Michigan-Flint Department of Nursing.

RRANNRecruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing is housed at the University of Alaska Anchorage School of Nursing. RRRAN began in 1998 with federal grant funds to recruit and mentor Alaska Native/American Indian students to pursue nursing degrees.  RRANN offers tutoring services, group meetings to help you connect with your peers, and a staff of student success facilitators that offer career and personal advice to aid you on your road to successfully completing the nursing program.

 ASUN -  American Indian Students United for Nursing was established at the Arizona State University College of Nursing & Health Innovation in the fall of 1990 through a section 112 grant from Indian Health Service (IHS). The grant provides scholarships for students in the Traditional Pre-Licensure Clinical Nursing program. The ASUN Project seeks to support and add to curriculum material and clinical opportunities which focus on American Indian health issues. The goals of this program are to recruit American Indians/Alaskan Natives into the various programs at ASU College of Nursing & Health Innovation, provide programming to empower American Indian/Alaskan Natives students to successfully complete their studies in nursing, increase the number of American Indian/Alaskan Natives nurses, and increase the number of nurses providing care to American Indians/Alaskan Natives.

The Wokunze Project -  This program provides scholarships for qualified American Indian individuals to pursue full-time study in a program leading toward a baccalaureate degree in nursing at SDSU. The Wokunze Project is funded by the Indian Health Service under Section 112 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, as amended.

CO-OP - Caring for Our Own Program is a Reservation/University Partnership. CO-OP works with a state-wide advisory board with members from each reservation who represent the education and health sectors. The advisory board acts as a liaison between the reservation communities and CO-OP. Board members identify perspective nursing students as well as effective outreach strategies to use in their respective communities. Contact: Roberta K. Olson, RN, PhD, Project Director, South Dakota State University College of Nursing, Box 2275, Brookings, SD 57007-0098, (888) 216-9806, Or contact the National Alaska Native/American Indian Nurses Association at (888) 566-8773.

DREAMWorkDiversity Recruitment and Education to Advance Minorities in the Nursing Workforce is housed in the School of Nursing of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. This program started in 2007 with a grant from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and is designed to increase nursing opportunities for under-represented minority students. It includes the introduction of nursing as a career to students in middle and high school. Mentoring is one of the supports it offers along with individualized planning, coaching, tutoring, and intensive summer programs.

ALCANCE – Aid Latino Community to Attain Nursing Career Employment is based in the College of Nursing of the Washington State University. “Alcance” means “reach” in Spanish. The program was developed to increase the diversity among nurses in the rural, medically underserved Yakima Valley of Washington State. It is intended to provide nursing education opportunities for minority students (largely Native American and Latino/Hispanic) from “disadvantaged backgrounds.” Students enter the program through the Yakima School District Hispanic Academic Achievement Program (HAAP), the College of Nursing’s NARR for middle and high school students, and the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic (YVFWC) where employees or community members who have an interest in a nursing career are eligible to apply.

Gator-Cats Mentoring Program -  Students complete their nursing degree at a small, liberal arts, historically African-American college with a strong religious affiliation and then go on to graduate studies at a large, mostly White public university with no religious affiliation. To encourage the recruitment and successful transition of students, the Gator-Cats mentoring program was started. The Gator-Cats mentoring program is a collaboration between the nursing programs at Bethune-Cookman College (B-CC) and the University of Florida (UF). The name derives from the mascots of both schools – the Wildcats of B-CC and the Gators of UF.

PRIDEPartnerships for Recruitment, Involvement, Diversity and Excellence in Nursing is based at the UNC-Chapel Hill School of Nursing. The program  includes support for recruitment, mentoring, academic tutoring and application assistance at participating middle and high schools, the General College, and historically black colleges and universities.

SCRUBS - SCRUBS Program, a workforce diversity project, is aimed at middle and high school students interested in pursuing nursing as a career, and to increase retention and graduation rates of the students enrolled in the program. This program works primarily with schools in Bulloch County and its surrounding counties in the state of Georgia. The program is based at Georgia Southern University School of Nursing.

Juntos Podemos” Program (Together We Can) – This program is housed at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Nursing (UTHSCSA SON). This is a Protégé-to-Mentor program in which students start as a protégé and take on the role as mentor in their second semester while continuing as a protégé. This dual role continues throughout their course of studies. The program is very successful with a high rate of students passing the NCLEX on their first attempt. This program also includes a Leadership Council, an advisory committee that partners with the local community on empowerment around health issues. This program contributes to the recruitment and retention of students.

N-NURSE - Facilitates workshops to improve mentoring skills using the culturally embedded Navajo Nursing Pathway of Mentorship developed by N-NURSE's curriculum development team. The curriculum model uses the Navajo Philosophy of the Four Directions and Sacred Mountains that border Navajol to organize the content and educational resource materials. One major theme of the curriculum is to use the Navajo concept of Ke’, a word for relationships. Using Ke’, Nurses can foster positive working environments where ‘nurses nurture nurse -- nursing leaders from your communities. The purpose of N-NURSE is to continue development of a network of trained mentors throughout the Navajo Nation that will provide community members interested in nursing a mentor while pursuing a nursing degree or advancing in their nursing career. l #pathway

SMDEP - The Summer Medical and Dental Education Program is a six-week, summer academic enrichment program for freshman and sophomore college students interested in a career in medicine or dentistry. The program’s goal is to help increase the competitiveness of college students from disadvantaged backgrounds for application to medical and dental school. SMDEP is implemented at 12 program sites across the nation.

Mentorship Model for Retention of Minority Students - The Mentorship Model for the Retention of Minority Students was developed by the Medical College of Georgia School of Nursing in July 2001. This program, funded by a grant, is designed to recruit and retain African-American students. Having reviewed obstacles to the retention of minority students, staff developed a model that incorporates four supporting concepts: academic support, financial support, self-development, and professional/ leadership development. A prenursing alliance has been established with a historically Black university from which most of the students transfer. A summer enrichment program offers incoming students an introduction to the new learning environment, teaching methods, and learning expectations. There is a faculty-led student support group that meets monthly and provides personal and emotional support. In the model diagrammed below, mentorship is seen as a common theme for all of the supporting concepts. Mentoring guides the program’s strategies and activities. Mentors are faculty members, other students, and minority nurse leaders in the community.

Minority Mentoring Program – Developed in 2008 by Dr. Judith Lightsey of the Radiation Oncology department, the OMA Medical Student Mentoring Program is designed to provide support and guidance to minority medical students at the University of Florida College of Medicine. This program creates a connection between current medical students and health professionals within the University of Florida and Shands health care system. The goal is to develop the program into a more structured activity whereby mentors are available to meet with their student throughout the academic year.  The program is aimed at entering first year medical students however interested upperclassmen may also apply.  The program involves both UF faculty and community physicians in the mentoring process.

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Mentoring Program - The SNMA Chapter of the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine is devoted to increasing the level of minority student recruitment, admissions, and retention at the Carver College of Medicine. The program is devoted to encouraging the promotion and development of minority residents, fellows and faculty members in order to increase the presence of minority mentors at the Carver College of Medicine. The mentoring program for undergraduates focuses on three components: 1) success in college; 2) careers in healthcare; and 3) success in life. Undergraduate students are paired up with a minority medical student and a PhD student when possible. The pairing process respects similar backgrounds and interests. The primary objective of the program is to provide students with the network of support needed to succeed in the university and beyond. Casual one on one interaction is available, as well as opportunities for involvement in extracurricular activities.

MIM - Mentoring In Medicine is an organization that works with students in disadvantaged areas from 3rd grade through health professional schools. They ignite, cultivate, and prepare students to become health care professionals by allowing prospective students to interact with established expert health care professionals around the country.  Among the programs that MIM sponsors is an annual health fair in New York; dinner with doctors and other healthcare professionals; MIM Web television; National Mentoring in Medicine Day; Morgan's Big Biology Test (an interactive hip-hop stage play); an advanced biology, human disease, and health careers program (after school and in-class electives); a medical pathway program for college students; and the surviving and thriving in medical school empowerment series.

PMI - Pipeline Mentoring Institute recognized that many of the barriers to greater diversity within the medical profession lie within the continuum of elementary through undergraduate education. Therefore,  PMI seeks to close the gap in preparing under-represented minority students for a career in medicine and other health-related professions.

STARS- STARS stands for  Stimulating interest in nursing;  Tutoring and mentoring students;  Assisting with career and financial resources; Recruiting and retaining pre-nursing and upper-division nursing students; and Strengthening the health care community with BSN-prepared nurses from diverse backgrounds. STARS goal is to increase nursing education opportunities for ethnically and racially diverse individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, including Hispanics, the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) School of Nursing designed a program that takes a comprehensive approach. The multifaceted STARS for Nursing project ranges from educating high school students about health care careers to providing academic, financial and personal support to help recruit, retain and graduate minority nursing students. The three-year HRSA grant that funded the STARS project has ended, but the initiative has been so successful that the school plans to continue.

Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program – This program provides four-year postdoctoral research awards to physicians and dentists from historically underrepresented groups. The longstanding program seeks to increase the number of senior-level physicians and dentists from historically disadvantaged backgrounds in academic medicine and dentistry. Up to nine research awards are given each year, and scholars devote four consecutive years to basic/biomedical, clinical, or health services/epidemiology research. The award facilitates the transition of newly-trained clinicians who wish to develop into independent investigators.

Project L/EARN – This is an intensive, 10-week summer internship for undergraduate college students who are from socioeconomic, ethnic, and cultural groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in graduate education. The program provides students with training, experience and mentoring to make them stronger candidates for admission to graduate programs. The internships provide students with a $4,000 stipend, tuition, and room and board for the duration of the 10-week program. Students also receive three academic credits for the program.