Mentoring And Recruitment & Retention
Abriam-Yago, K. (2002). Mentoring to empower. Minority Nurse, 64-65.
ACE-American Council on Education’s Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity. (2004). Reflections on Twenty Years of Minorities in Higher Education and the ACE Annual Status Report. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Ackerman-Barger P. (2010). Embracing multiculturalism in nursing learning environments. Journal of Nursing Education, 49, 677-682.
Addams, A., Bletzinger, R., Sondheimer, H.., White, S., and Johnson, L. (2010). Roadmap to Diversity: Integrating Holistic Review Practices into Medical School Admission Processes. Washington, DC: American Association of Medical Colleges.
Alameida, M., Prive, A., Davis, H., Landry, L., Renwanz-Boyle, A. and Dunham, M. (2011). Predicting NCLEX-RN Success in a Diverse Student Population. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 261-267.
Alicea-Planas, J. (2017). Shifting Our Focus to Support the Educational Journey of Underrepresented Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(3), 159-163.
Alicea-Planas, J. (2009). Hispanic nursing students’ journey to success: A metasynthesis. Journal of Nursing Education, 48: 504-513
Alpert, P., Yucha, C. & Atienza, M. (2013). An advanced practice nursing program for foreign medical doctors: A practical approach. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(4), 254-259.
Allan, H. and Larsen, J. (2003). We need respect: Experiences of internationally recruited nurses in the UK. London: Royal College of Nursing.
Allan, H. (2011). Mentoring overseas nurses: Barriers to effective and non-discriminatory mentoring practices. Nursing Ethics, 17(5), 603–613.
Allen, W. (2005). A forward glance in a mirror: Diversity challenged – Access, equity, and success in higher education. Educational Researcher, 34(7), 18-23.
Allan, H., Cowie, H. and Smith, P. (2009). Overseas nurses’ experiences of discrimination: A case of racist bullying? J Nurs Manag, 17: 898–906.
Allan, H., Larsen, J., Bryan, K. and Smith, P. (2004). The social reproduction of institutional racism: Internationally recruited nurses’ experiences of the British health services. Diversity Health Soc Care, 1:117–26.
Alexis, A. and Vydelingum, V. (2005). The experiences of overseas black and minority ethnic registered nurses in an English hospital. J Res Nurs, 10: 459–72.
Amaro, D., Abriam-Yago, K. and Yoder, M. (2006). Perceived Barriers for Ethnically Diverse Students in Nursing Programs. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(7), 247-254.
American Association of College and Universities (2011). Making Excellence Inclusive. http://www.aacu.org/compass/inclusive_excellence.cfm
American Association of College and Universities (2015).Enhancing diversity in the workforce. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/enhancing-diversity
American Association of College of Nursing. (2010). Fact Sheet: Enhancing Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/diversityFS.pdf
American Indian Nursing Education, Nursing Practice & Research Section III Of American Indian Bibliography. (2009). www.n-nurse.org/AIHR/bib_sec3.pdf
Amundson, M., Moulton, P., Zimmerman, S., & Johnson, B. (2008). An innovative approach to student internships on American Indian reservations. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 22(1), 93- 101.
Anders, R., Mc Innis Edmonds, V. Montreal, H., and Galvan, M. (2007). Recruitment and Retention of Hispanic Nursing Students. Hispanic Health Care International, 5: 128-135.
Andersen, R., Friedman, J., Carreon, D., Bai, J., Nakazono, T., Afifi, A., Gutierrez, J. (2009). Recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority and low-income dental students: Effects of the pipeline program. J Dent Educ, 73(Suppl 2), S238-S258.
Anonson, J., June, M., Desjarlais, J., Nixon, J., Whiteman, L., & Bird, A. (2008). Strategies to Support Recruitment and Retention of First Nations Youth in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs in Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 274-283.
Arbona, C. and Nora, A. (2007). The influence of academic and environmental factors on Hispanic college degree attainment. The Review of Higher Education, 30: 247–269. doi:10.1353/rhe.2007.0001.
Arieli, D., and Hirschfeld, M. (2012). Supporting Minority Nursing Students: Opportunity for Success’for Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel. International Nursing Review, 60(2), 213-220.
Baber, L., Pifer, M., Colbeck, C., and Furman, T. (2010), Increasing diversity in the geosciences: Recruitment programs and student self-efficacy. Journal of Geoscience Education, 58:32–42.
Bagnardi, M. and Perkel, L. (2005). The Learning Achievement Program: Fostering Student Cultural Diversity. Nurse Educator, 30(1), 17-20.
Baik, C., and Greig, J. (2009). Improving the Academic Outcomes of Undergraduate ESL Students: The Case for Discipline-Based Academic Skills Programs. Higher Education Research and Development, 28(4), 410-416.
Baker, B. (2010). Faculty Ratings of Retention Strategies for Minority Nursing Students. Nursing Education Perspective, 31(4), 216-220.
Barker, M. (2007). Cross-cultural mentoring in institutional contexts. The Negro Educational review, 58(1/2), 85-103.
Balogun, J., Sloan, P. and Hardney, K. (2005). Health professions career awareness program for seventh and eight grade African American students: A pilot study. Journal of Allied Health, 34(4).
Banister, G., Bowen-Brady, H. & Winfrey, M. (2014). Using career nurse mentors to support minority nursing students and facilitate their transition to practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30: 317–325. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2013.11.00.
Banister, G. and Winfrey, M. (2012). Enhancing diversity in nursing: A partnership approach. J Nurs Admin, 42:176-81.
Bankston, K. (2013). How Mentoring Programs Influence Workforce Diversity. Minority Nurse. http://minoritynurse.com/how-mentoring-programs-influence-workforce-diversity/
Barbatis, P. (2010). Underprepared, ethnically diverse community college students: Factors contributing to persistence. Journal of Developmental Education, 33(3), 14-24.
Barfield, J., Cobler, D., Lam, E., Zhang, J. & Chitiyo, G. (2012). Differences Between African-American and Caucasian Students on Enrollment Influences and Barriers in Kinesiology-based Allied Health Education Programs. Advances in Physiology Education, 36: 164–169.
Barton, A., and Swider, S. (2009). Creating Diversity in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program: A Case Study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6(1), 1-15.
Batykefer, D. (2013). Examining the Influence of Noncognitive Variables on the Retention of Minority Baccalaureate Nursing Students to Complete Their Program of Study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(3), 148-154.
Beacham, T., Askew, R., and Williams, R. (2009). Strategies to Increase Racial/Ethnic Student participation in the Nursing Profession. ABNF Journal, 20(3), 69-72.
Beard, V. and Volcy, K. (2013). Increasing minority representation in nursing: A more diverse faulty is crucial. American Journal of Nursing, 113(2), 11.
Beard,K, and Julion, A. (2016). Does race still matter in nursing? The narratives of African American Nursing faculty members. Nursing Outlook, 64(6), 583-596.
Beard, K, (2014). Strengthening Diverse in Nursing: The Practices and Preparedness of Nursing Faculty. Journal of of Nursing Educaion and Practice, 4(11), 59-64.
Bednarz, H., Schim, S., & Doorenbos, A. (2010). Cultural Pitfalls in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls. Journal of Nursing Education, 49, 253-260.
Beech, B., Calles-Escandon, J., Hairston, K., Langdon, S., Latham-Sadler, B., and Bell, R. (2013). Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medical Centers: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Acad Med, 88(4).
Bellack, J. (2005). Threatening Our Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 44 (5), 199-200.
Bellefleur, C., Bennett-Murray J., Gulino M., Liebert, D. & Mirabito, M. (2009). Minority nursing students: Strategies for retention. Journal of National Black Nurses Association, 20(1), 42-51.
Benavides-Vaello, S., Katz, J., Peterson, C., Allen, C., Paul, R., Charette-Bluff, A., and Morris, P. (2014). Nursing and Health Sciences Workforce Diversity Research Using PhotoVoice: A College and High School Student Participatory Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(4), 217-222.
Bessent, H., and Fleming, J. (2003). The Leadership Enhancement and Development (LEAD) Project for minority nurses (in the new millennium model). Nurs Outlook, 51:255-60.
Bessent, H. (2002). Minority nurses in the new century. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association.
Bindler, R., Allen, C., & Paul, R. (2004). Native American Learning: An Integrative Model. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(5), 237-240.
Blake-Beard, S., Bayne, L., Crosby, F., and Muller, C. (2011). Matching by Race and Gender in Mentoring Relationships: Keeping Our Eyes on the Prize. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3): 622–643.
Bland, C., Taylor, A., and Schollenberg, S. Mentoring Systems: Benefits and Challenges of Diverse Mentoring Partnerships. Association of American College of Medicine (ACCM). https://www.aamc.org/members/gfa/faculty_vitae/146014/mentoring_systems.html
Blythe, J., Baumann, A., Rheaume, A. and McIntosh, K. (2008). Nurse Migration to Canada: Pathways and Pitfalls of Workforce Integration. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20(2), 202-210.
Bolstad, A., Xu, Y., Shen, J., Covelli, M., & Torpey, M. (2012). Use of standardized patients and inter-rater reliability in a study on communication competence of international nurses. Nursing & Health Sciences, 14: 67-73.
Bond, M., Carson, C. and Baxley, S. (2015). Institutional Support for Diverse Populations: Perceptions of Hispanic and African American Students and Program Faculty. Nursing Outlook, 62: 259-267.
Bond, M., Gray, J., Baxley, S., Cason, and Denke, L. (2008). Voices of Hispanic Students in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: Are We Listening? Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(3), 136-142.
Boruff, S. (2012). Experiences of Success by Minority Students Attending a Predominantly Caucasian Nursing Program. Dissertation: East Tennessee State University. http://dc.etsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2677&context=etd
Bosch, P., Doshier, S., & Gess-Newsom, J. (2012). Bilingual nurse education program: Applicant characteristics that predict success. Nursing Education Research, 33(2), 90-95.
Bosher, S. (2003). Barriers to creating a more culturally diverse nursing profession: Linguistic bias in multiple choice nursing exams. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24:25–34.
Bosher, S., and Bowles, M. (2008). The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students’ comprehension of nursing course test items. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(3), 165-172.
Boughton, M., Halliday, L. and Brown, L. (2010). A Tailored Program of Support for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Nursing Students in a Graduate Entry Masters Course: A Qualitative Evaluation of Outcomes. Nurse Education Practice, 10: 355-360.
Boutte, G. and Jackson, T. (2014). Advice to white allies: Insights from faculty of color. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 17(5), 623-642.
Brathwaithe-Gardner, A. (2006). Transcending historical relationships: A qualitative study of the experiences of White men who mentor Black men. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3254489)
Branch, M. (2001). Recruitment of minorities into the nursing profession. Minority Nurse Newsletter, 8(2), 1-3.
Broome, B. and Fox, O. (2001). Mentoring: A Supporting Act for African American Students and Faculty. ABNF Journal, 12: 9-11.
Brown, J. (2008). Developing an English-as-a-Second-Language Program for Foreign-Born Nursing Students at an Historically Black University in the United States. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(2), 184-191.
Brown, V. (2005). Culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students education: A grounded theory study. PhD Thesis, Curtine University of Technology.
Brown, J., and Marshall, B. (2008). A Historically Black University’s Baccalaureate Enrollment and Success Tactics for Registered Nurses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24: 21-29.
Buchbinder, H. (2007). How to Increase Latino Participation in the Nursing Workforce: Best Practices at California Nursing Schools. Los Angeles. CA: The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California.
Buchwald, D., and Dick, R. (2011). Weaving the native web: Using social network analysis to demonstrate the value of a minority career development program. Acad Med, 86: 778–786.
Burnard, P. (2005). Issues in Helping Students From Other Cultures. Nurse Education Today, 25: 176-180.
Butler, P., Britt, D., Green, M., Longaker, M., Geis, W., Franklin Jr, M., Ruhalter, A., and Fullum, T. (2010). The diverse surgeons initiative: An effective method for increasing the number of under-represented minorities in academic surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 211(4), 561-566.
Cameron, L. (2010). Supporting Indigenous nursing students. Australian Nursing Journal, 18(6), 39.
Campbell, B. (2008). Enhancing communication skills in ESL students within a community college setting. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 3:100–104.
Campbell-Heider, N., Sackett, K., and Whistler, M. (2008). Connecting with Guidance Counselors to Enhance Recruitment into Nursing of Minority Teens. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20: 202-210.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2010). A Culturally Conscious Model of Mentoring. Nurse Educator, 35(3), 130-135.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence in Mentoring (IAPCC-M). Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates; OH (transculturalcare.net/iapcc-m/)
Candela, L., Kowalski, S., Cyrkiel, D., & Warner, D. (2004). Meeting the At-risk Challenge: Empowering Nursing Students Through Mentoring. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), Article.
Canales, M., Torres, S., & Villarruel, A. (2001). Bridges and Barriers: Educational Mobility of Hispanic Nurses. Journal Of Nursing Education, 40: 245-251.
Cantu, A. and Rogers, N. (2007). Creating a Mentoring and Community Culture in Nursing. Hispanic Health Care International, 5(3), 124-127.
Caputi, L., Engelmann, L., and Stasinopoulos, J. (2006). An interdisciplinary approach to the needs of non- native speaking nursing students. Nurse Educator, 31:107–111.
Carter, B., Powell, D., Derouin, A., and Custais, J. (2015). Beginning With the End in Mind: Cultivating Minority Leaders. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 95-103.
Cason, C., Bond, M., Gleason-Wynn, P., Coggin, C., Trevino, E., & Lopez, M. (2008). Perceived Barriers and Needed Supports for Today’s Hispanic Students in the Health Professions: Voices of Seasoned Hispanic Health Professionals. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(1), 41-49.
Castro, A., and Ruiz, E. (2009). The Effects of Nurse Practitioner Cultural Competence Latina Patient Satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21: 278-286.
Cavazos, J., Johnson, M., Fielding, C., Cavazos, A., Castro, V., & Vela, L. (2010). A qualitative study of resilient Latina/o college students. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(3), 172-188. doi: 10.1080/15348431003761166
Cech, E., Metz, A., Babcock, T. and Smith, J., (2011). Caring for Our Own: The Role of Institutionalized Support Structures in Native American Nursing Student Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(9),: 524-531.
Cerna, O., Pérez, P. & Sáenz, V. (2009). Examining the precollege attributes and values of Latina/o bachelor’s degree attainers. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8: 130–157.
Chan, Z., Liu, C., Cheung, K., Hung, K., Yu, K., & Kei, S. (2013). Voices from a monitory Experiences of Chinese male nursing students in clinical practice. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7(4), 295-305.
Chandler, G., and Swanston, W. (2013). Motivating Underrepresented Students to Pursue Faculty Roles. Nurse Educator, 37(6), 233-234.
Chavous, T., Harris, A., Rivas, D., Helaire, L., & Green, L. (2004). Racial stereotypes and gender in context: African Americans at predominantly black and predominantly white colleges. Sex Roles, 51(1/2), 1-16.
Chavous, T., Rivas, D., Green, L., & Helaire, L. (2002). Role of student background, perceptions of ethnic fit, and racial identification in the academic adjustment of African American students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Black Psychology, 28: 234-260.
Childs, G., Jones, R., Nugent, K. and Cook, P. (2004). Retention of African-American Students in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: Are We Doing Enough? Journal of Professional Nursing, 20(2), 129-133.
Choi, L. (2005). Literature Review: Issues Surrounding Education of English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 16(3), 263-268.
Chwedyk, P. (Fall, 2002). Degrees of success: Academic update. Leveling the playing field for tribal colleges. Minority Nurse, 72.
Colalillo, G. 2007. Mentoring as a retention strategy in a diverse, multicultural, urban associate degree nursing program. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 2(2), 28–33.
Coleman, L. (2008). Experiences of African American students in a predominantly white, two-year nursing program. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 19: 8-13.
Colville, J., Cottom, S., Robinette, T, Wald, H. and Waters, H. (2015). A Communiuty College Model to Support Nursing Force Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(2), 65-71.
Condon, V., Morgan, C., Miller, E., Mamier, I., Zimmerman, G. & Mazhar, W. (2013). A Program to Enhance Recruitment and Retention of Disadvantaged and Ethnically Diverse Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 24(4), 397-416.
Cora-Bramble, D. (2006). Minority faculty recruitment, retention and advancement: Applications of a resilience-based theoretical framework. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17: 251-255.
Cottingham, M. (2014). Recruiting men, constructing manhood: How health care organizations mobilize masculinities as nursing recruitment strategy. Gender and Society, 28(1), 133-156.
Cowan, P., Weeks, Y., and Wicks, M. (2015). Promoting Success of Ethnic Minority and Male Students in an Accelerated, Entry-Level Master of Nursing Program: The SUSTAIN Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), S112-S115.
Crawford, T., and Candlin, S. (2013). Investigating the Language Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students to Assist Their Completion of the Bachelor of Nursing Programme to Become Safe and Effective Practitioners. Nurse Education Today, 33: 796–801. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.03.005
Crooks, N. (2013). Mentoring as the Key to Minority Success in Nursing Education. ABNF Journal, 24(2), 47.
Crow, K., Conger, M., and Knoki-Wilson, U. (2011). Mentorship for nursing in a rural area: A program for success for working with diverse populations. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 11(2), 43-50.
Crutcher, B. (2006). Cross-cultural Mentoring: An Examination of the Perspectives of Mentors. Dissertation. Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
Cultural Safety and Nursing EducatioAssociation of American Medical Colleges. (2009). The Diversity Research Forum: The Importance and Benefits of Diverse Faculty in Academic Medicine: Implications for Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/The%20Diversity%20Research%20Forum%20The%20Importance%20and%20Benefits%20of%20Diverse%20Fac%20in%20Acad%20Med.pdf
Cunningham, H., Stacciarini, J. and Towle, S. (2004). Strategies to promote success on the NCLEX-RN for students with English as a second language. Nurse Educator, 29:15–19.
Curran, V., Solbers, S., LeFort, S., Fleet, L., & Hollett, A. (2008). A responsive evaluation of an Aboriginal nursing education success program. Nurse Educator, 33:13-17.
Daley, S., Palermo, A., Nivet, M., et al. (2008). Diversity in academic medicine no. 6 successful programs in minority faculty development: Ingredients of success. Mt Sinai J Med, 75:533–551.
Daley, S., Broyles, S., Rivera, L., Brennan, J., Lu, E., and Reznik, V. (2011). A conceptual model for faculty development in academic medicine: The underrepresented minority faculty experience. J Natl Med Assoc, 103:816–821.
Daley, S., Wingard, D., and Reznik, V. (2006). Improving the Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(9), 1435-1440.
Dancy, T and Jean-Marie, G. (2014). Faculty of color in higher education: Exploring the intersection of identity, impostorship, and internal racism. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(4), 354-372.
Dapremont, J. (2011). Success in Nursing School: Black Nursing Students’ Perception of Peers, Family, and Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 254-260.
Dapremont, J. (2013). A review of minority recruitment and retention models implemented in undergraduate nursing programs. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(2), 112-119.
Dapremont, J. (2014). Black nursing students: Strategies for academic success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35: 157–161. doi:10.5480/11-563.1.
Davis, P., Davis, D., and Williams, D. (2010). Challenges and Issues Facing the Future of Nursing Education: Implications for Ethnic Minority Faculty and Students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(4), 122-126.
Davis, D. (2007). Access to Academe: The importance of mentoring to black students. The Negro Educational Review, 58: 217-231.
Davis, C. and Nichols, B. (2002). Foreign-educated nurses and the changing U.S. nursing workforce. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 26(2), 43-51.
Davis-Dick, L. (Winter, 2009). Mentoring African American Nursing Students: A Holistic Approach. Minority Nurse.
Deas, D., Pisano, E., Mainous, A, Johnson, N., Singleton, M., Gordon, L., …, Reves, J. (2012). Improving Diversity Through Strategic Planning: A 10 Year (2002-2012) Experience at the Medical University of South Carolina. Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1548-1555.
De Los Santos, G., Hume, E., and Cortes, A. (2002). Improving the faculty’s effectiveness in increasing the success of Hispanic students in higher education-Pronto! Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1: 225-237.
Degazon, C. and Mancha, C. (2012). Changing the Face of Nursing: Reducing Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Health. Family & Community Health, 35: 5–14 doi:10.1097/FCH.0b013e3182385cf6
Delapp, T., Hautman, M., and Anderson, M. (2008). Recruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing (RRANN). Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 293-304.
Del Prato, D. (2013). Students’ voices: The lived experience of faculty incivility as a barrier to professional formation in associate degree nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 33: 286-290. doi: 10.1016/k.nedt.2012.05.030
DeLuca, E. (2005). Crossing cultures: The lived experience of Jordanian graduate students in nursing: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42: 657–663. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.09.017
Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Pipeline programs to improve racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions: An inventory of federal programs, assessment of evaluation approaches, and critical review of the research literature. Retrieved from http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/pipelineprogdiversity.pdf
Derby, D., and Watson, L. (2006-2007). African-American retention within a community college: Differences in orientation course enrollment. Journal of College Student Retention, 8: 377-390.
Dickerson, C. (2013). The Nature of Learning to Nurse Through Clinical Practice Experience for International Culturally and Linguistically Different Students in Sydney, Australia: An Interpretive Description. Doctoral Degree, University of Technology, Sydney. https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/research/bitstream/handle/10453/23474/02Whole.pdf?sequence=5
Dickerson, S., Neary, M., & Hyche-Johnson, M. (2000). Native American graduate nursing students’ learning experiences. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(2), 189-96.
Diggs, G., Garrison-Wade, D., Estrada, D., and Galindo, R. (2009). Smiling faces and colored spaces: The experiences of faculty of color pursuing tenure in the academy. Urban Rev, 41:312–333.
Doshier, S. (2003). An evaluation of a reservation-based baccalaureate nursing program. Northern Arizona University, 194 p. (UMI Order AAI3080871)
Doutrich, D., Wros, P., Valdez, M., & Ruiz, M. (2005). Professional Values of Hispanic Nurses: The Experience of Nursing Education. Hispanic Health Care International, 3(3), 161-170.
Dudas, K. (2011). Strategies to improve NCLEX® style testing in students who speak English as an additional language. The Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1:14–23.
Duerksen, J. (2013). Retention and success of culturally diverse nursing students. The Oklahoma Nurse, 4-5.
Easley, N., Bianco, M., & Leech, N. (2012). Ganas: A qualitative study examining Mexican heritage students’ motivation to succeed in higher education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(2), 164-178. doi: 10.1177/1538192712440175
Egues, A., and Leinung, E. (2014). Antibullying Workshops: Shaping Minority Nursing Leaders Through Curriculum Innovation. Nursing Forum, 49(4), 240-246.
Elliott, B., Dorscher, J., Wirta, A., & Hill, D. (2010). Staying Connected: Native American Women Faculty Members on Experiencing Success. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 85(4), 675-9.
Escallier, L. and Fullerton, J. (2009). Process and Outcomes Evaluation of Retention Strategies Within a Nursing Workforce Diversity Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 488-494.
Etowa, J., Foster, S., Vukic, A., Wittstock, L., & Youden, S. (2005). Recruitment and Retention of Minority Students: Diversity in Nursing Education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 2(1), 1-12.
Evans, B. (2008). The Importance of Educational and Social Backgrounds of Diverse Students to Nursing Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 305-313.
Evans, B. (2008). “Attached at the umbilicus:” Barriers to Educational Success for Hispanic/Latino and American Indian Nursing Students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(4), 205-217.
Evans, B. (2007). Student Perceptions: The Influence of a Nursing Diversity Workforce Grant on Retention. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 354-359.
Evans, B. and Greenberg, E. (2006). Atmosphere, Tolerance, and Cultural Competence in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program: Outcomes of a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(3), 298-305.
Evans, B. (2005). Recruitment and Retention of Diverse Students: Is Racism an Issue? Sigma Theta Tau International.
Evans, B. (2013). Examining the influence of noncognitive variables on the intention of minority baccalaureate nursing students to complete their program of study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29: 148-154.
Evans, B. (2004). Application of the Caring Curriculum to Education of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(5), 219-228.
Evans, B. (2003). “That spirit, that thing inside”: Using Qualitative Research Techniques to Produce a Recruitment Film for Hispanic/Latino and American Indian Students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24(5), 230-237
Fabbra, L., Mitchell, C. and Shaw, J. (2015). Learning Among Nursing Faculty: Insights From a Participatory action Research Project About Teaching International Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(3), 153-158.
Felton-Busch, C., Maza, K., Ghee, M., Mills, F., Mills, J., Hitchins, M., Park, T. and Chamberlain-Salaun, J. (2013). Using mentoring circles to support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students: Guidelines for sharing and learning. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profess, 46(1), 135.
Fischer, M. (2007). Settling into campus life: Differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. The Journal of Higher Education, 78, 125–156. doi:10.1353/jhe.2007.0009.
Fletcher, A., Williams, R., Beacham, T., Elliot, R., Northington, L., Calvin, R., Hill, M., Haynes, A., Winters, K. and Davis, S. (2003). Recruitment, Retention and Matriculation of Ethnic Minority Nursing Students: A University of Mississippi School of Nursing Approach. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10: 128-133.
Flinn, J. (2004). Teaching strategies used with success in the multicultural classroom. Nurse Educator, 29:10–13.
Flowers, L. (2004). Retaining African-American students in higher education: An integrative review. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice. 6(1), 23-25.
Fox, O., and Broome, B. (2001). Mentoring: A Supporting Act for African American Students and Faculty. The ABNF Journal, 12: 9-101.
Fries-Britt, S. and Turner, B. (2002). Uneven stories: Successful Black collegians at a Black and White campus. The Review of Higher Education, 25: 315-330.
Fuller, B. (2013). Evidenced-Based Instructional Strategies: Facilitating Linguistically Diverse Nursing Student Learning. Nurse Educator, 38: 118-121.
Furr, S., and Elling, T. (2002). African American Students in a Predominately White University: Factors Associated With Retention. College Student Journal, 36: 188-203.
Gallien, Jr., L. and Peterson, M. (2004). Instructing and Mentoring the African-American College Student: Strategies for Success in Higher Education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Galloway, J. (2007). Pathways into health: Health professions education for American Indian and Alaska Natives utilizing distance learning, interprofessional education, and cultural integration. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21, 3-4.
Gardner, J. (2005). Understanding Factors Influencing Foreign-Born Students’ Success in Nursing School: A Case Study of East Indian Nursing Students and Recommendations. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 12(1), 12.
Gardner, J. (2005). A Successful Minority Retention Project. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(12), 566-568.
Gardner, J. (2005). Barriers Influencing the Success of Racial and Ethnic Minority Nursing Programs. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 16(2), 155-162.
Gene, R., and Goetz, C. (2007). The process of becoming: A grounded theory study of Hispanic nursing student success (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Publication No. AAT 3279180).
Georges, C. (2012). Project to Expand Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. Nursing Management (Harrow), 19(20), 22-26.
Ghaddar, S., Ronnau, J., Saladin, S., & Martínez, G. (2013). Innovative approaches to promote a culturally competent, diverse health care workforce in an institution serving Hispanic students. Academic Medicine, 88(12), 1870-1876.
Giddens, J. (2008). Achieving Diversity in Nursing Through Multicontextual Learning. Nursing Outlook, 56(2), 78-83.
Gilchrist, K. and Rector, C. (2007). Can You Keep Them? Strategies to Attract and Retain Nursing Students from Diverse Populations: Best Practices in Nursing Education. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(3), 277-285.
Gillis, C., Powell, D., & Carter, B. (2011). Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse Workforce in Nursing: From Evidence to Best Practices to Policy. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(4), 294-301. DOI: 101177/1527154411398491
Glew, P. (2013). Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: Challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia. Collegian, 20: 101–108. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2012.04.002
Gloria, A., Castellanos, J., Lopez, A., and Rosales, R. (2005). An Examination of Academic Nonpersistence Decisions of Latino Undergraduates. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27(2), 202-223.
Goeppinger, J., Miles, M., Weaver, W., Campbell, L., and Roland, E. (2009). Building nursing research capacity to address health disparities: Engaging minority baccalaureate and master’s students. Nurs Outlook, 57:158-65.
Goetz, C. (2007). The Process of Becoming: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Nursing Students Success. Dissertational Abstracts International, 68(8), 210B. (UMI No. 3279180).
Goldman, K. and Schmalz, K. (2002). Tools of the trade. Increasing workforce diversity: A model for local campus-DOH-community collaboration. Health Promotion Practice, 3(2), 114-116.
Gonzalez, K. and Ballysingh, T. (2012). Increasing Latina/o college completion: Mistakes and opportunities. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(3), 279-290. doi: 10.1177/1538192712437994
Goodhart, F., Hsu, J., Baek, J., Coleman, A., Maresca, F. & Miller, M. (2006). A View Through a Different Lens: PhotoVoice as a Tool for Student Advocacy. Journal of American College Health, 55: 53–56.
Gordon, F. and Copes, M. (2010). The Coppin Academy for Pre-Nursing Success: A Model for the Recruitment and Retention of Minority Students. ABNF J, 21(1):11-3.
Grady, C., Stewardson, G. and Hall, J. (2008). Faculty Notions Regarding Caring in Male Students. The Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 305-313.
Greenberg, N. (2013). A Project to Increase Faculty’s Cultural Competence in Mentoring English as a Second Language Nursing Students. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 8(4), 128-135.
Grossman, S. (2007). Mentoring in Nursing: A Dynamic and Collaborative Process. NY: Springer Publishers.
Guhde, J. (2003). English-as-a second language nursing students: Strategies for building verbal and written language skills – ESL. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10:113–117.
Guido, J. (2003). Retention of nursing students with English as a second language. The Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(4), 113-117.
Guiffrida, D. (2005). Othermothering as a framework for understanding African American students’ definitions of student-centered faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 76: 701-723.
Guillory, R., and Wolverton, M. (2008). It’s about family: Native American student persistence in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 79(10), 58-87.
Guyll, M., Madon, S., Prieto, L., & Scherr, K. (2012). The Potential Roles of Self-Fulfilling Prophesies, Stigma Consciousness, and Stereotype Threat in Linking Latino/a Ethnicity and Educational Outcomes. Journal of Social Issues, 66(1), 113-130.
Habley, W., Valiga, M., McClanahan, R., and Burkum, K. (2010). What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey; Four-Year Colleges & Universities with Twenty percent or More Hispanic Students Enrolled. ACT, 1-7. http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/reports/retain.html
Hall, L. (2008). Career planning and development needs of rural and remote nurses. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(3), 207-217.
Halloran, L. (2009). Teaching Cultural Competence Through Literature. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 524-528.
Hamilton, N. and Haszous, A. (2017). Retention of Faculty of Color in Academic Nursing. Nursing Outlook, 65(2), 121-221.
Hannay, J., Dudley, R., Milan, S. & Leibovitz, P. (2013). Combining PhotoVoice and focus groups: Engaging Latina teens in community assessment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44: S215–S224.
Hansen, E., and Beaver, S. (2012). Faculty Support for ESL Nursing Students: Action Plan for Success. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33: 246-250.
Harper, S. and Antonio, A. (2008). Not by accident: Intentionality in diversity, learning, and engagement. Creating inclusive campus environments for cross-cultural learning and student engagement. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.
Harrigan, R., Gollin, L., & Casken, J. (2003). Barriers to increasing Native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino nursing students: Perceptions of students and their families. Nursing Outlook, 51(1), 25- 30.
Hassouneh, D. (2008). Reframing the diversity question: Challenging Eurocentric power hierarchies in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 291-292.
Hassouneh, D., Akeroyd, J., Lutz, K., and Beckett, A. (2012). Exclusion and Control: Patterns Aimed at Limiting the Influence of Faculty of Color. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(6), 314-325.
Hassouneh, D. (2013). Unconscious Racist Bias: Barrier to a Diverse Nursing Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 183-184.
Hassouneh, D. (2006). Anti-Racist Pedagogy: Challenges Faced by Faculty of Color in Predominately White Schools of Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(7), 255-262.
Hawthorne, L. (2001).The globalisation of the nursing workforce: Barriers confronting overseas qualified nurses in Australia. Nurs Inq, 8: 213–29.
Hayward, L., Canali, M., Hill, A. (2005). Interdisciplinary Peer Mentoring: A Model for Developing Culturally Competent Health Care Professionals. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 19(1).
Health Resources and Services Administration. (2009). Pipeline programs to improve racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions: An inventory of federal programs, assessment of evaluation approaches, and critical review of the research literature. Washington , DC: Author. http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/pipelineprogdiversity.pdf
Heinrich, J. (2014). Nursing in 3D: Diversity, disparities, and social determinants. Introductory statement. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 2), 1-2.
Heller, B. (2002). Strategies for Increasing Student Diversity in Schools of Nursing: Lessons Learned. Hispanic Health Care International, 1(2), 68-70.
Helm, E., Prieto, D., Parker, J., and Russell, M. (2000). Minority medical school faculty. J Natl Med Assoc, 92:411–414.
Henderson, S. and Chan, A. (2005). Career happiness among Asian Americans: The interplay between individualism and interdependence. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33(3), 130-192.
Henry, A. (2015). ‘We especially welcome applications from members of visible minority groups:’ Reflections on race gender, and life at three universities. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 18(5), 589-610.
Henry, L. (2007). Institutional disadvantage: Older Ghanaian nurses’ and midwives’ reflections on career progression and stagnation in the NHS. J Clin Nurs, 16: 2196–203.
Herrera, A. (2012). Educational journeys of Hispanic women in nursing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA.
Higgins, B. (2004). Relationship Between Retention and Peer Tutoring for At-risk Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 319-321.
Hill, J. (2004). The Role of Mentoring in the Development of African American urse Leaders. Dissertation, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-04072004-214149/unrestricted/Hill_dis.pdf
Hinton, I., Howell, J., Merwin, E. et al. (2009). The educational pipeline for health care professionals: Understanding the source of racial differences. Journal of Human Resource, 45:117–158.
Hudson, A., Harris-Haywood, S., Strange, K., Orzano, A. and Crabtree, B. (2006). Recruiting minority primary care practices into practice-based research. Med Care, 44(7), 696-700.
Igbo, N., Straker, C., Landson, J., Symes,L., Bernard, F., Hughes, A., and Carroll, L, (2011). An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Strategy to Improve Retention of Nursing Students From Disadvantaged backgrounds. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(6), 375-379.
Institute of Medicine. (2004). In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce (2004). Washington, DC: Author. Available online at: (link)
Jackson, C. and Gracia, J. (2014). Addressing health and health-care disparities: The role of a diverse workforce and the social determinants of health. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl. 2), 57–61.
Jackson, A., Smith, S., and Hill, C. (2003). Academic Persistence Among Native American College Students. Journal of College Student Development, 44(4), 548-565.
Jacob, S., and Sanchez, Z. (2011). The challenge of closing the diversity gap: development of Hispanic nursing faculty through a Health Resources and Services Administration Minority Faculty Fellowship Program grant. J Prof Nurs., 27:108-13.
Jaime, A., and Rios, F. (Winter/Fall, 2007). Negotiation and resistance amidst the overwhelming presence of Whiteness: A Native American faculty and student perspective. Taboo. Journal of Culture and Negotiation, 37-54.
Jain, D. (2010). Critical race theory and community colleges: Through the eyes of women student leaders of color. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34: 78- 91.
James, R., Starks, H., Segrest, V., and Burke, W. (2012). From leaky pipeline to irrigation system: Minority education through the lens of community-based participatory research. Progressive Community Health Partnerships, 6:471–479.
Jauregui, A., and Xu, Y. (2010). Transition into practice: Experiences of Filipino physician-turned nurse practitioners. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21: 257-264.
Jeffreys, M. (2007). Nontraditional students’ perceptions of variables influencing retention: A multisite study. Nurse Educator, 32: 161-167.
Jeffreys, M. (2004). Nursing Student Retention: Understanding the Problem and Making a Difference (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
Jensen-Wunder, L. (2002). Indian health initiatives: A nursing practice model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(1), 32-35.
Jeon, Y., and Chenoweth, L. (2007). Working with a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) group of nurses. Collegian, 14(1), 16-22.
Jeong, S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. and Ohr, S. (2011). Understanding and Enhancing the Learning Experiences of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Nursing Students in an Australian Bachelor of Nursing Program. Nurse Education Today, 31(3), 238-244.
Jimenez, R. (2012). Perceptions of nurse faculty and practicing Hispanic nurses on nursing education and mentorship (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.
Johnson, C. and Mohide, E. (2009). Addressing Diversity in Clinical Nursing Education: Support for Preceptors. Nurse Education in Practice, 9: 340-347.
Johnson, J. and Bozeman, B. (2012). Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundles Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline. Acad Med., 87(11), 1488-95.
Johnson, M., Symes, L., Bernard, L., Landson, and Carroll, T. (2007). Mentoring Disadvantaged Nursing Students Through Technical Writing Workshops. Nurse Educator, 32(4), 168-172.
Johnson, P., Kneipp, S. & Woods-Giscombe, C. (2013). Careers beyond the bedside: One approach to developing the ethnic minority nursing faculty pool. Journal of Nursing Education, 52: 593–596.
Johnson-Bailey, J. (2012). The Effects of Race and Racial Dynamics on Mentoring.” In Sarah Fletcher and Carol Mullen (Eds.) SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education. Sage Publications.
Johnson-Bailey, J. and Cervero, R. (2004). Mentoring in Black and White: The Intricacies of Cross-cultural Mentoring. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 12(1), 7-21.
Johnson-Bailey, J., Valentine, T., Cervero, R., & Bowles, T. (2009). Rooted in the soil: The social experiences of black graduate students at a southern research university. The Journal of Higher Education, 80: 178-203.
Jones, M., Barlow, A., and Villarejo, M. (2010). Importance of undergraduate research for minority persistence and achievement in biology. The Journal of Higher Education, 81(1), 82-115.
Junious, D., Malecha, A., Tart, K., & Young, A. (2010). Stress and perceived faculty support among foreign-born baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(5), 261-270.
Katz, J. (2005). “If I Could Do it They Could Do it:” A Collective Case Study of Plateau Tribes’ Nurses. Journal of American Indian Education, 44(2), 36–51.
Katz, J. (2003). A collective case study of Native American nurses from the Plateau tribes. Gonzaga University. (UMI Order AAI310656.)
Katz, J. (2007). Native American High School Students’ Perceptions of Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 46: 282–286.
Katz, J., Barbosa-Leiker, C. and Benavides-Vaello, S. (2015). Measuring the Success of a Pipeline Program to Increase Nursing Workforce Diversity. Journal of Professional Nursing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2015.05.003
Katz, J., O’Neal, G., Strickland, J. & Doutrich, D. (2010). Retention of Native American Nurses Working in Their Communities. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21: 393–401.
Katz, J., Oneal, G., & Paul, R. (2011). “I don’t know if I can make it”: Native American Students Considering College and Career. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(4), 11-26.
Katz, J., Smart, D. & Paul, R. (2010). Creating a Path: Four Years of Data on Native American High School Students Perceptions of College and a Career in Nursing. International Journal of Nursing Education and Scholarship, 7(1).
Kawi, J., and Xu, Y. (2009). Facilitators and barriers to transition of international nurses into foreign healthcare environments. International Nursing Review, 56(2), 174-183.
Kendricks, K., Nedunuri, K., and Arment, A. (2013). Minority Student Perceptions of the Impact of Mentoring to Enhance Academic Performance in STEM Disciplines. Journal of STEM Education, 14(2), 38-46.
Keogh, B. and O’Lynn, C. (2007). Male nurses’ experiences of gender barriers: Irish and American perspectives. Nurse Educator, 32: 256–259. doi:10.1097/01.NNE.0000299478.64809.82.
Keshet, Y., Popper-Giveon, A. & Liberman, I. (2015). Intersectionality and underrepresentation within the health care workforce: The case of Arab physicians in Israel. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 4:1-13.
Kim, M., Holm, K., Gerard, P., McElmurry, B., Foreman, M., Poslusny, S., and Dallas, C. (2009). Bridges to the Doctorate: Mentored Transition to Successful Completion of Doctoral Study for Underrepresented Minorities in Nursing Science. Nursing Outlook, 57(3), 166-171.
Klisch, M. (2000). Retention strategies for ESL nursing students: Review of literature 1990-99 and strategies and outcomes in a small private school of nursing with limited funding. Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, 6(2), 18-25.
Kneipp, S., Rowsey, P., Giscombe, C., Hodges, E., Fowler, T. & Alexander, R. (2014). Countering the influence of cultural hegemony on choosing a nursing career: A group-mentoring approach for student recruitment. Journal of Nursing Education, 53: 296–299.
Knoche, L. and Zamboanga, B. (2006). College Student Mentors and Latino Youth: A Qualitative Study of the Mentoring Relationship. The Qualitative Report, 11(1), 138-160.
Koch, J., Salamonson, Y., Du, H., Andrew, S., Frost, S., Dunncliff, K., and Davidson, P. (2011). Value of Web-Based Learning Activities for Nursing Students Who Speak English as a Second Language. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(7), 373-380.
Kochan, F. and Pascarelli, J. (2003). Global perspectives on mentoring: Transforming contexts, communities, and cultures. Greenwich: CT: Information Age Publishing.
Kosoko-Lasaki, O., Sonnino, R., and Voytko, M. L. (2006). Mentoring for Women and Underrepresented Minority Faculty and Students: Experience at Two Institutions of Higher Education. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(9), 1449-1459.
Kossman, S. (2003). Student and Faculty Perceptions of Nursing Education Culture and its Impact on Minority Students. DAI, 64 (04B), 1685.
Kowalski, K., and Chavez, M. (2015). Mentoring Diverse Nursing Students: Pilot Year Diversity/Data Learning Collaborative. PowerPoint presentation given at the May Mentorship and Diversity in Nursing Education, Practice and Leadership. http://campaignforaction.org/sites/default/files/Mentorship%20and%20Diversity%20in%20Nursing%20Education,%20Practice%20and%20Leadership_0.pdf
Kreuter, M., Griffith, D., Thompson, V., Brownson, R., McClure, S., Scharff, D. & Haire-Joshu, D. (2011). Lessons learned from a decade of focused recruitment and training to develop minority public health professionals. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl.), S188-S195.
Kuh, G., and Love, P. (2004). “A cultural perspective on student departure”. In J. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Kulig, J., Lamb, M., Solowoniuk, J., Weaselfat, R., Shade, C., Healy, L., White, T., and Hirsch-Crowshoe, H. (2010. Nurturing a Dream: The Support Program for Aboriginal Nursing Students. First Nations Perspectives, 3(1), 89-106.
Kulwicki, A., Khalifa, R. and Moore, G. (2008). The Effects of September 11 on Arab American Nurses in Metropolitan Detroit. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(2), 134-139.
Kwak, C., Chung, B., & Xu, Y. (2010). Relationship of job satisfaction with perceived organizational support and quality of care among South Korean nurses: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47: 1292-1298.
Kweli, R. (2011). Organized Noise: Partnering with the Community to Address the Shortage of Underrepresented Minorities in the Health Professions. Brooklyn Health Disparity Center. http://www.downstate.edu/healthdisparities/pdf/Policy-Brief-on-Minorities-in-Health-Professions-.pdf
Labun, E. (2002). The Red River College model: Enhancing success for Native Canadian and other nursing students from disenfranchised groups. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(4), 311-317.
Lacey, E., McCann, A., Miller, B., Solomon, E., and Reuben, J. (2012). Achieving student diversity in dental schools: A model that works. Journal of Dental Education, 76:524–533.
Landivar, L.. (2013). Men in nursing occupations. http://www.census.gov/people/io/files/Men_in_Nursing_Occupations.pdf.
Larimore, L. and McClellan, G. (2005). Native American Student Retention in U.S. Postsecondary Education. New Directions for Student Services, 109: 17–32.
Larsen, J. (2007). Embodiment of discrimination and overseas nurses’ career progression. J Clin Nurs, 16: 2187–95.
Latham, C., Singh, H., and Ringl, K. (2016). Enhancing the educational environment for diverse nursing students through mentoring and shared governance. Journal of Nursing Education, 55(11),605-614.
Laubun, E. (2002). The Red River College Model: Enhancing success for Native Canadian and Other Nursing Students From Disenfranchised Groups. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(4), 311-317.
Lee, M. (2006). Ethnicity matters: Rethinking how Black, Hispanic, and Indian students prepare for and succeed in college. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Lew, J., Chang, J., & Wang, W. (2005). UCLA Community college review: The overlooked minority: Asian Pacific American students at community colleges. Community College Review 33(2), 64.
Lewellen-Williams, C., Johnson, V., Deloney, L., Thomas, B., Goyol, A., and Henry-Tillman, R. (2006). The POD: A new model for mentoring underrepresented minority faculty. Acad Med, 81:275–279.
Lewis, J. (2011). Self-efficacy and retention among ethnically diverse nursing students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3477380)
Loftin, C., Newman, S., Gilden, G., Bond, M. & Dumas, B. (2013). Moving Toward Greater Diversity: A Review of Interventions to Increase Diversity in Nursing Education. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 24(4), 387-396.
Loftus, J. (2013). Improving Technology Literacy and Skills Among Minority Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 238.
Loftus, J. and Duty, S. (2010). Educating Ethnic Minority Students for the Nursing Workforce: Facilitators and Barriers to Success. The Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 21(1), 7-16.
Lopez-Bushnell, K., Gardner, K., Sanchez, J., and Miller, D. (Fall, 2010). The Effects of Mentoring on Minority Nurse Recruitment. Minority Nurse.
Louey, C. (2007). Real nursing English: A western healthcare language and communication guide for Chinese nurses. Beijing: Peking University Medical Press.
Love, K. (2010). The Lived Experience of Socialization Among African American Nursing Students in a Predominately White University. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(4), 342-350.
Lowe, J. (2002). Balance and harmony through connectedness: The intentionality of Native American nurses. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(4), 4-11.
Lujan, J. (2008). Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation Needs of Mexican American Nursing Students Related to Multiple-Choice Tests. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 327-330.
Lujan J., and Vasquez, R. (2010). A Case Study of the Scaffolding Clinical Practicum Model: Is it Culturally Competent for Hispanic Nursing Students? J Nurs Educ., 49(7), 394-7.
Lujan, J. and Little, K. (2010). Preparing Underemployed Latino U.S. Nurses Through the Mexico NCLEX-RN Success Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(12), 704.
Luna, V., and Prieto, L. (2009). Mentoring Affirmations and Interventions. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 82(2), 213-224.
Mackay, B., Harding, T., Jurlina, L., Scobie, N. and Khan, R. (2011). Utilising the Hand Model to Promote a Culturally Safe Environment for International Nursing Students. Nurs Prax, 27(1), 13-24.
Madison, E. (2007). Understanding the acculturation experiences of American Indian nursing students. University of Washington (UMI Order AAI3290566).
Mahoney, R., Wilson, E., Odom, K., Flowers, L. and Adler, S. (2008). Minority faculty voices on diversity in academic medicine: Perspectives from one school. Acad Med., 83:781–786.
Makuakane-Drechsel, T., and Hagedorn, L. (2000). Correlates of retention among Asian Pacific Americans in community colleges: The case for Hawaiian students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24: 639-655.
Malecha, A., Tart, K., and Junious, D. (2012). Foreign Born Nursing Students in the United States: A Literature Review, Journal of Professional Nursing, 28: 297-305.
Malone, B. (2012). Nursing in 3D: Nursing Workforce Diversity & Health. Nursing in 3D: Workforce Diversity, Health Disparities, and Social Determinants of Health Summit. Bethesda, MD. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/nursing/summit.html
Maloof, P. (2012). Mentoring: An Evidence-based Strategy to Increase the Diversity Among Students and Faculty from Racial and Ethnic Groups Underrepresented in Maternal and Child Health Training Programs; A Review of the Literature from 1990-2011. National Center For Cultural Competence; Georgetown University.
Malu, K. and Figlear, M. (2001). Six active learning-based teaching tips: Promoting success for ESL nursing students. Nurse Educator, 26: 204–208. doi:10.1097/00006223-200109000-00002
Manifold, C., and Rambur, B. (2001). Predictors of attrition in American Indian nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education. 40(6), 279-281.
Manney, R. and Fonza-Thomason, M. (2010). Pathway to Nursing for Urban Core Youth. The ABNF Journal, 21: 61-65.
Manson, S., Goins, R., and Buchwald, D. (2006). The Native Investigator Development Program: Increasing the presence of American Indian and Alaska Native scientists in aging-related research. J Applied Gerontol, 25:105S–130S.
Marquand, B. (2008). Careers in rural minority health. Minority Nurse, 32-36.
Marquand, B. (Fall, 2007). Recruiting and Retaining Hispanic Nursing Students. Minority Nurse.
Martin, D., and Kipling, A. (2006). Factors shaping Aboriginal nursing students’ experiences. Nurse Education Today, 26: 688-696.
Martin, D. and Sequire, M. (2013). Creating a Path for Indigenous Student Success in Baccalaureate Nursing Education. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 305-209.
Martinez, A. (2003). The Minority Student in the Pursuit of Nursing. Thesis: Washington State University Intercollegiate College of Nursing. https://research.wsulibs.wsu.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2376/3730/A_Martinez_010295627.pdf?seque n e=1
Mattson, C. (2007). Beyond Admission: Understanding Pre-College Variables and the Success of At-Risk Students. Journal of College Admissions, 196: 8-13.
McGann, E. and Thompson, J. (2008). Factors Related to Academic Success in At-Risk Senior Nursing Students. International Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 5(1), 1-18.
McGee, V. and Fraher, E. (2013). The state of racial/ethnic diversity in North Carolina’s health workforce. North Carolina Medical Journal, 73(5), 337-345.
McGinnis, S., Brush, B. and Moore, J. (2010). Cultural Similarity, Cultural Competence, and Nurse Workforce Diversity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(7), 894-909.
McGuigan, D. (2006) Experiences promoting healthcare career interest among high-school students from underserved communities. Journal of the National Medical Association,98:1523-1531.
McPhail, C. and Costner, K. (2004). Seven Principles for Training a Culturally Responsive Faculty. Learning Abstracts, 7(12).
McWhirter, G., Courage, M., and Yearwood-Dixon, A. (2003). Diversity in Graduate Nursing Education: An Experience in Collaboration. Journal of Professional Nursing, 19(3), 139-141.
Meit, M., Hafford, C., Meyer, K., Knudson, A., Levintow, S., Gilbert, T., Langerman, H., and Alfaro, J. (2014). Tribal HPOG Interim Report, OPRE Report 2014-04. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/tribal_hpog_interim_report_clean_version_formatted_full_reportv2.pdf
Melillo, K., Dowling, J., Abdallah, L., Findeisen, M., and Knight, M. (2013). Bringing Diversity to Nursing: Recruitment, Retention, and Graduation of Nursing Students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 20: 100-104.
Mentoring: An Evidence-based Strategy to Increase Diversity among Students and Faculty from Racial and Ethnic Groups Underrepresented in MCH Training Programs. A Review of the Literature from 1990-2011. National Center for Cultural Competence Center for Child and Human Development Georgetown University http://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/final_lit_review_with_cover.pdf
Merchant, J. and Omary, M. (2010). Underrepresentation of Underrepresented Minorities in Academic Medicine: The Need to Enhance the Pipeline and the Pipe. Gastroenterology, 138:19-26.
Metz, A., Cech, E., Babcock, T., and Smith, J. (2011). Effects of Formal and Informal Support Structures on the Motivation of Native American Students in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(7), 388-394.
Miers, M. (2002). Nurse education in higher education: Understanding cultural barriers to progress. Nurse Education Today, 22(3), 212-219.
Mkandawire-Valhmu, L. Kako, P., and Stevens, P> (2010). Mentoring women faculty of color in nursing academia: Creating an environment that supports scholarly growth and retention. Nursing Outlook, 58(3), 135-141.
Minore, B., Boone, M., & Hill, M. (2004). Finding temporary relief: Strategy for nursing recruitment in northern aboriginal communities. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 36(2), 149-163.
Mills, J., Francis, K., and Bonner, A. (2005). Mentoring, Clinical Supervision and Preceptoring: Clarifying the Conceptual Definitions for Australian Rural Nurses. A Review of the Literature. Rural and Remote Health, 5:410. http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_410.pdf
Mills, J., Francis, K., and Bonner, A. (2008). Walking With Another: Rural Nurses’ Experiences of Mentoring. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(1), 23-35.
Mills-Wisnewski, S. (2005). Minority Students’ Perceptions Concerning the Presence of Minority Faculty: Inquiry and Discussion. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, 11(2), 49-56.
Milone-Nuzzo, P. (2007). Diversity in Nursing Education: How Well are We Doing? The Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 343-344.
Minority Nurse. (2013). Men in Nursing. http://minoritynurse.com/tag/men-in-nursing/
Mittman, I., and Sullivan, L. (2011). Forming state collaborations to diversify the nation’s health workforce: The experience of the Sullivan alliance to transform the health professions. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 20:547–555.
Mkandawire-Valhmu, L., Kako, P., and Stevens, P. (2010). Mentoring Woman Faculty of Color in Nursing Academia: Creating an Environment that Supports Scholarly Growth and Retention. Nursing Outlook, 58(3), 135-141.
Moceri, J. (2013). Hispanic Nurses’ Experience with Bias in the Workplace. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 25(1): 15-22.
Moceri, J. (2010). Being Cabezona: Success Strategies for Hispanic Nursing Students. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), 1-18.
Moreau, P. (2015). Development and Psychometric Testing of the EFURMS Scale: An Instrument to Measure Faculty Engagement with Underrepresented Minority Nursing Students. Dissertation: University of Massachusetts Medical School. Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations. Paper 39. http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsn_diss/3
Moss, M. (2007). The impact of diversity in schools of nursing: Health research and health policy. Creative Nursing, 13(1), 6-8.
Moss, M., Tibbetts, L., Henly, S., Dahlen, B., Patchell, B., & Struthers, R. (2005). Strengthening American Indian nurse scientist training through tradition: Partnering with elders. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 12(2), 50-55.
Mulholland, J., Anionwu, E., Atkins, R., Tappern, M., & Franks, P. J. (2008). Diversity, attrition and transition into nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(1), 49-59.
Mulready-Shick, J. (2013). A critical exploration of how English language learners experience nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34: 82–87. doi:10.5480/1536-5026-34.2.82
Murray, T. (2015) Culture and climate: Factors that influence the academic success of African American students in prelicensure nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(12), 704-707.
Museus, S. (2011). Generating ethnic minority student success (GEMS): A qualitative analysis of high-performing institutions. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 4: 147-162.
Museus, S., and Liverman, D. (2010). “High-performing institutions and their implications for studying underrepresented minority students in STEM.” In S. Harper and C. Newman (Eds.), Students of color in STEM: New directions for institutional research (No. 148, pp. 17-28.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Napierkowski, D. and Pacquiao, D. (2010). Academic challenges for culturally diverse students: A case study in one accelerated baccalaureate nursing program. UPNAAI Nursing Journal, 6(1), 9–10.
Nash, R., Meiklejohn, B., & Sacrec, S. (2006). The Yapunyah project: Embedding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives in the nursing curriculum. Contemporary Nurse, 22(2), 296-316.
Navarro, L. and Waiwaiole, E. (2008). Building a friendly environment for Hispanic students. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 25(16), 18.
Newton, S., and Moore, G. (2009). Ethnic minority baccalaureate nursing student academic dismissal: A description of the antecedent academic characteristics. Journal of the National Black Nurses’ Association, 20: 25-31.
Neiterman, E., and Bourgeault, I. (2013).Cultural competence of internationally educated nurses: Assessing problems and finding solutions. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 45(4): 88-107.
Nivet, M., Taylor, V., Butts, G., et al. (2008). Diversity in academic medicine no. 1 case for minority faculty development today. Mt Sinai J Med, 75:491–498.
Nnedu, C. (2009). Recruiting and Retaining Minorities in Nursing Education. ABNF Journal, 20(4), 93-96.
Noone, J. (2008). The Diversity Imperative: Strategies to Address a Diverse Nursing Workforce. Nursing Forum, 43: 133-143.
Norris, T., Wicks, M., Cowan, P. and Davidson, R. (2016). A summer prematriculation program: Bridging the gap for disadvantaged underrepresented minority students interested in a nursing career. Journal of Nursing Education, 55(8), 471-475.
Nugent, K., Childs, G., Jones, R., and Cook, P. (2004). A Mentorship Model for the Recruitment of Minority Students. Nursing Outlook, 52(2), 89-94.
Nugent, K., Childs, G., Jones, R., Cook, P., & Ravenell, K. (2002). Said another way. Call to action: The need to increase diversity in the nursing workforce. Nursing Forum, 37(2), 28-32.
Nuñez, A. and Kim, D. (2012). Building a multicontextual model of Latino college enrollment: Student, school and state-level effects. The Review of Higher Education, 35: 237–263. doi:10.1353/rhe.2012.0004.
Nunez-Smith, M., Curry, L., Bigby, J., Berg, D., Krumholz, H., & Bradley, E. (2007). Impact of race on the professional lives of physicians of African descent. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146: 45-51 & W-7.
Nunez-Smith, M., Ciarleglio, M., Sandoval-Schaefer, T., Elumn, J., Castillo-Page, L., Peduzzi, P., and Bradley, E. (2012). Institutional Variation in the Promotion of Racial/Ethnic Minority Faculty at US Medical Schools. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 852-858.
Obermeyer, M. (2008). Are You a Culturally Competent Preceptor? Nursing2006, 36(6), 54-55.
Okawa, G. (2002). Diving for Pearls: Mentoring as Cultural and Activist Practice Among Academics of Color. College Composition and Communication, 53(3), 507-532.
Olinger, B. (2011). Increasing nursing workforce diversity: Strategies for success. Nurse Educ, 36:54-5.
Olson, M. (2012). English-as-a-second-language (ESL) nursing student success: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19: 26–31.
Omeri, A. and Atkins, K. (2002). Lived experiences of immigrant nurses in New South Wales, Australia: Searching for meaning. International journal of nursing studies, 39:495-505.
Omeri, A., Malcolm, P., Ahern, M. & Wellington, B. (2003). Meeting the challenges of cultural diversity in the academic setting. Nurse Education in Practice, 3: 5–22. doi:10.1016/S1471-5953(02)00026-4
Orelus, P. (2013). The institutional cost of being a professor of color: Unveiling o micro-aggression, racial invisibility, and racial profiling through the lens of critical race theory. Current Issues in Education, 16(2).
Orsuwan, M., and Cole, D. (2007). The moderating effects of race/ethnicity on the experience of Asian American and Pacific Islander community college students. Asian American Policy Review,16: 61-85.
Oseguera, L., Locks, A. & Vega, I. (2009). Increasing Latina/o students’ baccalaureate attainment: A focus on retention. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8: 23–53. doi:10.1177/1538192708326997.
Osula, B. 2009. Cultural Awareness in Intercultural Mentoring: A Model for Enhancing Mentoring Relationships. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 37-50. http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol5iss1/IJLS_Vol5Is1_OsulaIrvinR.pdf
Overman, B., Petri, L., & Knoki-Wilson, U. (2007). A view from inside Arizona and New Mexico Indian country: Pursuing a health career path. Rural and Remote Health, 7(2), 682.
Palermo, A., Soto-Greene, M., Taylor, V., et al. (2008). Diversity in academic medicine no. 5 successful programs in minority faculty development: Overview. Mt Sinai J Med, 75:523–532.
Pappamihiel, N., and Moreno, M. (2011). Retaining Latino students: Culturally responsive instruction in colleges and universities. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10(4), 331-344. doi: 10.1177/1538192711410602
Parker, V., and McMillan, M. (2008). Beyond barriers: The challenge of cultural diversity for nurse academics in the Australian context. Collegian, 15(4), 143-149.
Patchell, B. (2005 ). Mentoring in Multiple Dimensions. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 12: 56-58.
Pattock, M. (2003). University of Minnesota: Removing barriers to doctorates for Native American nurses. Reflections on Nursing Leadership, 29(1), 22-24.
Payton, T., Howe, L., Timmons, S., and Richardson, M. (2013). African American Nursing Students’ Perceptions About Mentoring. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(3), 173-177.
Perna, L. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(2).
Pew Hispanic Center, (2009). Latinos and Education: Explaining the attainment gap. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/115.pdf
Pharris, M. and Bosher, S. (2008). Transforming Nursing Education: The Culturally Inclusive Environment. NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Phillips, J., and Malone, B. (2014). Increasing racial/ethnic diversity in nursing to reduce health disparities and achieve health equity. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 2), 45-50.
Phinney, J., Torres Campos, C., Padilla Kallemeyn, D., and Kim, C. (2011). Processes and Outcomes of a Mentoring Program for Latino College Freshmen. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3), 599-621.
Pidgeon, M. (2009). Pushing against the margins: Indigenous theorizing of “success” and retention in higher education. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10(3): 339-360.
Pizur-Barnekow, K., Rhyner, P., and Lund, S. (2010). The Pipeline Training Program in Maternal and Child Health: Interdisciplinary Preparation in Undergraduate students from Underrepresented Groups. Maternal Child Health Journal, 14:422-429.
Ponder, W. (November, 2005). Cultural Competency and Campus Climate: Two Necessary Elements in the Successful Recruitment, Retention and Persistence of Students in 21st Century American Higher Education. AACRAO Newsetter, SEM Source. http://www4.aacrao.org/semsource/sem/indexd9ad.html?fa=view&id=2953
Poorman, S., Webb, C. and Mastorovich, M. (2002). Students’ Stories: How Faculty Help and Hinder Students at Risk. Nurse Educator, 27(3), 126-131.
Pope, M. (2002). Community college mentoring: Minority student perception. Community College Review, 30: 31-46.
Popper-Giveon, A., Keshet, Y. & Liberman, I. (2015). Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses. Nursing Outlook, 63(6), 680-690.
Prospero, M., Russell, A., & Vohra-Gupta, S. (2012). Effects of motivation on educational attainment: Ethnic and developmental differences among first generation students. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(1), 100-119. doi:10.1177/1538192711435556
Pross, E. (2005). International Nursing Students: A Phenomenological Perspective. Nurse Education Today, 25: 627-635.
Rabionet, S., Santiago, L., and Zorrilla, C. (2009). A multifaceted mentoring model for minority researchers to address HIV health disparities. Am J Public Health, 99(suppl 1), S65–S70.
Raman, J. (2015). Improved Health and Wellness Outcomes in Ethnically Diverse Through Enhanced Cultural Competence o in Nurses Educators. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 5(1), 104-11.
Ramsey, P., Blowers, S., Merriman, C., Glenn, L. and Terry, L. (2000). The NURSE Center: A Peer Mentor-Tutor Project for Disadvantaged Nursing Students in Appalachia. Nurse Educator, 25(6), 277-81.
Read, C., Vessey, J., Frederick, A. and Cullinan, D. ( 2013). The Challenges of Inclusivity in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(4), 185-190.
Reddick, R. (2011). Intersecting Identities: Mentoring Contributions and Challenges for Black Faculty Mentoring Black Undergraduates. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 19(3), 319-346.
Reinhardt, A., Keller, T., Summers, L., and Schultz, P. (2012). Strategies for Success: Crisis Management Model for Remediation of At-Risk Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(6), 305-311.
Rendón, L., Jalomo, R. and Nora, A. (2004). “Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education.” In J. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Retzer, R. (2014). Mentoring an ESL Student through a Nursing Program: A Case Study. Graduate Research Projects. http://knowledge.e.southern.edu/gradnursing/20
Rivera-Goba, M. and Nieto, S. (2007). Mentoring Latina Nurses: A Multicultural Perspective. Journal of Latinos and Education, 6(1), 35-53.
Rivera-Goba, M. and Campinha-Bacote, J. (2008). Making a Connection: The Use of Storytelling as a Strategy to Enhance Faculty’s Success With Latina Nursing Students. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(4), 205-225.
Roberts, D., Ingram, R., Flack, S. and Hayes, R. (2013). Implementation of Mastery Learning in Nursing Education. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 234-237.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2012). RWJF Scholar Works to Improve Nursing School ‘Pipeline’ Programs. Retrieved August 15, 2015 , from http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/articles-and-news/2012/08/rwjf-scholar-works-to-improve-nursing-school–pipeline–programs.html
Robinson, V. (2013). Telling the Story of Role Conflict Among Black Nurses and Black Nursing Students: A Literature Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(9), 517-524.
Robinson J. (2000). Increasing students’ cultural sensitivity: A step toward greater diversity in nursing. Nurse Educator, 25(3), 131-135.
Rong, X. and Brown, F. (2001). The effects of immigrant generation and ethnicity on educational attainment among young African and Caribbean Blacks in the United States. Harvard Educational Review, 71(3), 536-565.
Rosenberg, L. and O’Rourke, M. (2011). The diversity pyramid: An organizational model to structure diversity recruitment and retention in nursing programs. J Nurs Educ., 50:555-60.
Rosseter, R. (2002). Commentary. Reshaping and Retaining Minorities in Recruiting: Strategies for Increasing in Academic Nursing Programs. AWHONN Lifelines, 6(3), 196-197.
Roth, J. and Coleman, C. (2008). Perceived and real barriers for men entering nursing: Implications for gender diversity. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15: 148–152.
Rowsey, P. , Kneipp, S. and Woods-Giscombe, C. (2013). Careers Beyond the Bedside: One Approach to Develop the Ethnic Minority Nursing Faculty Pool. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 593-596.
Russell, C., Gregory, D., Care, W., & Hultin, D. (2007). Recognizing and avoiding intercultural miscommunication in distance education a study of the experiences of Canadian faculty and aboriginal nursing students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 23(6), 351-61.
Ryan, M. (2003). A Buddy Program for International Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33 (6), 350-352.
Saks, N. (2006). Hispanics in nursing: Cultural & professional crisis. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 16(17), 37.
Salmonson, Y., Everett, B., Koch, J., Andrew, S., & Davidson, P. (2008). English-Language Acculturation Predicts Academic Performance in Nursing Students Who Speak English as a Second Language. Research in Nursing & Health, 31: 86-94.
Salamonson, Y., Andrew, S., Clauson, J., Cleary, M., Jackson, D., and Jacobs, S. (2011). Linguistic Diversity as Sociodemographic Predictor of Nursing Program progression and Completion. Contemporary Nurse, 38(1-2), 84-93
Samson, L. (2004). Strategies to Increase Success of Underrepresented Minorities in Nursing. Nurse Leader, 2(6), 31-35.
San Miguel, C., Rogan, F., Kilstoff, K., & Brown, D. (2006). Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Nurse Education in Practice, 6(5), 268-274.
Sanner, S., Wilson, A. & Samson, L. (2002). The experiences of international nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program. Journal of Professional Nursing, 18: 206–213. doi:10.1053/jpnu.2002.127943
Scheele, T., Pruitt, R., Johnson, A., and Xu, Y. (2011). What do we know bout educating Asian ESL nursing students? A literature review. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32: 244–249.
Schroeder, C., and DiAngelo, R. (2010). Addressing whiteness in nursing education: The sociopolitical climate project at the University of Washington School of Nursing. Advances in Nursing Practice, 33: 244-255.
Schmieding, N. (2000). Minority nurses in leadership positions: A call for action. Nursing Outlook, 48: 120-127.
Schroeder, C., and DiAngelo, R. (2010). Addressing Whiteness in Nursing Education: The Sociopolitical Climate Project at the University of Washington School of Nursing. Advances in Nursing Practice, 33: 244-255.
Schultz, P., Hernandez, P., Woodcock, A. et al, (2012). Minority training programs patching the pipeline: Reducing educational disparities in the sciences through minority training programs. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33:95–114.
Scott, L. and Zerwic, J. (2015). Holistic View in Admissions: A Strategy to Diversity the Nursing Workforce. Nursing Outlook, 63(4), 488-495.
Seago, J. and Spetz, J. (2005). California’s minority majority and the white face of nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 44: 555–562.
Sedgwick, M., Oosrerbrook, T., and Ponomar, V. (2014). “It all Depends”: How Minority Students Experience Belonging During Clinical Experiences. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35(2), 89-93.
Seepersad, R. (2011). Island Diasporas: Perceptions of Indo-Caribbean Protégés regarding their Cross-Cultural Mentoring Experiences in the United States. Dissertation, Florida International University. http://rseducate.webs.com/dissertation.htm
Segrest, V., James, R., Madrid, T. and Fernandes, R. (2010). Launching native health leaders: Students as community-campus ambassadors. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 4(1), 86.
Seibold, C., Rolls, C., and Campbell, M. (2007). Nurses on the Move: Evaluation of a Program to Assist International Students Undertaking an Accelerated Bachelor of Nursing Program. Contemporary Nurse, 25(1-2), 63-71.
Seidman, A. (2005). “Minority student retention: Resources for practitioners.” In G. ather (Ed.), Minority retention: What works? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. http://www.cscsr.org/docs/SeidmanMinorityStudentRetention.pdf
Sequist, T. (2007). Health Careers for Native American Students: Challenges and Opportunities for Enrichment Program Design. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21: 20-30.
Sharenov, E. (2001). Taking care of their own: College program strives to rebuild pool of American Indian nurses prepared to practice in their communities. Nurseweek California, 14(24), 15-16.
Shen, J., Xu, Y., Bolstad, A., Covelli, M., Torpey, M., & Colosimo, R. (2012). Effects of a short-term linguistic class on communication competence of international nurses: Implications for practice, policy, and research. Nursing Economics, 30: 21-28.
Shipman, S., and Saha, S. (2006). The rationale for diversity in the health professions: A review of the evidence. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration Bureau of Health Professions. No. 03-0285P.
Shotton, H., Star, E., Oosahwe, L., and Cintron, R. (2007). Stories of Success: Experiences of American Indian Students in a Peer-Mentoring Retention Program. The Review of Higher Education, 31(1), 81-107.
Sifford, S. and McDaniel, M. (2007). Results of a Remediation Program for Students at Risk for Failure on the NCLEX Exam. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(1), 34.
Simpson, R. (2004). Recruit, Retain, Assess: Technology’s Role in Diversity. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 217-220.
Skeados, B. (2007). Pathways to nursing careers for minority youth. New York: 1199SEIU Training and Upgrading Fund (The Fund).
Slimmer, L., Highland, D., and Stout, M. (2009). Communicating across cultures: Suggested teaching strategies. Education and Health, 22:1–7.
Smedley, B., Stith, A., Colburn, L. and Evans, C. (2001). The Right Thing to Do, The Smart Thing to Do Enhancing Diversity in the Health Professions: Summary of the Symposium on Diversity in Health Professions in Honor of Herbert W. Nickens, M.D. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine National Academy Press. http://www.nap.ed uread/10186/chapter/1
Smith, B. (2016). Diversity of Thought in the Nursing Profession. Nursing Outlook, 64(3), 203-204.
Smith, A, and Smyer, T. (2015). Black African Nurses Educated in the United States. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(2), 72-79.
Smith, P., Allan, H., Henry, L., Larsen, J. and Mackintosh, M. (2010). Valuing and recognising the talents of a diverse workforce. Nursing Ethics, 17(5), 603-613.
Smith, C., Williams-Jones, P., Lewis-Trabeaux, S., & Mitchell, D. (2012). Facilitators and barriers to success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a predominantly white baccalaureate nursing program. The Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 23(1), 41-51.
Sotello, C., Turner, V., Gonzales, J., and Wood, J. (2008). Faculty of color in academe: What 20 years of literature tells us. J Divers High Educ, 1:139–168.
Soto-Greene, M., Sanchez, J., Churrano, J., and Salas-Lopez, D. (2005). Latino faculty development in U.S. medical schools: A Hispanic center of excellence perspective. J Hisp Higher Educ, 4:366–376.
Southerland, J., Hamilton, M. and Goodman, N. (2007). Affirming At-Risk Minorities for Success (ARMS): Retention, Graduation, and Success on the NCLEX-RN. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(8), 347-353.
Stanley, C. and Lincoln, Y. (2005). Cross-race Faculty Mentoring. Change, 37(2), 44-50.
Stanley, J., Capers, C., & Berlin, L. (2007). Changing the Face of Minority Faculty: Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention. Journal of Professional Nursing, 23: 253-261.
Starr, K. (2009). Nursing Education Challenges: Students With English as an Additional Language. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 478-487.
Steward, B. (2005). Enhancing Success in BSN Nursing Education for Minority Nurses. ABNF, 16(1), 8-10.
Stott, A. (2007). Exploring factors affecting attrition of male students from an undergraduate nursing course: A qualitative study. Nurse Education Today, 27: 325–332. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2006.05.013.
Stroup, L. and Kuk, L. (2015). Nursing as a Career Choice by Hispanic/Latino College Students: A Multi-Institutional Study. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), S83-S88.
Suen, L., and Chow, F. (2001). Students’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Mentors in an Undergraduate Nursing Programme in Hong Kong. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(4), 505-511.
Suliman, W., and Tadros, A. (2011). Nursing students coping with English as a foreign language medium of instruction. Nurse Education Today, 31: 402-407.
Sullivan, L., and Mittman, I. (2010). The state of diversity in the health professions a century after Flexner. Academic Medicine, 85.
Sullivan Commission. (2004). Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions: A Report of the Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/SullivanReport.pdf
Sutherland, J., Hamilton, M., and Goodman, N. (2007). Affirming at-risk minorities for success (ARMS): Retention, graduation, and success on the NCLEX-RN. The Journal of Nursing Education, 46:347–353.
Swinney, J. and Dobal, M. (2008). Embracing the Challenge: Increasing Workforce Diversity in Nursing. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(4), 200-204.
Symes, L., Tart, K., & Travis, L. (2005). An evaluation of the nursing success program: Reading comprehension, graduation rates, and diversity. Nurse Educator, 217-220.
Tabi, M., Thornton, K., Garno, M. and Rushing, A. (2013). Minority Nursing Students’ Perception of Their Baccalaureate Program. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3 (9), 167-175.
Tan, R. and Alpert, P. (2013) A teaching intervention to improve the self-efficacy of internationally educated nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 44(2), 76-80.
Taxis, J. (2002). The Underrepresented Hispanics/Latinos in Nursing Education: A Deafening Silence. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 16: 249-262
Taxis, C. (2006). Fostering Academic Success of Mexican-Americas in a BSN Program: An Educational Imperative. International Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 3(1), 1-14.
Taylor, N. (2008). Case Studies in Youth Mentoring Delivering Culturally Competent Mentoring Services to Low-Income Latino Youth Padrinos Barrio Mentoring Project http://educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/luz_study.pdf
Teranishi, R., Behringer, L., Grey, E., and Parker, T. (2009). Critical race theory and research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in higher education. New Directions for Institutional Research, 142: 57-68.
The University Partnership Research Grant for Health Professional Opportunity Grant. (2012-2015). Building, Filling and Proving the Nursing Pipeline: Efforts to Increase American Indian Involvement in North Dakota Healthcare Careers. ND: Author. https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/nursing/documents/NursingPipelinePublication_032414HighRes.pdf; https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/nursing/documents/NDS121002_NursingPublicationYear2_092314_HighRes.pdf; https://www.ndsu.edu/ fileadmin/nursing/documents/NDS141004_HPOGYR3_060315_HR.pdf
Thekdi, P., Wilson, B., & Xu, Y. (2011). Understanding post-hire transitional challenges of foreign educated nurses. Nursing Management, 42(9), 8-14.
Thomas, D. (2001). The Truth About Mentoring Minorities. Race Matters. Harvard Business Review, 79(4), 98-107.
Thomas, K., Willis, L., and Davis, J. (2007). Mentoring Minority Graduate Students: Issues and Strategies for Institutions, Faculty, and Students. Equal Opportunities International, 26(3), 178-192.
Thompson, M., Johnson-Jennings, M., and Natizarim, R. (2013). Native American undergraduate students’ persistence intentions: A psychosociocultural perspective. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19:218–228.
Toney, M. (2012). The long, winding road: One university’s quest for minority health care professionals and services. Academic Medicine, 87:1556–1561.
Tran, J., Wong, M., Wright, E., Fa’avae, J., Cheri, A., Wat, E. & Foo, M. (2009). The Pacific Islander Health Careers Pipeline Program: Report on Educational Barriers, Needs, and Recommendations. Garden Grove, CA: Orange County Asian Pacific Islander Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/20303.pdf
Ume-Nwagbo, P. (2008). Relationship Between Nurse Educators’ Cultural Competence and Ethnic Minority Nursing Students’ Recruitment and Graduation. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/2018/
Ume-Nwagbo, P. (2012). Implications of Nursing Faculties’ Cultural Competence. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(5), 262-268.U.S.
Valencia-Go, G. (2005). Growth and access increase for nursing students: A retention and progression project. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 12: 18-25.
Valverde, M. and Rodriguez, R. (2002). Increasing Mexican American Doctoral Degrees: The Role of Institutions of Higher Education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1(1), 55-58.
Vapor, V. and Xu, Y. (2011). Double whammy for a new breed of foreign nurses: Lived experiences of Filipino physician-turned nurses in the United States. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 25: 210- 226.
Veal, J., Bull, M., and Miller, J. (2012). A Framework of Academic Persistence and Success for Ethnically Diverse Graduate Nursling Students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(5), 322-327.
Vélez-McEvoy, M. (2010). Faculty Role in Retaining Hispanic Nursing Students. Creative Nursing, 16(2), 80-83.
Viets, V., Baca, C., Verney, S., Venner, K., Parker T., & Wallerstein, N. (2009). Reducing Health Disparities Through a Culturally Centered Mentorship Program for Minority Faculty: The Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) Experience. Academic Medicine, 84(8), 1118-1126. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181ad1cb1
Villarruel, A., Bigelow, A., and Alvarez, C. (2012). Nursing’s Perspective on Integrating the “3 Ds. Workforce Diversity, Health Disparities, and Social Determinants of Health Summit. Bethesda, MD. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/nursing/summit.html
Villarruel, A., Canales, M., and Torres, S. (2001). Bridges and Barriers: Educational Mobility of Hispanic Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 40 (6), 245-251.
Vogt, R. and Taningco, T. (2008). Latino & Latina Nurses: Why are There so Few? A TRPI Summary Report. http://www.academia.edu/3794824/Latina_and_Latino_Nurses_Why_are_there_so_few
Wagner, L. and Seymour, M. (2007). A Model of Caring Mentorship. Journal For Nurses in Staff Development, 23(5), 201-211.
Walker, L (2016). A bridge to success: A nursing student success strategies improvement course. Journal of Nursing Education, 55(8), 450-457.
Walters, K. and Simoni, J. (2009). Decolonizing Strategies for Mentoring American Indians and Alaska Natives in HIV and Mental Health research. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S1), S71-6.
Wang, C., Singh, C., Bird, B. & Ives, G. (2008). The learning experiences of Taiwanese nursing students studying in Australia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19: 140–150.
Warda, M. (2008). Curriculum Revolution: Implications for Hispanic Nursing Students. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(4), 192-199. DOI: 10.1891/1540-4184.108.40.206
Warren, F., Keller, D., Haley, H., and Quirk, M. (2003). Developing Culturally Competent Community Faculty: A Model Program. Academic Medicine, 78: 1221-1228.
Washington, D., Erickson, J., and Ditomassi, M. (2004). Mentoring the Minority Nurse Leader of Tomorrow. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28 (3), 165-169.
Weaver, H. (2001). Indigenous nurses and professional education: riends or foes? Journal of Nursing Education, 40(6), 252-258.
Weaver, R., and Jackson, D. (2011). Evaluating an Academic Writing Program for Nursing Students Who Have English as a Second Language. Contemporary Nurse, 38(1-2), 130-138.
Weintraub, J., Walker, J., Heuer, L., Oishi, M., Upadhyay, K., Huang, V., Lindquist, C., Cushman, L. and Ripp, J. (2015).Developing Capacity for the American Indian Health Professional Workforce: An Academic-Community Partnership in Spirit Lake, North Dakota, Annals of Global Health, 81(2).
Wells, R. (2009). Social and cultural capital, race and ethnicity, and college student retention. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10(2), 103-128.
Wenzlaff, L., and Froman, R. (2008). Responding to increasing RN demand: Diversity and retention trends through an accelerated LVN-to-BSN curriculum. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(5), 231- 235.
Wessling, S. (2003, Winter). Does the RN-NCLEX pass the test for cultural sensitivity? Minority Nurse, 46–50.
West, R., Usher, K. and Foster, K. (2010). Increased numbers of Australian Indigenous nurses would make a significant contribution to ‘closing the gap’ in Indigenous health: What is getting in the way? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profess, 36(1/2), 121.
Westa, R., Westa, L, West, K., and Ushera, K. (2011). Tjirtamai – ‘To care for’: A nursing education model designed to increase the number of Aboriginal nurses in a rural and remote Queensland community. Contemporary Nurse, 37(1), 39-48.
White, B. And Fulton, S. (2015). Common experiences of African American nursing students: An integrative review. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36:167-175.
Williams, S., Hansen, K., Smithey, M., Burnley, J., Koplitz, M., Koyama, K,. et al. (2014). Using social determinants of health to link health workforce diversity, care quality and access, and health disparities to achieve health equity in nursing. Public Health Rep., 129(Suppl 2), 32-6.
Williams, R., and Calvillo, E. (2002). Maximizing Learning Among Students From Culturally Diverse Backgrounds. Nurse Educator, 27(5), 222-226.
Wilson, V., Andrews, M. & Leners, D. (2006). Mentoring as a strategy for retaining racial and ethnically diverse students in nursing programs. Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 12(3), 17–23.
Wilson, A., Sanner, S., & McAllister, L. (2010). An evaluation study of a Mentoring Program to Increase the Diversity of the Nursing Workforce. Journal of Cultural Diversity,17(4), 144-150.
Wilson, D. (2007). From Their Own Voices: The Lived Experiences of African American Registered Nurses. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(2), 142-149.
Wilson, V., Andrews, M. and Leners, D. (2006). Mentoring as a Strategy for Retaining Racial and Ethnically Diverse Students in Nursing Programs. Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health. 12(3), 17-23.
Winkelby, M., Ned, A., Ahn, D., Koehler, A. & Kennedy, J. (2009). Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success. Journal of Science Education Technology, 18: 535–545.
Wong, S., Seago, J., Keane, D. and Grumback, K. (2008). College Student’s Perceptions of Their Experiences: What Do Minorities Think? Journal of Nursing Education, 47(4), 190-195.
Wood, A., Saylor, C., & Cohen, J. (2009). Locus of control and academic success among ethnically diverse baccalaureate nursing students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30: 290-294.
Wood, D. (Summer, 2001). Mentors to the Max. Minority Nurse.
Woods-Giscombe, C., Rowsey, P., Kneipp, S., Owens, C., Sheffield, K., Galbraith, K., Hammad, S., Fowler, T., Hodges, E., Kowlowitz, V., and Alexander, R., (2015). Underrepresented Students’ Perspectives on Institutional Climate During the Application and Admission Process to Nursing School. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(5), 261-269.
Wros, P., Doutrich, D., & Ruiz, M. (2009). Giving Voice: Incorporating the Wisdom of Hispanic Nurses into Practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 16(1), 151-157.
Xu,Y. (2008). Mentoring and Career Development of Minority Nurses and Faculty. Home Health Care Management and Practice, 20(6), 503-505.
Xu, Y. and He, F. (2012). Transition programs for international nurses: What can U.S. learn from Canada, Australia, and U.K.? Nurs Econ, 30(4),215-223.
Xu, Y. (2010). Is transition of internationally educated nurses a regulatory issue? Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 11: 62-70.
Xu, Y. (2011). Regulatory standards for registration/licensure of international nurses in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the U.S.: A comparative perspective. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 2(3), 27-36.
Xu, Y., Bolstad, A., Shen, J., Colosimo, R., Covelli, M., Torpey, M., & Jorgenson, M. (2010). Speak for Success: A pilot study on communication competence of post-hire international nurses. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(2), 42-48.
Xu, Y., Davidhizar, R., and Giger, J. (2005). What if your nursing student is from an Asian culture? Journal of Cultural Diversity, 12:5–11.
Xu, Y., Zaikina-Montgomery, H., & Shen, J. (2010). Characteristics of internationally educated nurses in the United States: An update from 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. Nursing Economics, 28(1), 19-25, 43.
Xu, Y., and Davidhizar, R. (2005). Intercultural communication in nursing education: When Asian students and American faculty converge. The Journal of Nursing Education, 44:209–213.
Xu, Y., Shen, J., Bolstad, A. Covelli, M., & Torpey, M. (2010). Evaluation of an intervention on socio- cultural communication skills of international nurses. Nursing Economics, 28(6), 386-92.
Xu, Y., Gutierrez, T., & Kim, S. (2008). Adaptation and transformation through (un)learning: Lived experiences of immigrant Chinese nurses in U.S. healthcare environment. Advances in Nursing Science, 31(2), E33-E47.
Xue, Y. and Brewer, C. (2014). Racial and ethnic diversiry of the U.S. national workforce 1988-2013. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 15(3), 102-110.
Yager, J., Waitzkin, H., Parker, T., & Duran, B. (2007). Educating, Training, and Mentoring Minority Faculty and Other Trainees in Mental Health Services Research. Academic Psychiatry : The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry, 31(2), 146-151.
Yager-Elorriaga, D., Berenson, K., and McWhirter, P. (2014). Hope, ethnic pride, and academic achievement: Positive psychology and Latino youth. Psychology, 5, 1206-1214.
Yang, R., Byers, S. & Fenton, B. (2006). American Indian/Alaska Native students’ Use of a University Student Support Office. Journal of American Indian Education, 45(1), 35-48.
Yoder, M. (2001). The bridging approach: Effective strategies for teaching ethnically diverse nursing students. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 12:319–325.
Yurkovich, E. (2001). Working with American Indians Toward Educational Success. Journal of Nursing Education, 40(6), 259-69.
Zachary, L. (2000). The Mentor’s Guide – Facilitating Effective Learning Relationships. CA: Josey-Bass.
Zajac, L. (2015). The Culture Care of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students in the Educational Setting. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 5(1), 88-103.
Zajac, L. (2011). Double-loop Approach: Recruitment and Retention of Minority Nursing Faculty. ABNF Journal, 22(3), 73-7.
Zalaquett, C., and Lopez, A. (2006). Learning From the Stories of Successful Undergraduate Latina/Latino Students: The Importance of Mentoring. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 14(3), 337-53.
Zambrana, R, Ray, R., Espino, M., Castro, C., Cohen, B., and Eliason, J. (2015). “Don’t leave us behind”: The importance of mentoring for underrepresented minority faculty. American Educational Research Journal, 52(10) 40-72.
Zelaya, S., Alpert, P., Xu, Y. & McDonough, A. (2011) A. The need for Hispanic nurses in Nevada: An underrepresented ethnic group in nursing. Home Health Care Management and Practice, 23:329-335.
Zell, M. (2009). Achieving a college education: The psychological experiences of Latina/o community college students. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 9(2), 167-186. doi: 10.10.1177/1538192709343102
Zellers, D., Howard, V., and Barcic, M. (2008). Faculty Mentoring Programs: Reenvisioning Rather than Reinventing the Wheel. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 552-588.
Zizzo, K., and Xu, Y. (2009). Transitional programs for internationally educated nurses: A systematic review. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 40(2), 57-64.
Zuzelo, P. (2005). Affirming the disadvantaged student. Nurse Educator, 30: 27–31. doi:10.1097/00006223-200501000-00008.
The National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) – A unified force advocating for equity and justice in nursing and health care for ethnic minority populations. http://ncemna.org/
Association of American Colleges and University’s Diversity and Inclusive Excellence – This web site provides resources that bring together faculty and institutions of higher learning to provide national leadership that advances diversity and equity in higher education, and the best educational practices for an increasingly diverse population. http://www.aacu.org/resources/diversity/index.cfm
Association of American Medical College (AAMC) – Produced by the Association of American Medical College (AAMC), the following reports focus on diversity in medical education: Striving Toward Excellence: Faculty Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Tools for Assessing and Measuring Diversity in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Exploring Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Successfully Evaluating Diversity Efforts in Medical Education (PDF); The Diversity Research Forum: Getting to Institutional Excellence: Ensuring the Integration of Diversity in Academic Medicine (PDF); Physician Specialty Data: A Chart Book (Center for Workforce Studies) (PDF); The Role of the Chief Diversity Officer in Academic Health Centers (PDF); Roadmap to Diversity: Integrating Holistic Review Practices into Medical School Admission Processes (PDF); Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Facts & Figures 2010 (PDF).
Selected Minority Mentoring Programs In Nursing:
UND RAIN – The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The Recruitment/ Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) Program, located within the College of Nursing at the University of North Dakota, is partnering to increase the number of American Indian health professionals in North Dakota. The RAIN Program will incorporate a range of proven, culturally specific recruitment, retention, and mentoring strategies to assist the Next Steps project in meeting its goals. The RAIN Program is recognized as a premiere program for assisting American Indians to access and complete professional nursing education. The retention rate for RAIN nursing students at UND is above 90 percent. Eighty-three percent of RAIN graduates return to work in tribal communities. For more information contact: Becky Cournia, 701-777-4526; email@example.com.
Project DIVERSITY – Project DIVERSITY is a University of New Mexico Health Science Center IRB-approved research program aimed to recruit and prepare underserved ethnic minority students for a career in nursing. Project DIVERSITY stands for Develop/Increase the Voice of Ethnic, Racial Students and Interns Through Youth. It is a Partners Invested in Nursing (PIN) Project that used mentoring to help minority students complete high school and enter college with nursing as a major (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010). This project provides nurse mentoring, bi-monthly nursing workshops, tutoring, a six-week summer program, college preparation, and job shadowing opportunities. Because most of the students came from families who did not support them academically, students reported that the nurse mentoring and job shadowing helped them stay motivated in their studies, focus on a career, and finish school.
ACTS – A Chance to Succeed Minority Mentoring Program mission is to recruit and retain nursing students at the University of Michigan-Flint. Objectives include: assisting students with system barriers; providing counseling/advising specific to the nursing program; addressing minority student’s issues related to lack of trust/racism, fear and negative perceptions of the nursing program; and clarifying information. ACTS is based at University of Michigan-Flint Department of Nursing. http://www.umflint.edu/nursing/ACTS/history
RRANN – Recruitment and Retention of Alaska Natives into Nursing is housed at the University of Alaska Anchorage School of Nursing. RRRAN began in 1998 with federal grant funds to recruit and mentor Alaska Native/American Indian students to pursue nursing degrees. RRANN offers tutoring services, group meetings to help you connect with your peers, and a staff of student success facilitators that offer career and personal advice to aid you on your road to successfully completing the nursing program. http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/schoolofnursing/RRANN
ASUN – American Indian Students United for Nursing was established at the Arizona State University College of Nursing & Health Innovation in the fall of 1990 through a section 112 grant from Indian Health Service (IHS). The grant provides scholarships for students in the Traditional Pre-Licensure Clinical Nursing program. The ASUN Project seeks to support and add to curriculum material and clinical opportunities which focus on American Indian health issues. The goals of this program are to recruit American Indians/Alaskan Natives into the various programs at ASU College of Nursing & Health Innovation, provide programming to empower American Indian/Alaskan Natives students to successfully complete their studies in nursing, increase the number of American Indian/Alaskan Natives nurses, and increase the number of nurses providing care to American Indians/Alaskan Natives. https://nursingandhealth.asu.edu/admissions/american-indian-students-united-for-nursing.
The Wokunze Project – This program provides scholarships for qualified American Indian individuals to pursue full-time study in a program leading toward a baccalaureate degree in nursing at SDSU. The Wokunze Project is funded by the Indian Health Service under Section 112 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, as amended.
CO-OP – Caring for Our Own Program is a Reservation/University Partnership. CO-OP works with a state-wide advisory board with members from each reservation who represent the education and health sectors. The advisory board acts as a liaison between the reservation communities and CO-OP. Board members identify perspective nursing students as well as effective outreach strategies to use in their respective communities. Contact: Roberta K. Olson, RN, PhD, Project Director, South Dakota State University College of Nursing, Box 2275, Brookings, SD 57007-0098, (888) 216-9806, Roberta_Olson@sdstate.edu. Or contact the National Alaska Native/American Indian Nurses Association at (888) 566-8773.
DREAMWork – Diversity Recruitment and Education to Advance Minorities in the Nursing Workforce is housed in the School of Nursing of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. This program started in 2007 with a grant from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and is designed to increase nursing opportunities for under-represented minority students. It includes the introduction of nursing as a career to students in middle and high school. Mentoring is one of the supports it offers along with individualized planning, coaching, tutoring, and intensive summer programs.
ALCANCE – Aid Latino Community to Attain Nursing Career Employment is based in the College of Nursing of the Washington State University. “Alcance” means “reach” in Spanish. The program was developed to increase the diversity among nurses in the rural, medically underserved Yakima Valley of Washington State. It is intended to provide nursing education opportunities for minority students (largely Native American and Latino/Hispanic) from “disadvantaged backgrounds.” Students enter the program through the Yakima School District Hispanic Academic Achievement Program (HAAP), the College of Nursing’s NARR for middle and high school students, and the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic (YVFWC) where employees or community members who have an interest in a nursing career are eligible to apply.
Gator-Cats Mentoring Program – Students complete their nursing degree at a small, liberal arts, historically African-American college with a strong religious affiliation and then go on to graduate studies at a large, mostly White public university with no religious affiliation. To encourage the recruitment and successful transition of students, the Gator-Cats mentoring program was started. The Gator-Cats mentoring program is a collaboration between the nursing programs at Bethune-Cookman College (B-CC) and the University of Florida (UF). The name derives from the mascots of both schools – the Wildcats of B-CC and the Gators of UF.
PRIDE – Partnerships for Recruitment, Involvement, Diversity and Excellence in Nursing is based at the UNC-Chapel Hill School of Nursing. The program includes support for recruitment, mentoring, academic tutoring and application assistance at participating middle and high schools, the General College, and historically black colleges and universities.
SCRUBS – SCRUBS Program, a workforce diversity project, is aimed at middle and high school students interested in pursuing nursing as a career, and to increase retention and graduation rates of the students enrolled in the program. This program works primarily with schools in Bulloch County and its surrounding counties in the state of Georgia. The program is based at Georgia Southern University School of Nursing.
Juntos Podemos” Program (Together We Can) – This program is housed at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Nursing (UTHSCSA SON). This is a Protégé-to-Mentor program in which students start as a protégé and take on the role as mentor in their second semester while continuing as a protégé. This dual role continues throughout their course of studies. The program is very successful with a high rate of students passing the NCLEX on their first attempt. This program also includes a Leadership Council, an advisory committee that partners with the local community on empowerment around health issues. This program contributes to the recruitment and retention of students.
N-NURSE – Facilitates workshops to improve mentoring skills using the culturally embedded Navajo Nursing Pathway of Mentorship developed by N-NURSE’s curriculum development team. The curriculum model uses the Navajo Philosophy of the Four Directions and Sacred Mountains that border Navajol to organize the content and educational resource materials. One major theme of the curriculum is to use the Navajo concept of Ke’, a word for relationships. Using Ke’, Nurses can foster positive working environments where ‘nurses nurture nurse — nursing leaders from your communities. The purpose of N-NURSE is to continue development of a network of trained mentors throughout the Navajo Nation that will provide community members interested in nursing a mentor while pursuing a nursing degree or advancing in their nursing career. http://n-nurse.org/mentorship.htm l #pathway
SMDEP – The Summer Medical and Dental Education Program is a six-week, summer academic enrichment program for freshman and sophomore college students interested in a career in medicine or dentistry. The program’s goal is to help increase the competitiveness of college students from disadvantaged backgrounds for application to medical and dental school. SMDEP is implemented at 12 program sites across the nation. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/programs/summer-medical-and-dental-education-summit
Mentorship Model for Retention of Minority Students – The Mentorship Model for the Retention of Minority Students was developed by the Medical College of Georgia School of Nursing in July 2001. This program, funded by a grant, is designed to recruit and retain African-American students. Having reviewed obstacles to the retention of minority students, staff developed a model that incorporates four supporting concepts: academic support, financial support, self-development, and professional/ leadership development. A prenursing alliance has been established with a historically Black university from which most of the students transfer. A summer enrichment program offers incoming students an introduction to the new learning environment, teaching methods, and learning expectations. There is a faculty-led student support group that meets monthly and provides personal and emotional support. In the model diagrammed below, mentorship is seen as a common theme for all of the supporting concepts. Mentoring guides the program’s strategies and activities. Mentors are faculty members, other students, and minority nurse leaders in the community.
Minority Mentoring Program – Developed in 2008 by Dr. Judith Lightsey of the Radiation Oncology department, the OMA Medical Student Mentoring Program is designed to provide support and guidance to minority medical students at the University of Florida College of Medicine. This program creates a connection between current medical students and health professionals within the University of Florida and Shands health care system. The goal is to develop the program into a more structured activity whereby mentors are available to meet with their student throughout the academic year. The program is aimed at entering first year medical students however interested upperclassmen may also apply. The program involves both UF faculty and community physicians in the mentoring process.
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Mentoring Program – The SNMA Chapter of the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine is devoted to increasing the level of minority student recruitment, admissions, and retention at the Carver College of Medicine. The program is devoted to encouraging the promotion and development of minority residents, fellows and faculty members in order to increase the presence of minority mentors at the Carver College of Medicine. The mentoring program for undergraduates focuses on three components: 1) success in college; 2) careers in healthcare; and 3) success in life. Undergraduate students are paired up with a minority medical student and a PhD student when possible. The pairing process respects similar backgrounds and interests. The primary objective of the program is to provide students with the network of support needed to succeed in the university and beyond. Casual one on one interaction is available, as well as opportunities for involvement in extracurricular activities.
MIM – Mentoring In Medicine is an organization that works with students in disadvantaged areas from 3rd grade through health professional schools. They ignite, cultivate, and prepare students to become health care professionals by allowing prospective students to interact with established expert health care professionals around the country. Among the programs that MIM sponsors is an annual health fair in New York; dinner with doctors and other healthcare professionals; MIM Web television; National Mentoring in Medicine Day; Morgan’s Big Biology Test (an interactive hip-hop stage play); an advanced biology, human disease, and health careers program (after school and in-class electives); a medical pathway program for college students; and the surviving and thriving in medical school empowerment series. http://medicalmentor.org/
PMI – Pipeline Mentoring Institute recognized that many of the barriers to greater diversity within the medical profession lie within the continuum of elementary through undergraduate education. Therefore, PMI seeks to close the gap in preparing under-represented minority students for a career in medicine and other health-related professions.
STARS– STARS stands for Stimulating interest in nursing; Tutoring and mentoring students; Assisting with career and financial resources; Recruiting and retaining pre-nursing and upper-division nursing students; and Strengthening the health care community with BSN-prepared nurses from diverse backgrounds. STARS goal is to increase nursing education opportunities for ethnically and racially diverse individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, including Hispanics, the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) School of Nursing designed a program that takes a comprehensive approach. The multifaceted STARS for Nursing project ranges from educating high school students about health care careers to providing academic, financial and personal support to help recruit, retain and graduate minority nursing students. The three-year HRSA grant that funded the STARS project has ended, but the initiative has been so successful that the school plans to continue.
Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program – This program provides four-year postdoctoral research awards to physicians and dentists from historically underrepresented groups. The longstanding program seeks to increase the number of senior-level physicians and dentists from historically disadvantaged backgrounds in academic medicine and dentistry. Up to nine research awards are given each year, and scholars devote four consecutive years to basic/biomedical, clinical, or health services/epidemiology research. The award facilitates the transition of newly-trained clinicians who wish to develop into independent investigators. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/sites/default/files/RWJF_AnniversaryBooklet.pdf
Project L/EARN – This is an intensive, 10-week summer internship for undergraduate college students who are from socioeconomic, ethnic, and cultural groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in graduate education. The program provides students with training, experience and mentoring to make them stronger candidates for admission to graduate programs. The internships provide students with a $4,000 stipend, tuition, and room and board for the duration of the 10-week program. Students also receive three academic credits for the program. http://www.rwjfleaders.org/programs/project-learn